focused on the present, right at the time and place and context of the counseling session. They may be statements or questions, but must be about the present moment, not the past or future.
Behavior therapy interventions
desensitization, aversive conditioning, behavioral chaining, and classical conditioning.
reflection of feeling
feeling must include a feeling or affective word and must be something the client is feeling, not the counselor
generated within the counselor so they are new to the client
always reflect something the client is experiencing and would recognize
roles of a school counselor
Consultation, appraisal, counseling and guidance curriculum
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Bandura’s social cognitive theory
theory focuses on the fact that people can learn without being directly reinforced (vicarious learning). They can learn by watching someone perform an action.
Appropriate types of questioning as a counselor
at the beginning of an interview, asking for more information about a topic, asking for more-concrete specifics about a topic, and gathering information for assessment purposes
Advantages of using small groups in counseling setting
students experience groups as a familiar and natural setting for interacting, groups also provide opportunities for students to hear from and learn about others with similar experiences, groups allow more students to be served at one time by the counselor, and allow less active students opportunities to benefit by watching and listening to others
Holland’s theory of career development:
maintains that in choosing a career, people prefer jobs where they can be around others who are like them. They search for environments that will let them use their skills and abilities, and express their attitudes and values, while taking on enjoyable problems and roles. Behaviour is determined by an interaction between personality and environment. There are six basic types of work environments: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional. People search for environments where they can use their skills and abilities and express their values and attitudes. For example, Investigative types search for Investigative environments; Artistic types look for Artistic environments, and so forth. People who choose to work in an environment similar to their personality type are more likely to be successful and satisfied.
Cultural identity groups
therapeutic for children experiencing prejudges, strengthening their resilience and coping in response to prejudicial attitudes and behaviors, as well as promoting their positive self-identity within their culture
Federal legislation related to the education of students with disabilities This law includes the requirement of school counselors to participate in IEP planning process and meetings.
USA cultural worldview beliefs
Dualistic thinking, rugged individualism and mastery over nature
range from -1.00 to 0.00 to +1.00
represents the percentage of test takers who scored lower on the test than that person. Therefore, a score at 83rd percentile means that 83 percent of those taking the test scored lower than the student receiving that score.
test-retest (reliability coefficients)
when the test will be used to make a prediction
parallel forms (reliability coefficients)
reducing practice effects and for predictions
internal consistency (reliability coefficients)
is important for concurrent measurements
interscore reliability (reliability coefficients)
crucial when there may be some variability between different scores
looking at the tests content, mostly acheivement tests
correlating test scores with scores on a criteriation measure obtained at the same time, important for personality tests
by correlating test scores with scores on a criteriation measure at a later time, aptitude test
systematic study of the adequacy of the test in appraising a specified psychological construct, personality tests
extent to which a test increases information above existing forms of assessment
provide information about an individual had learned or acquired
predict future performance or ability to learn
means the test measures what it is designed to measure
if a test is reliable it is consistent
dual relationship with teacher
Avoid entering into a personal counseling relationship with staff. From a consulting perspective it is appropriate and recommended, that the school counselor be a resource for other staff. Offering referral to potential care providers that the teacher might see out for counseling is the best approach.
Collaboration with outside providers
While it is recommended that school counselors collaborate with other service providers for the benefit of the student, ethical behavior requires that consent first be obtained (need to get written informed consent from parent or student over 18)
School counselor’s planning components
1) Procedures to evaluate school goals
2) to assess the needs of all constituents
3) to select program goals and objectives
2) to assess the needs of all constituents
3) to select program goals and objectives
guidance has its own curriculum and is not a way to substitute for the regular classroom teacher. Classroom guidance is a form of developmental preventive mental health and will help reduce the need for individual and other remedial interventions and is no less valuable then other forms of counseling intervention. Content for classroom guidance is intended for delivery by school counselors, although they may team teach with the classroom teacher. Within comprehensive models, classroom guidance is considered to be an integral part of the overall school curriculum, with identified competencies and learning outcomes for all students.
best described as the broad collection of counseling and guidance activities that are designed to help all learners develop their own educational plans and career objectives.
components for creating a comprehensive guidance program in the school
Organizing, planning, implementing, and evaluating
primary value of needs assessment
is providing the counselor with an empirical basis for establishing goals and objectives
resilient to extreme scores in a distribution
Potential risks of making judgments about a client to a third party
1) lead the client to have less trust in the counselor and perhaps be less open and honest with the counselor in the future, 2) misrepresenting himself/herself to the counselor in an attempt to influence the counselor’s judgment, 3) limit the counselor’s ability to be empathetic
ASCA ethical standards on the use of computer technology in working with students
1) ensuring the applications are appropriate to the needs of the students, 2) ensuring that students know how to use the applications, 3) ensuring that the applications are nondiscriminatory, and 4) ensuring that follow up counseling with the counselor to students are all required.
law stipulates that parents and students over 18 have the right to view all of the official records at any time. It also stipulates that access by others be limited to those in an official capacity requiring access to this information for the benefit of the student.
appropriate ethical response when there is a professional issue of dealing with one’s own stresses
1) inform her colleagues and administrators about the situation, 2) seek ways to reduce her level of responsibility and tasks to a level that she can manage affectively, and 3) do all she can to alleviate the personal stresses
comprehensive programs provide
placement, follow-up, and follow-through activities to assist students with their next steps. Direct delivery of counseling and other guidance activities on a demand basis is included because there may be a need for direct immediate services to students while they are still in the school building
academic institutions are financially responsible only for testing that they request. Parent requests are evaluated on case-by-case basis, and typically the financing is the parents’ responsibility
) student referrals, 2) Remediation planning, 3) crisis counseling
behavioral consultation approach
school counselor actively obtains and evaluates student data, which is used to advise other staff members (such as teachers) how to best help the student. With a behavioral consultation approach, it is a triadic consultation (among counselor, teacher and student), and is considered depended because the counselee (teacher) relies on the school counselor to collect and interpret the behavioral data.
Collaborative models are
mutual, shared, and reciprocal
Carl Rogers defined “congruence”
as an ability to be authentic and genuine when working with a client. When a counselor’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are NOT at odds with each other, the counselor is better to be with the client more fully.
Evaluation in a school counseling program
serves the purposes of generating valid measures of how a program meets goals and objectives, helping others understand the role of the counselor, and gathering data for research purposes. It is not used to plan and develop procedures when the program is unable to change
commonly include tutoring and recreational activities provided by adults in the community.
Guidance Advisory Committee (GAC)
is commonly charged with the task of reviewing program data and making recommendations based on their evaluations. GACs typically do not evaluate counselors’ professional activities, report directly to administrators, or disclose counseling work to the media.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – 4th Edition (WISC – IV)
comparing students’ scores with those of the general population and identifying learning disabilities and giftedness. Grade retention decisions should be based on academic achievement, not intelligence test scores.
Benefits of professional organizations
advocacy, professional development, lobbying efforts, liability insurance, and networking, accessibility to resources and current research, and leadership development.
Title II of the Education Amendments
addresses teacher and principal training, and Enhancing Education through Technology