Praxis II: Music: Content and Instruction (5114)

Passage that does not state the principal subject (esp in Fugue)
Section in which subject(s) are announced. In Fugue, Sonata, Concerto.
Composition or Section in which subject is answered or repeated by several parts.
Splitting up a melodic line between two voices
Musical theme/motive assoc. w a person, thing, emotion or idea in a drama
Accompanied solo song
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Polyphonic vocal composition, sacred text
Pattern of pitches serving as a foundation for harmony.
Single variation of a theme, set of such variations.
Section of a movement in which the subjects announced in the exposition are reviewed
1450-1600; rebirth of secular musical activity/ideals of antiquity.
Tutti as opposed to solo
ABaAabAB; one of Formes Fixes
Slow dance in triple meter often emphasizing the second beat
To be played on one or more instruments; Work in several mvts for one or two solo instruments
Sonata form
Used mostly in first mvts; Exposition – Development – Recapitulation
Imitation of a subject at a close time-interval
Scale of 4 notes spanning a fourth (Greek/Medieval); Set of four pitches (Modern)
Introductory improvised instrumental piece
Second part in early polyphony, set against a Tenor and Duplum
Bar Form – Song form in which first melodic component is sung 2x w/different texts (Stollen); the remainder (Abgesang) is sung once
Ad Libitum
Details of execution left to discretion of the performer
Unordered set of pitch classes of the chromatic scale
1. Tune
2. Tuneful song in Fr. stage work
3. Eng., Fr. art song w/lute or violin accompaniment
Air de cour
French monodic song
Deliberately leaving choice of pitches, rhythmic values or order of events to chance.
Pitch range of a mode or plainchant
One group answers the other, perf. method
Lute w/extra peg box for long bass strings tuned diatonically. Theorbo
1. Tune for singing poetry
2. Songful monologue or duet in an opera
1. Bizarre, extravagant
2. 1600-1750
Basse Danse
Family of dances (duple + triple) whose music was often improvised over a tenor cantus firmus
Improvised passage usually placed just before the end of a piece or section
Intellectuals and amateurs of arts that met in Florence at the home of Giovanni Bardi (1570-80)
1. Composition for solo voice with recitatives and arias
2. Sacred concerto
Chorale prelude
Organ arr. of a chorale played before the congregation sings it
Ensemble w/a few solo instruments
Concerto grosso
Tutti or ripieno – the full orchestra in a concerto
Artful combination of 2+ simultaneous melodic lines
Fluent dance in moderate triple meter
Process or section in which a subject is taken apart combined with other ideas and reworked
1. Treble part
2.improvised or written polyphony in which voices move @ same speed
Composition w/12-tone rows
Voice part in early polyphony set against a tenor
The shortest passage of music which, having reached a point of relative repose, has expressed a more or less complete musical thought
Ricochet; bow “thrown” on string so it will bounce
Conscious spiccato: slower tempo, player makes bow ‘spring’

Spontaneous spiccato: fast tempo, soft dynamics. Short, quick up/down motion by wrist -> bow bounces

To hammer. Usually performed toward the frog. Fast, well-articulated stroke resembling a sfz.
Short separate strokes
Legato stroke. Dashes under notes w/slurs used to designate the bow changes
Basic stroke on all bowed string instruments. It changes direction each note.
Range: C4 – C6 (high C)
Mezzo soprano
Range: A4 – A6
Contra alto
Range: F3 – F5
Range: C3 – C5
Range: F2 – F4
Range: E2 – E4
Glissando in vocal music
Trombone, Position VII
Trombone, Position VI
Trombone, Position V
Trombone, Position IV
Trombone, Position III
Trombone, Position II
Trombone, Position I
Trumpet, 3rd Valve
1 + 1/2 steps
Trumpet, 2nd Valve
1/2 step
4th Valve
2 1/2 steps
Trumpet, 1st Valve
1 step
I – Tonic
ii – Supertonic
iii – Mediant
IV – Subdominant
V – Dominant
vi – Submediant
vii – Leading Tone
Steps of Conducting
1. Preparation
2. Ictus
3. Rebound
4. Penultimate beat placement
5. Final beat placement
Baroque: Dates
1600 – 1750
Baroque: Musical Characteristics
Decorative, filled w/ornaments, few dynamic markings
Baroque: Composers
Vivaldi, Handel, Bach, Pachelbel
Classical: Dates
1750 – 1825
Classical: Musical Characteristics
Reserved, intellectual, rational-sounding. Controlled compositions. Great growth in string section.
Classical: Composers
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Mendelssohn
Classical: Orchestra Size
30 – 50; Marked increase in # of string players.
Romantic: Dates
1825 – 1900
Romantic: Musical Characteristics
Conveyed feeling, programmatic, used nature for inspiration, Nationalistic, incorporation of folk tunes.
Romantic: Composers
Weber, Chopin, Brahms, Dvorak, Grieg, Tchiakovsky
Modern: Dates
1900 – Present
Modern: Characteristics
Unconventional sources of inspiration; broke molds of traditional harmony.
Modern: Composers
Debussy, Ravel, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Copland, Gershwin
It. – Corno
Fr. – Cor
Ger. – Horn
Trumpet (tr. or tpt.)
It. – Tromba
Fr. – Trompette
Ger. – Trompete
Trombone (trb. or tbn.)
It. – Trombone
Fr. – Trombone
Ger. – Posaune
Tuba (t.)
It. – Tuba
Fr. – Tuba
Ger. – Tuba
It. – Archi
Fr. – Cordes
Ger. – Streichinstrumente
Violin (vl.)
It. – Violino
Fr. – Violon
Ger. – Violine or Geige
Viola (vla.)
It. – Viola
Fr. – Alto
Ger. – Bratsche
Violoncello (vlc.)
It. – Violoncello
Fr. – Violoncelle
Ger. – Violoncell
Double Bass (d.b.)
It. – Contrabasso
Fr. – Contrabasse
Ger. – Kontrabass
It. – Arpa
Fr. – Harpe
Ger. – Harfe
Band Arranger
Band Composer & Arranger
String Arranger/Orchestral Arranger
Choral Arranger
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Gardner; Differentiates intelligence into specific modalities:
– musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic; Little evidence by way of studies to support model.
Teaching Sequence: General Music
1. Preparation
2. Presentation
3. Practice
4. Execution
Hall Johnson, William Dawson & Jesper Hairston
Arrangers of Spirituals
Bennett Reimer
“A Philosophy of Music Ed”

Aesthetic Education
Art —> Subjective, a teacher of feeling
Students explore value through: Composition, Listening, Music Theory & Performance

It. – Legni
Fr. – Bois
Ger. – Holzblazer
Piccolo (picc.)
It. – Ottovino
Fr. – Petite Flute
Ger. – Kleine Flote
Flute (fl.)
It. – Flauto
Fr. – Flute
Ger. – Flote
Oboe (ob.)
It. – Oboe
Fr. – Hautbois
Ger. – Oboe
English Horn (Eng. hn.)
It. – Corno Onglese
Fr. – Cor Anglais
Ger. – Englisches Horn
Clarinet (cl.)
It. – Clarinetto
Fr. – Clarinette
Ger. – Klarinette
Bassoon (bn.)
It. – Fagotto
Fr. – Basson
Ger. – Fagott
Contrabassoon (cbn.)
It. – Contrafagotto
Fr. – Contrebasson
Ger. – Kontrafagott
Saxophone (sax)
It. – Sassofone
Fr. – Saxophone
Ger. – Saxophon
Overtone Series
8va – P5 – P4 – M3 – m3 – m3* – M2*
Unaccompanied Melody
Musical Texture consisting of two or more lines of melody.
Music in which the harmony is chordal & not made up of distinctive lines.
Same melody performed simultaneously in more than one way, for ex., simply and ornamented.
Polar Patterns
Omnidirectional, Cardoid, Super or Hyper Cardoid, Bidirectional
Continuous Binary Form
Single harmonic movement divided by design (conclusive cadence).
Continuous Binary Form: Simple
Design: AB or AA’
Continuous Binary Form: Rounded
Design: AB II A’
Continuous Binary Form: Balanced
Design: AA’. Part two closes with a transposed restatement of the passage that ends part one.
Sectional Binary Form
Double Harmonic movement, that is, two complete or interrupted harmonic movements.
Sectional Binary Form: Simple
Design: A-B or A-A’
Sectional Binary Form: Rounded
Design: A-BA
Sectional Binary Form: barform
Design: A-A-B. Part one repeated, part two not repeated.
Sectional Ternary Form
Double harmonic movement, the second of which is further divided by design (contrast). Design: A-BA.
Full Sectional Ternary Form
Triple harmonic movement, that is, three complete or interrupted harmonic movements. Design: A-B-A.
Continuous Ternary Form
Single interrupted harmonic movement divided by design (conclusive cadence and contrast). Design: AB II A’
Sectional Four Part Form
Same as secional ternary plus transposed restatement of part two as part four. Design: A-BA-B’
Sectional Five Part Form
Same as sectional ternary plus new part four and restatement of part one as part five. Design: A-BA-CA
Classical Rondo Form
Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC)
V – I. Both Chords in root position. Soprano on root of chord I.
Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC)
V – I, but with either an inverted chord, or soprano not finishing on the tonic.
Half Cadence (HC)
_ – V. The V chord can be approached from a number of other chords (I, ii, IV, V/V)
Plagal Cadence (PC)
IV – I. Known as the ‘church’ cadence. Named for the ‘Amen’ commonly used at the end of hymns.
Deceptive Cadence (DC)
A cadence that creates the expectation of going to I, but substitutes another chord instead. Common substitutes for I are: vi, IV6, bVI, and occasionally IV or V/ii.
It +6
Three pitches only. +6 and the tonic (M3)
Fr +6
The characteristic augmented sixth interval, the tonic pitch and the second scale degree.
Ger +6
The characteristic augmented sixth interval, the tonic pitch, and the lowered third.
Anitquity (Dates)
500 BC – 500 AD
Medieval (Dates)
500 – 1400
Renaissance (Dates)
1400 – 1600
Baroque (Dates)
1600 – 1750
Classical (Dates)
1750 – 1825
Romantic (Dates)
1825 – 1900
Modern / 20th Century (Dates)
1900 – Present
French Baroque dance in fast duple meter
Cantata *
Music composition using scared texts (Baroque)
A French polyphonic song (Late Middle Ages & Renaissance)
Protestant hymn melody (Baroque)
Choral Prelude
Composition for an organ, played before congregation begins to sing (Baroque)
Composition for an orchestra & 1 or more solo instrument (Classical)
Chamber Music (Classical)
A study piece, composition for development of technique
Loud brass instruments (esp. trumpets), Major triad. Ex: ‘Fanfare for the Common Man’
Fugue *
Imitative polyphonic composition, themes repeat
French peasant dance (Baroque)
Popular Baroque dance, fugal style.
A secular song for 2 or 3 unaccompanied voices (Renaissance)
Motet *
Polyphonic composition sacred text w/o accompaniment (Renaissance)
A musical dramatic work
Plain chant, note against note counterpoint (Medieval)
Continuous variation on ground bass, similar to Chaconne (Baroque)
Spoken Song (Romantic)
Rondeau *
French Lyrical poem (Renaissance)
Sarabande *
Slow dance in triple meter often emphasizing the second beat (Baroque)
Sonata *
composition for 1 or more solo instruments, one of which is usually a keyboard instrument, usually consisting of of 3 or 4 independent movements varying in key, mood, and tempo
String Quartet
2 Violins, Viola & Cello (Classical)
An instrumental composition consisting of a series of varying movements or pieces
Symphonic Poem
Orchestral Form (Ex. Lizst) (Romantic)
Keyboard piece, free in form, that displays dexterity (Baroque)
Rim Shot
[Drumming technique] 1 loud hit
[Drumming technique] 1 beat preceding 1 beat (Ex. ba-dop)
[Drumming technique] 2 beats preceding 1 beat (Ex. ba/da-bop)
[Drumming technique] par-a-di-dle
Classical (Characteristics)
Simple melodies, refined strings, strings dominate, Alberti Bass
Medieval (Characteristics)
Monophonic, plain chant
Renaissance (Characteristics)
Polyphonic, no instruments, Motet & Madrigal
Baroque (Characteristics)
Small orchestras w/basso continuo, keyboards
Gradually accelerating or getting faster
An upbeat or pickup note(s); a termused for unstressed notes at the beginning of a phrase of music.
Statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the original.
Note values are shortened, usually by half.
marked, emphatic
perform freely
alla breve
A tempo marking indicating a quick duple meter 2/2
poco a poco
little by little
Ad Libitum (ad. lib.)
At liberty
Allagrando (allag.)
Broaden out
Slower than Allegro
Fast (Tempo = 120 – 168)
Slow; in a walking style (Tempo = 76 – 108)
A little faster than Andante
A Tempo
At the original tempo
Softer and slower
Con Moto
With Motion
Slow and serious
Very slow (Tempo = 40 – 60)
L’istesso Tempo
In the same time
March tempo and style
Meno Messo
Less motion; slower
In moderate time or speed (Tempo = 108-120)
Ma non Troppo
Not too fast
Piu Mosso
A little more motion
Very fast; double the time (tempo = 200 – 208)
Rallentando (rall.)
Gradually becoming slower
Ritardando (rit.)
To retard or slow down
Faster tempo
In waltz time
With life (very fast)
Tempo – Slowest to Fastest
Largo, Larghetto, Adagio, Andante, Moderato, Allegro, Presto, Prestissimo
Conducting: Attack
Indicated by the speed of acceleration and force of the ictus
Conducting: Ictus
The point of the rebound
Conducting: Dynamics
Indicated by the size of the preparation
Conducting: Preparation
The space between the ictus of one beat and the ictus of the next
Conducting: Quality
Indicated by the shape of the preparation
Range of an instrument
Comprehensive Musicianship [Music Learning K-12]
Comprehensive musicianship emphasizes the encouragement of students to function in various roles of performer, composer-improviser and listener.
How do beginning woodwind players often play? [Music Learning K-12]
Beginning woodwind players often play with a closed throat and oral cavity to compensate for inadequate breath support.
General Music Teaching Sequence
1. Preparation
2. Presentation
3. Practice
4. Extension
How often does music class meet in Middle and High School? [Music Learning K-12]
Every music course meets at least every other day for at least 45 minutes in Middle School and High School.
Elementary Music Library [Music Learning K-12]
For band, orchestra and chorus, a library of music is provided that includes at least 40 titles for each type of group. At least 15 titles for each type of group are added each year.
Grade 8
General music is required of all students through grade 8
Middle and High School Library [Music Learning K-12]
A library of small-ensemble music is provided that contains at least 75 titles. At least 15 new titles are added each year.
Budget [Music Learning K-12]
An annual budget is provided for the replacement of school-owned instruments that is equivalent to at least 5% of the replacement value of the total inventory of instruments.
Peter and the Wolf [Music Learning K-12]
Peter and the Wolf (Prokofiev), is a piece most appropriate for introducing the instruments of the orchestra to Elementary General Music Students.
How long should Elementary Students receive Music Instruction? [Music Learning K-12]
In elementary school, each student receives general music instruction each week for at least 90 minutes, excluding time devoted to elective instrumental or choral instruction. Music is woven into the curriculum throughout the day.
Beginning Instruction: Strings & Woodwinds [Music Learning K-12]
Instruction on string instruments begins no later than 4th grade. Instruction on wind & percussion instruments begins no later than 5th grade. For the 1st year of instrumental study, students are taught at least part of the time in homogenous instrumental groupings.
Alexander Technique [Music Learning K-12]
Alexander Technique has a long history of helping instrumentalists and singers to perform with less stress and likelihood of injury. Students learn to identify and change patterns that lead to aches pains, shallow breathing and performance anxiety.
K-4 Vocal Range [Music Learning K-12]
K-4 vocal range is about an octave starting with Middle C (C4)
Music Sequencing and its effect on Music Education [Music Learning K-12]
Music sequencing is similar to linguistic structuring as it relates to the audience member: patterns of melody, harmony and rhythm work together better with appropriately defined tone, key and chord structures. Infants are able to approximate tone and young children can reproduce short or limited contours with some discrepancy in pitch. Early childhood music education opportunities to learn to produce pitches accurately and distinguish between scale and key structure.
Johann Amos Comenius [Music Learning K-12]
Johann Amos Comenius believed that the educator of children should begin immediately so that the child could learn about faith, cognizance of moral actions and familarity with arts and language. Comenius felt that music education was instinctual for children who first learn to make sound through vocalizations.
Acculturation of Preparatory Audiation [Music Learning K-12]
Absorption – 1st 18 months (inc. listening)
Random Response – 1-3 years (involves participation)
purposeful response – 18mo – 3 years (contribute to music)
What is the Music Educators Role? [Music Learning K-12]
Educators are responsible for making music a positive influence on students. All teachers should seek out ways to prepare for curriculum planning and designing instructions that are appropriate for the child’s particular education level. Music combines with all developmental, cognitive, language, physical, emotional and social arenas of education and places the music educator in an important, multifaceted role. Music educators should be able to guide children in their musical experiences and encourage progress as it occurs.
Working with rhythm in instruments in the classroom [Music Learning K-12]
Rhythm instruments such as shakers, cowbells, drums, and tambourines are the easiest to work with when instructing children about rhythm, beat, and tempo since they are small, and children can easily be taught to use them correctly. Children should be introduced to these instruments and how they work to produce sound before being taught simple melodies. Once students are familiar, they can be instructed to incorporate those sounds in their exercises.
Involvement of Parents [Music Learning K-12]
Parents should always be encouraged to become more active in their child’s education and musical development. Music educators should make an effort to include parents in discussions of instruments or musical practice. Parents are teachers first and a full support from them will help the child learn the importance of education. Music educators should always seek out ways to keep parents involved, such as through band support programs or fund-raising.
Sound Exploration Areas [Music Learning K-12]
Young children need a place to experiment with musical instruments and sounds that is separated from other groups that may be involved in more directed study. Children should be free to work with instruments such as the bells, shakers, claves, drums, tambourines, and castanets as loudly as the child chooses. All sound exploration should be hands on.
How should Music Educators introduce music instruments? [Music Learning K-12]
The music educator should give instruction on each instrument, how to use the instrument, and then allow the child to replicate that instruction and then to improvise. Music educators should respond positively to a student’s efforts.
Why is singing and chanting important with young children? [Music Learning K-12]
Rhythmic songs and chants are important for children to understand the combination of sounds and beats and apply the process to their own sensory perceptions. When music educators participate in the singing or chanting, they can interact with the children, and show them how much fun moving to music and creating music can be for all ages. Music educators can teach songs in small segments, through repetition, or through example.
Creative and Synchronized Movement [Music Learning K-12]
Movements that are associated with music and performed as dances or exercise by young children are classified as either creative movement or synchronized movement. Creative movement gives children freer expression and allows them to improvise and enjoy the act itself. Synchronized movement follows an established routine and is choreographed to the rhythm and beat of the selected music. Creative movement allows children to freely express themselves to song, while synchronized movement helps children work as a group and realize the importance of teamwork.
Why music educators should model movements in teaching creative movement…[Music Learning K-12]
Children will often watch the movements of those around them. Music educators can show students how to do a particular movement to a song, and then let the children copy what they have seen. Any type of movement should be at the child’s developmental level. Music educators can show children how to move faster or slower through music. They can also be introduced to dynamics with loud marching or tiptoeing. Teachers can teach about changes in phrasing by changing direction.
Creative Movement [Music Learning K-12]
Creative movement involves a child’s interpretation of the song without paying attention to the beat. Children should be familiar with walking, marching, running, galloping, dancing, clapping, sliding, jumping, and hopping to music.
Synchronized Movement [Music Learning K-12]
By following a pre-set order of movements to music, children are able to begin to understand a connection between feeling and hearing the music. Children can later apply this connection and develop a steady beat or pulse. There are four stages for young children’s understanding the beat of music.

1)Unable to respond to the beat.
2)Responds with too much.
3)Narrow down response to the beat.
4)Able to clap or step to the beat.

Using props during synchronized movement helps children to focus on the movements as they relate to the music and create the movements with greater confidence. (ex. scarves, streamers, ribbons, parachute)

Software and Materials for the High School classroom [Music Learning K-12]
Aside from the computer centers, the technological music classroom for high school should contain at least different software programs that deal with listening, analyzing, reading, and describing various types of music. Creation, improvisation, and composition software should be available. Students should be encouraged to utilize the technology for practice and performance, while music educators can access different programs for grading, instrument inventory, etc… Other software or internet (with supervision) for research.
Perceptive Listening [Music Learning K-12]
Music is best appreciated by listeners who are attentive, and music educators can help students learn how to listen. Perceptive listening allows students not only to hear the notes but to understand the structure and movement of the phrasing.
How can beat, rhythm and tempo be explored? [Music Learning K-12]
Rhythm is the pattern of long and short sounds. Music educators can explore beat by clapping each syllable of a simple song. Beat is the pulse of the music which may speed up or slow down during the course of the music. Music educators should have students practice grouping beats together. Tempo is the speed of the music. Music education should help students learn the distinction between slow, moderate, and fast tempos by speeding or slowing down the music.
Bloom’s Taxonomy – Six levels of thinking and learning skills
1. Knowledge
2. Understand
3. Apply
4. Analyze
5. Evaluate
6. Create
Publisher Resources
J.W. Pepper, Carl Fischer, Hal Leonard, Alfred Music
Theory of Multiple Intelligences *
– Howard Gardner
– traditionally defined intelligence does not sufficiently encompass wide variety of human abilities.
Jerome Bruner
New Material —> ICONIC to Symbolic representation.
– suggests that a learner even of a very young age is capable of learning any material so long as the instruction is Bruner (1960) adopts a different view and believes a child (of any age) is capable of understanding complex information: ‘We begin with the hypothesis that any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of development’. (p. 33)
– Importance of language for coding
– Spiral curriculum – information being structured so that complex ideas can be taught at a simplified level first, and then re-visited at more complex levels later on organized appropriately, in sharp contrast to the beliefs of Piaget and other stage theorists.
– 1920s, German
– it is a way of introducing and teaching children about music on a level that they can easily comprehend. Musical concepts are learned through singing, chanting, dance, movement, drama and the playing of percussion instruments. Improvisation, composition and a child’s natural sense of play are encouraged.
– “Never music alone, but music conntected.”
– Approach is simple, basic, natural, close to a child’s world.


– Mid 1900s, Hungarian
– Child-Developmental approach
– Rhythm syllables- solfege for rhythm
– Rhythmic movements – walking, running, marching, clapping
– Rhythm sequence and notation
– Moveable “do,” solfege
– Melodic sequence and pentatony
– Hand signs
– Folk Songs
– Audiation – hearing music with understanding
– Listen
– Imitate
– Think
– Improvise
– Students build a foundation of aural and performing skills through singing, rhythmic movement, and tonal and rhythm pattern instruction before being introduced to notation and music theory.
– Early 1900s
– Eurhythmics – musical expression through movement; developing musical skills through kinetic exercises.
– Solfege
– Improvisation (using instruments, movement, and voice)
– Mid 1900s
– “Mother-tongue approach”
– Early beginning
– Saturation of music
– No tests
– Rote Learning ->Learning by ear rather than reading
– Review of previous pieces – repetition
– Play in groups a public performance
– Parental Involvement
a class of instruments that produce their sound by the vibration of air, i.e., flute or clarinet
a class of instruments that produce their sound by means of vibrating strings stretched between fixed points, i.e. guitar, violin, and etc.
class of instruments that produce their sound by the vibration of the instrument itself, i.e. castanets, rattles, glass harmonics, and etc.
a class of instruments that produce their sound by the vibration of a membrane or head i.e., drums
Flutter tongue
a special effect on the flute and occasionally other wind instruments consisting of the rapid insertion of the tongue into the blowhole resulting in a rapid staccato
Single: (t-t-t)
Double: (t-k t-k t-k)
Triple: (t-k-t t-k-t)
Col legno
hit the strings with the wooden part of the bow
Coloratura soprano
A type of operatic soprano who specializes in music that is distinguished by agile runs and leaps. The term coloratura refers to the elaborate ornamentation of a melody, which is a typical component of the music written for this voice
Lyric soprano
a type of operatic soprano that has a warm quality with a bright, full timbre which can be heard over an orchestra
A soubrette voice is light with a bright, sweet timbre, a tessitura in the mid-range, and with no extensive coloratura.A soubrette’s range extends approximately from middle C (C4) to “high C” (C6). The voice has a lighter vocal weight than other soprano voices with a brighter timbre
a category of operatic soprano voice that has the limpidity and easy high notes of a lyric soprano, yet can be “pushed” on to achieve dramatic climaxes without strain. This type of voice may possess a somewhat darker timbre, too, than the average lyric soprano. It generally uses squillo to “slice” through the sound of a full orchestra, rather than singing over the orchestra like a true dramatic soprano
Dramatic Soprano
a type of operatic soprano with a powerful, rich, emotive voice that can sing over, or cut through, a full orchestra. Thicker vocal folds in dramatic voices usually (but not always) mean less agility than lighter voices but a sustained, fuller sound. Usually this voice has a lower tessitura than other sopranos, and a darker timbre
Lyric Tenor
A warm graceful voice with a bright, full timbre that is strong but not heavy and can be heard over an orchestra. Lyric tenors have a range from approximately the C one octave below middle C (C3) to the D one octave above middle C (D5) with some able to sing up to E5 and higher. Similarly, their lower range may extend a few notes below the C3. There are many vocal shades to the lyric tenor group
a lightweight, flexible tenor type of voice, The leggiero tenor can go quite low, the A or so below the low C
Spinto Tenor
a vocal term used to characterize a soprano or tenor voice of a weight between lyric and dramatic that is capable of handling large musical climaxes in opera at moderate intervals
Dramatic tenor
an emotive, ringing and very powerful, clarion, heroic tenor sound. The dramatic tenor has an approximate range from the B two octave below middle C (B2) to the C one octave above middle C (C5) with some able to sing up to the D one octave above middle C (D5)
A rich, dark, powerful and dramatic voice, featured in romantic German works
Dramatic Baritone
A voice that is richer and fuller, and sometimes harsher, than a lyric baritone and with a darker quality. This category corresponds roughly to the Heldenbariton in the German fach system except that some Verdi baritone roles are not included. The primo passaggio and secondo passaggio of both the Verdi and Dramatic Baritone are at Bb and Eb respectively, hence the differentiation is based more heavily on timbre and tessitura. Accordingly, roles that fall into this category tend to have a slightly lower tessitura than typical Verdi baritone roles, only rising above an F at the moments of greatest intensity. Many of the Puccini roles fall into this category. However, it is important to note, that for all intents and purposes, a Verdi Baritone is simply a Dramatic Baritone with greater ease in the upper tessitura (Verdi Baritone roles center approximately a minor third higher). Because the Verdi Baritone is sometimes seen as subset of the Dramatic Baritone, some singers perform roles from both sets of repertoire. Similarly, the lower tessitura of these roles allow them frequently to be sung by bass-baritones.
Verdi Baritone
A more specialized voice category and a subset of the Dramatic Baritone, a Verdi baritone refers to a voice capable of singing consistently and with ease in the highest part of the baritone range, sometimes extending up to the C above middle C, or “High C.” The Verdi baritone will generally have a lot of squillo, or “ping”
Basso Profondo
Lowest sounding Bass voice
Basso Buffo
Buffo, literally “funny”, basses are lyrical roles that demand from their practitioners a solid coloratura technique, a capacity for patter singing and ripe tonal qualities if they are to be brought off to maximum effect
Bel Canto
same as basso buffo
Basso Cantente
Basso cantante means “singing bass”. Basso cantante is a higher, more lyrical voice. It is produced using a more Italianate vocal production, and possesses a faster vibrato, than its closest Germanic/Anglo-Saxon equivalent, the bass-baritone
Dramatic bass
Hoher Bass or “high bass” or often a dramatic bass-baritone
literally “speech song”; a type of inflected vocal delivery, with pitches indicated only approximately on the music staff. this is a modern technique often used in contemporary opera and song cycles
Sotto voce
in an undertone, aide, under the breath
Wet/live acoustics
big room with materials such as wood or marble; ideal performance space for choirs
Dry/dead acoustics
small room with no reverb; ideal for instrumental ensembles
The School Music Program: A New Vision
1. All children have musical potential
2. Children bring their own unique interests and abilities to the music learning environment
3. Very young children are capable of developing critical thinking skills through musical ideas
4. Children come to early-childhood music experiences from diverse backgrounds
5. Children should experience exemplary musical sounds, activities, and materials
6. Children should not be encumbered with the need to meet performance goals
7. Children’s play is their work
8. Children learn best in pleasant physical and social environments
9. Diverse learning environments are needed to serve the developmental needs of many individual children
10. Children need effective adult models
Manhattanville Music Curriculum Project
integrated music into the social studies curriculum
Contemporary Music Project
Implemented during the Ford administration, gave schools exposure to contemporary music
Yale Seminar on Music Education
seminar that discussed problems in music education and how to fix them; revamp the music curriculum in schools to promote a public that was musically literate
Tanglewood Symposium
The purpose was to discuss and define the role of music education in contemporary American society and to make recommendations to improve the effectiveness of music instruction
Tonal Sequence
Intervals of first phrase are NOT reproduced exactly.
Real Sequence
Exact transposition of each note in a sequence
Repetition of musical idea @ a higher or lower pitch
Smallest unit of musical form. Can be as short as 2 notes, or as long as 6. Has clear rhythmic patters & melodic outline.
Neighbor Tone
Approached by: STEP
Left by: STEP in OPPOSITE direction
Passing Tone
Approached by: STEP
Left by: STEP in SAME direction
Approached by: LEAP
Left by: STEP in OPPOSITE direction
Escape Tone
Approached by: STEP
Left by: LEAP in OPPOSITE direction
Approached by: SAME NOTE
Left by: STEP DOWN
Approached by: SAME NOTE
Left by: STEP UP
Approached by: STEP or LEAP
Left by: SAME NOTE
Pedal Tone
Approached by: SAME NOTE
Left by: SAME NOTE
It. – Con Sordino
Fr. – Sourdine(s)
Ger. – mit Dampfer
Take Off Mutes
It. – Via Sordini
Fr. – Enlevez les Sourdines
Ger – Dampfer Weg
Without Mutes
It. – Senza Sordino
Fr. – Sans Sourdine
Ger. – Ohne Dampfer
It. – Divisi
Fr. – Divise
Ger. – Geteilt
It. – Unisono (unis.)
Fr. – Unis
Ger. – Zusammen
It. – Solo
Fr. – Seul
Ger. – Allein
It. – Tutti
Fr. – Tous
Ger. – Alle
At (near) the Bridge
It. – Sul Ponticello
Fr. – Sur le Chevalet
Ger. – am Steg
Over the Fingerboard
It. – Sul Tasto
Fr. – Sur la Touche
Ger. – am Griffbrett
With the Wood of the Bow
It. – Col Legno
Fr. – Avec le Bois
Ger. – Col Legno
At the Point of the Bow
It. – Punta d’Arco
Fr. – (de la) Pointe
Ger. – Spitze
At the Frog
It. – al Tallone
Fr. – du Talon
Ger. – am Frosch
Bells in the Air
It. – Campane in Aria
Fr. – Pavillons en l’Air
Ger. – Schalltrichter auf
Half (a string group)
It. – la meta
Fr. – la moitie
Ger. – die Halfte
Stopped (horns)
It. – Chiuso
Fr. – Bouche(s) Cuivre
Ger. – Gestopft Schmetternd
It. – Aperto
Fr. – Ouvert
Ger. – Offen
With Soft Stick
It. – Bacchetta di Spugna
Fr. – Baguette d’Esponge
Ger. – mit Schwammschlegel
With Hard Stick
It. – Bacchette di Legno
Fr. – Baguettes en Bois
Ger. – mit Holzschlegeln
In the Ordinary Way (after sul pont., sul tasto, etc.)
It. – Modo Ordinario
Fr. – Mode Ordinaire
Ger. – Gewohnlich
It. – Corda
Fr. – Corde
Ger. – Saite
Cognitive Developmental Theory of Piaget
1. Sensorimotor 0-2 yrs. Observe their environment through exploration and motor skills.
2. Preoperational 2-7 yrs. Problem solving skills & language growth. Color, size, use, and shape of objects.
3. Concrete Operational 7-11 yrs. Expand their knowledge of classification and recognize similarities regarding items of the same height or pitch
4. Formal Operational 12-teenage yrs.. Abstract thoughts to solve problems.
Erik Erikson
Freudian psychology. Believed each stage of children’s development offers tasks that a child can be challenges with possibility of failure. Teachers should recognize that children’s self worth is wrapped in their definition of success. Music should offer a personal sense of success.
Lev Vygotsky
Importance of culture in a child’s development with awareness that parents and older children affect child’s behavior. Teacher or parent can assist a child in defining problem to be solved and then dividing into workable sections using verbal instruction and encouragement.
Jerome Bruner
His ideas are based on categorization (3 modes of fact-gathering for children.)
1. Physical manipulation
2. Pictoral representation
3. Symbolic Understanding
Bruners Four Features of Learning
1. Exploration, should be encouraged to show curiosity to learn about their world.
2. Info should be easily accessible and comprehensible
3. Order or sequence should be logical and orderly
4. Method of reward should be installed so children are encouraged
School Music Program:
A New Vision K-4
Sing on pitch and rhythm, steady tempo, ostinatos, rounds, partner songs, improvise simple ostinato accompaniments, improvise short songs, use body and nontraditional sounds to make music, create and arrange music to accompany readings, create short songs, read whole, half, dotted half, quarter, eighth notes, rests in 2/4, 3/2, 4/4 meter, Use system (syllables, numbers, letters) reading simple pitch notation, Navajo, Arabic, Latin American music, Evaluate music,
School Music Program:
A New Vision 5-8
Sing with breath control, alone and in small and large ensembles, sing with expression vocal lit. on a difficulty level of 2 including songs from memory, two and three parts, improvise simple harmonic accompaniments, simple rhythmic and melodic variations on given pentatonic melodies and major keys, read whole, hald, quarter, eighth, sixteenths, and dotted notes and rests in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 3/8 and alla breve. SR music with difficulty of 2, recognize jazz, mariachi, gamelan
School Music Program:
A New Vision 9-12
Sing with expression and technical accuracy, large and varied repertoire of vocal literature difficulty of 4 on scale of 6, sing 4 parts with and without accompaniment, improvise stylistically appropriate harmonizing parts, improvise in pentatonic, major and minor keys, compose in several distinct styles, evolve criteria for making informed critical evaluations of the quality, compose, arrange, improvise, Baroque, Sub-Saharan, African, Korean, sing, broadway musicals, blues.
Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Standard specification that enable electronic instruments such as the synthesizer, sampler, sequencer, and drum machine from any manufacturer to communicate with one another and with computers.
Orff-Schulwerk Approach
Combines music, movement, drama, speech into lessons that are similar to child’s world of play.
Four Different Stages within the Orff-Approach
1. Imitation – the teacher, group leader, or students perform for the class and the class in turn repeats what was played for them.
2. Exploration – Allows students to seek out not only the different musical aspects that the Orff instruments offer but they also explore aural/oral skills and the different motions and expressions that the body is capable of
3. Literacy – Taught by learning musical notation and becoming familiar with the various forms of music like rondo, and ABA
4. Improvisation – The act of creating something, especially music, without prior preparation.
Hornbostel-Sachs System of Musical Instruments Classification
Idiophones, membranophones, chordophones, aerophone, electrophone
Which of the following lists the musical genres in the correct chronological order of their development?
A. Motet, string quartet, opera, symphonic poem
B. Motet, opera, string quartet, symphonic poem
C. Opera, motet, string quartet, symphonic poem
D. Opera, symphonic poem, motet, string quartet
motet – 13th century
opera – 17th century
string quartet – 18th century
symphonic poem – 19th century
Which of the following is likely to cause faulty intonation by singers in a high school choir?
A. Inadequate rehearsal time
B. Unsupported tone
C. Singing in a foreign language
D. Lack of an instrumental accompaniment
B. Unsupported tone
Prior to learning about meter, elementary students should be able to demonstrate their understanding of
A. weak and strong beats
B. syncopation
C. subdivision of the beat
D. tempo markings
A. weak and strong beats
Meter, the grouping of beats into repeated sets of two, three or more beats, depends on the differentiation between weak and strong beats; thus, students must understand this differentiation before they learn about meter.
Which of the following is an example of a critical thinking skill?
A. Students label the parts of a chord
B. Students notate rhythmic patterns in all of the common meters
C. Students compare to different recordings of the same work
D. Students transpose a trumpet part from written pitch to concert pitch
C. Students compare to different recordings of the same work
In cognitive domain, evaluation represents a high-level thinking skill. When students compare two recordings of the same work, they must use the skill of evaluation.
Creating an ostinato on barred instruments to accompany a folk song is most closely associated with which of the following approaches?
A. Orff
B. Kodaly
C. Dalcroze
C. Gordon
A. Orff
The singing of folk songs accompanied by improvised ostinatos on barred instruments is an important component of the curricular approach developed by Carl Orff.
Orff Composition
Carmina Burana
Under current U.S. copyright law, guidelines for educational uses (“fair use”) of music permit all of the following EXCEPT
A. emergency copying to replace purchased copy that is lost and is not available for an imminent performance
B. making a single copy of recordings of performances for evaluating rehearsal purposes
C. making an arrangement of a copyrighted work for a school ensemble to perform
D. copying for the purpose of scholarly research
C. making an arrangement of a copyrighted work for a school ensemble to perform
Which of the following ballets was written by Copland?
A. Swan Lake
B. Romeo and Juliet
C. The Rite of Spring
D. Appalachian Spring
D. Appalachian Spring
Copland composed Appalachian Spring in 1944 for the choreographer Martha Graham.
Swan Lake – Tchaikovsky
Romeo and Juliet – Prokofiev
The Rite of Spring – Stravinsky
Which of the following modes has a major tonic triad?
A. Aeolian
B. Phrygian
C. Mixolydian
D. Dorian
C. Mixolydian
The Aeolian, Phrygian, and Dorian modes have minor tonic triads. The Mixolydian mode has a major triad.
Which of the following venues could normally be expected to have the longest reverberation time?
A. Recital hall
B. Coffeehouse
C. Gothic-style cathedral
D. Opera house
C. Gothic-style cathedral
Reverberation is most noticeable in large spaces, such as cathedrals and other large stone buildings, characterized by walls and floors constructed of hard, reflective surfaces. Opera houses are large, but their interiors include curtains, soft seats, and other soft surfaces that absorb sound. Likewise, acoustically “dead” spaces such as coffeehouses and recital halls are usually quite small and have walls of nonreflective surfaces such as drywall and plaster.
Which of the following is a well-known, prolific researcher in music education, author of several standard texts on music education topics, and a coeditor of The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning?
A. Lowell Mason
B. Bennett Reimer
C. Edwin E. Gordon
D. Richard Colwell
D. Richard Colwell
Richard Colwell is a prolific music education researcher and author.
Conducting cues are customarily given when
A. a soloist or a section must fade out on a long note
B. a soloist or a section enters after a long rest
C. the articulation changes from one style to another
D. the meter changes from simple to compound
B. a soloist or a section enters after a long rest
During long rests, performers may lose count and will enter with confidence if a cue is given
excerpt from the gamelan music “Bubaran Hudan Mas”)
What is the country of origin?
A. India
B. Indonesia
C. Peru
D. Japan
B. Indonesia
The excerpt heard on the CD features music by a characteristic Indonesian gamelan ensemble composed primarily of hanging gongs, gong-chimes, and drums. The correct answer is B.
excerpt from Terry Riley’s In C.
Who is the composer?
A. Terry Riley
B. Charles Ives
C. John Corigliano
D. Duke Ellington
A. Terry Riley
Terry Riley’s In C is characterized by layering of repeated, short melodic modules and ostinatos. This question is another type commonly appearing on the test. As a study activity, one could research the biography and style of each of these leading composers and listen to works representative of each. This particular question asks about American composers. Another good study activity would be to determine other leading composers in history that might appear in test questions. Become familiar with representative examples of each of their works.
– standard chamber ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, and cello
– multimovement composition for this ensemble
String Quartet
a set of pieces that are linked together into a single work. During the baroque, usually referred to a set of stylized dance pieces
term coined by Franz Liszt for a one-movement work of program music for orchestra that conveys a poetic idea, story, scene, or succession of moods by presenting themes that are repeated, varied, or transformed
Symphonic Poem (or tone poem)
large work for orchestra, usually in four movements
Italian for “touched”
– piece for keyboard instrument or lute resembling an improvisation that may include imitative sections or may serve as a prelude to an independent fugue
solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment
used to catalogue the compositions of J.S. Bach, stands for Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis
a term used to classify a composition in relation to the composer’s other compositions
Op or Opp
the name of the numbering scheme used to categorize Mozart’s work
Kochel Verzeichnis or Catalog
continuous variations on ground bass similar to chaconne (baroque)
French lyrical poem (renaissance)
music composition using sacred texts (baroque)
a musical dramatic work
plain chant, note against note counterpoint (medieval)
a secular song for 2 or 3 unaccompanied voices (renaissance)
popular baroque dance in triple time
French peasant dance (baroque)
polyphonic composition sacred text without accompaniment (Renaissance) associated with the church
most popular baroque instrumental dance
a French polyphonic song (late middle ages-Renaissance)
imitative polyphonic composition, themes repeat
composition for an orchestra and 1 or more solo instruments (classical)
chamber music (classical),
Classical instrumental genre for chamber ensemble or soloist, often performed as light entertainment. Related to serenade and cassation.
What is the name of the Brazilian dance that is slightly faster than the tango?
popular cuban music
cha cha & mambo
The sackbut was an early brass instrument that evolved into this
modern musical instrument.
This wooden flute-like instrument features a lip, a fipple, and a windway.
A type of psaltery or zither, the name of this instrument literally means “sweet sound”.
This ancient woodwind evolved into the modern oboe. The metal band surrounding the bell made it a handy weapon as well.
Two instruments played simultaneously by one person, this combination was often used as accompaniment for juggling or acrobatic acts.
pipe & tabor
Also known as the “vielle a roue” or wheel-fiddle, this instrument features a wheel cranked by a handle. Early instruments required two players: one to push the keys and one to turn the handle.
hurdy gurdy
Reasons for Transposing
1. Avoiding ledger lines
2. Provide a better key signature
3. Avoid changing the pattern of fingering for different pitches
Instruments that transpose at the octave
Piccolo, Guitar, Bass Guitar
B flat instruments
For these instruments to sound a major second lower than it is written, their music needs to be written a major second higher.
A instruments
Needs to be written a minor third higher.
What note is transposing figured around?
Middle C
French Horn Transposition
Sounds a perfect fifth lower than it is written. Music is written without a key.
Cor Anglais Transposition
Sounds a perfect fifth lower than it is written. Music is written with a key.
E flat Soprano Cornet Transposition
Sounds a minor third higher.
B flat Cornet Flugel Horn Transposition
Sounds major second lower. Same as B flat trumpets.
E flat Tenor Horn/E flat Alto Sax Transposition
Sounds major sixth lower. Written with key signature.
Baritone, Euphonium, Tenor Trombone Transposition
Sounds Major 9th lower. i.e. major second + octave
E flat Bass/E flat Baritone Saxophone Transposition
Sounds major 13th lower. i.e. major sixth + octave
B flat Bass Transposition
Sounds major 16th lower. i.e. major second + two octaves
B flat Soprano Saxophone Transposition
Sounds minor seventh higher.
Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning
Convenient collection of current research on music teaching and learning
Hall Johnson
Spirituals arranger
William Dawson
Spirituals arranger
Jester Hairston
Spirituals arranger
Joyce Eilers
Chorale arranger
Sandra Dackow
Orchestral arranger
Sammy Nestico
Big band/jazz arranger
Jay Bocook
Band arranger
Which of the following is an application of Bruner’s spiral curriculum theory to music instruction?
A. Fifth-grade students learn a song by rote; then they learn the song with syllables by rote; then they learn to read the song in notation.
B. Third-grade students sing a song; then they add instrumental accompaniment to the song; then they add movement to the song
C. First-grade students learn about up-and-down melodic motion; in third grade they learn about melodic motion by steps and leaps; in fifth grade they learn to distinguish between thirds and fifths in a melodic contour
D. First-grade students learn to sing songs less than two minutes long; in fifth grade they learn to sing songs four minutes long; in ninth grade they learn to sing multiple-movement works more than nine minutes long
C. First-grade students learn about up-and-down melodic motion; in third grade they learn about melodic motion by steps and leaps; in fifth grade they learn to distinguish between thirds and fifths in a melodic contour
Which methodology employs a eurhythmic approach to music instruction emphasizing solfege, movement, and improvisation?
A. Orff
B. Dalcroze
C. Kodaly
D. Music Learning Theory
B. Dalcroze
Founder of Kindergarten. Advocated dance and music in regards to nature as they played outside. 1844 – Wrote Mother Play and Nursery Songs with tunes “Ring-Around-Rosies” and “If Your Happy”
1844 – Wrote Mother Play and Nursery Songs with tunes “Ring-Around-Rosies” and “If Your Happy”
Founder of Kindergarten.
Advocated dance and music in regards to nature as they played outside.
Music Learning Theory is an approach developed by
E. Gordon
Gordon’s Music Learning Theory
Teaching methods help teachers establish sequential curricular objectives in accord with their own teaching styles and beliefs.
_____ System of Musical Instruments Classification – Idiophones, Membranophones, Chordophones, Aerophones, Electrophones
Which of the following is most important in Zoltan Kodaly’s method of elementary music education?
A. Recorders
B. Xylophones
C. Unpitched percussion
D. Voices
D. Voices
Which of the following course offerings best reflects Reimer’s philosophy of aesthetic education?
A. Private instrumental or vocal instruction for any interested student
B. General music courses that involve listening, composing, and performing for all students
C. Performance-driven courses that prepare students for giving instrumental and vocal concerts
D. General music courses that focus on training students in aural and performance skills.
B. General music courses that involve listening, composing, and performing for all students
Which viewpoint best represents Reimer’s Philosophy of Music Education?

A. Referentialism
B. Formalism
C. Pragmatism
D. Absolute Expressionism

D. Absolute Expressionism
Wrote – A Philosophy of Music Education
General music courses involve listening, composing, and performing for all students.
Children should enjoy the simple joy of true vocal sound to understand about harmony and vocal resonance. Songs with simple and narrow range and no words. Children should dance and make up songs.
All of the following are important to the pedagogical approach of Shin’ichi Suzuki EXCEPT
A. beginning instruction at an early age
B. reading music at an early age
C. performing in groups
D. parental involvement
B. reading music at an early age
parental involvement
Shin’ichi Suzuki
performing in groups
Shin’ichi Suzuki
beginning instruction at an early age
Shin’ichi Suzuki
(music learning k-12)
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
____________ implies music is taught as a core subject in the curriculum. Musical Rhythmic Intelligence: the capacity to think in music; to be able to hear patterns recognize them, and perhaps manipulate them. People who have strong musical intelligence don’t just remember music easily, they can’t get it out of their minds, it’s so omnipresent
(music learning l-12)
Reimer’s Philosophy of Music Education
__________ represents the viewpoint of Absolute Expression. The values of music are gained through direct experiences with its meaningful sounds‚ remains intact, but is explained and applied in broader, more inclusive scope, with a synergistic philosophical stance as the basis. General music courses that involve listening composing, and performing for all students.
(music learning k-12)
Music Learning Theory
__________ was developed by E. Gordon. It is a stage specific learning of how students learn music and how it should be taught.
2)Music Aptitude
4)Learning Sequence Activities
5)Classroom Activities
6)Early Childhood
7)Instructional Applications
8)Types and Stages of Audiation
(music learning k-12)
Bruner’s Spiral Curriculum Theory
____________ uses the same concept taught in different grades.
His concept in music is:
1) Strategy – presents framework for introducing musical concept.
2)Composing/Rehearsing – Students solve musical problem in group compositional projects by developing a hypothesis and testing it.
3)Performance – Performance takes place
4)Critical Evaluation – After performance they discuss and evaluate themselves.
5)Listening – Students listen to music for please or as a resource.
(music learning k-12)
Orff Methodology
____________ employs a eurhythmic approach to music instruction emphasizing solfege-movement-improvisation.
More of a elemental style and learn through experience/movement.
approach encourages improvisation and discourages adult pressures and mechanical drill, fostering student self-discovery
considers the whole body a percussive instrument
Johann Amos Comenius believed that the education of children should begin immediately so that the child could learn about faith, cognizance of moral actions, and familiarity with arts and language.
Comenius felt that music education was intinctual for children who first learn to make sound through vocalizations.
Milton Babbitt
Known for his serial and electronic music in the 20th century 1916-2011
German composer of the Baroque period
Toccata & Fugue in D minor
J.S. Bach
Bela Bartok
Hungarian composer in the 20th century
One of the founders of music ethnomusicology
Ludwig van Beethoven
German composer during the Classical and Romantic period
Symphony No. 5
Austrian composer
Liked using 12 tone
Alban Berg
French composer during the Romantic period
Treatise on Instrumentation (used sax)
Hector Berlioz
German composer around the time of Beethoven and Mozart
Hugarian Dances
Johannes Brahms
Austrian composer
Study Symphony in F minor
Anton Bruckner
American composer
Holiday Overture
Elliot Carter
American composer
Appalachian Spring
Aaron Copland
Polish composer
Waltz in D-flat minor, Minute Waltz, Op. 64, No.1
Frederic Chopin
French composer
Clair de Lune
Cladue Debussy
Franco-Flemish composer
Guillaume Dufay
English composer
Pomp and Circumstance
Edward Elgar
American composer
Porgy and Bess
George Gershwin
American composer
Philip Glass
Opera composer during the Classical period
Don Juan
Christoph Gluck
German Baroque composer
George Handel
English composer
‘The Planets’
First Suite in E-flat for Military Band
Gustav Holst
American composer
The Unanswered Question
Charles Ives