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Practicum 7 Final Report

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------------------------------------------------- University of Trinidad and Tobago ------------------------------------------------- School of Cognition and Learning Practicum VII Lecturers’ Names : L. Payne A. A Wilson L. Perez Student Name : Amrit Harrilal Student ID : 111007714 Contents Schedule of my classes4 Reflections5 LESSON PLANS13 WORKSHEETS THAT WERE/WERE NOT DISTRIBUTED32 POB lesson notes39 Principles of Accounts Lesson Notes52 Principles of Business Scheme of Work62 Principles of Accounts Scheme of Work64 Schedule of my classes

All of my classes were double periods. My subjects are taught for six periods in the six day cycle at the school. My first teaching day was on Wednesday 17th October for the last two periods of the day where I taught Principles of Business. My next class was on Friday 19th October for the first two periods, the subject was also Principles of Business. On Monday the 22nd October I taught Principles of Accounts and on Tuesday the 23rd October I taught Principles of Business for the first two periods and then Principles of accounts for the third and forth periods.

My last teaching day was on Thursday 25th October however I was not able to teach this lesson due to the school having a cultural program for the scheduled time of my class which would have been the last two periods of the day. Reflections Reflection for first class. The first class that I taught was on Wednesday 17th October. The class was a double period and it was for the last two periods of the day. My co operating teacher miss Rodney was present as well as my supervisor Miss Perez.

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I believe that the class went well and I was able to achieve the objectives I set out to do in a reduced time period. There was a delay in starting the class because the teacher wanted to take roll, and I was waiting for students to come into the class to begin. I lost about 10 minutes waiting for the class to start and during this time I was beginning to get nervous. The class was hot and humid and my constant nervous perspiring was not making it any easier. After a little while the nerves were gone and I was able to talk normally to the class.

The set induction that I used was effective because I used the example of 4 football teams and their leadership style and the students responded well to my set induction. The class is mainly boys and it is football season and the school is doing well in the local league so I thought it would have been a good idea to use the example of football teams to make the example more relating to the content. Throughout the lesson I referred back to the set induction to draw reference to the similarities between the teams and the different economic systems.

As the class progressed I thought a student was testing me because of the question he asked which had nothing to do with the content that I was teaching. The question he asked was “what would happen if an unstoppable object were to hit an immovable object” I responded by saying “What does that question have to do with economic systems, but to answer your question, I believe that nothing would happen. ” I thought I handled the situation well and my classroom management skills were effective, I walked around to check to see if they were taking notes and to generally have my presence felt throughout the class.

I was getting a lot of questions from one side of the class and so my attention was mostly directed to that side of the class, something that I would like to remedy for my subsequent classes and for the rest of my teaching career. Due to the lack of time my assessment would have had to be done for homework. I did manage to complete the content that I wanted to teach. At the end of the class my supervisor told me that the lesson went well and in my future lessons to use group work or group activities and to have some resources such as charts.

The charts I think would have been a nice addition to the lesson, and maybe I can turn the chart into a game to make it fun and interactive for the students. The group work I was going to do it but after seeing another class work in groups or attempt to work in groups I think it would have worked against me. While observing a class they were arguing and not working together to do the case study and one student walked out of the class while I was supervising and I had to go talk to her outside and get her to come back in class.

She was saying how she can’t work with people and how people are stupid. I told her that if she going into the business environment it is a lot of team oriented work that has to be done and that she should get accustomed to it from now. After that little conversation she came back into class. Another student was not doing anything in the class so when I asked him what he has done so far he said nothing. I asked him “Is that what you plan to do for the rest of your life, nothing? Are you going to live off your parents for the rest of your life? How are you going to mine a family? I was just asking him questions to think about his future he watched me and then after that he started doing some work. Supervising that class was a little challenge because of trying to get them to work together. They did not work how a group supposed to work. A few people were doing the work and the others were “loafing” and that defeats the whole purpose of group activities. That was the main reason I did not want to have group work. Another challenge that I know I have to work on was my handwriting on the board, and layout of the work on the board.

At first I started writing notes on the board like I was giving a lecture and then I started putting the notes in a better layout. I plan to use the extreme left of the board to write objectives on the board and use the middle and right of the board to give notes. I prefer to give notes in point form as it is easier to read and it is faster to write. It also allows students to get clear information rather than give an entire paragraph, it is easier to give them the points and they would be better able to understand and remember the information.

Also previously I gave them handouts as my method for giving them information but most of the time those students never used the handouts, they did not read it and once I gave them it they just put it away. This term I decided to have them write it out rather than just give them the information. I would let them tell me what they know first and write it on the board even if it was wrong and then ask them to explain to try and make a link and to encourage them to answer and ask questions and make relations. After this is done the correct notes would be placed on the board and they would be told to write it down.

Overall I believe that the lesson went well, I was a bit worried at first because it was the first time I met the students and it was my first class and my practicum advisor was coming to observe me as well, I felt I started off a little shaky and then when the butterflies left I was normal once again. At a point in time I even forgot I was being observed. The only hiccup I think was the example I used with Nike and the “Battas” but from the crosstalk I heard them mention Rattans and imitation goods so I believe they got the point I was trying to bring across.

Aside from that if I had got the class to start on time I believe I would have gotten to at least start the worksheet. Reflection for the second class This class took place on Friday 19th October. The class was scheduled for the first 2 periods of the day but unfortunately I was only able to teach for one period. The school security were doing searches at the gate and this delayed me by an entire period as there were only 5 students in the class until around 9 when more kept filing in until I had about 11-15.

This lesson we were supposed to do command economies and market economies but I was only able to do features and advantages of command economies with the time I got. I thought this was good because they took some time to settle, one of the students even suggested to me to start the class with a prayer and I did. I was surprised that they would even suggest it. It seemed to me that the prayer settled them because they were behaving, taking notes, asking and answering questions.

I asked them to return the worksheet I gave them in the previous class but only two of them completed it so I told them to complete it for homework. This lesson went well also. The problem that I was having was again writing on the board. I know I have a problem with my handwriting and for that reason I bought a projector but after using it for only 2 months this year it malfunctioned and a component in the circuit board went bad leaving it useless. Aside from that there were no bad behaved students and I had to speak louder and spread out my questions more.

I was getting a lot of questions from one side of the class so my attention was focused there mostly but I did ask questions to the left side but not as much as the right and middle. This is something I would have to remedy in my future classes. The cooperating teacher told me that she would see if she could get the AV room for me for my other classes, I think that would have been a great asset to the lesson because I would not have to write on the board and the students would have an easier time understanding and be in a cooler environment more suited for learning.

Reflection for the third class My third class was on Monday 22nd October. I got to teach Mr Mustgraves Principles of Accounts class. After discussing my lesson plan with him on Friday he said it was good but he believed that I was trying to do too much for that lesson because of how the students behave and there level of motivation. So I adjusted it to suit his suggestions. The class had about 11 students out of 26 this was rather disturbing to me as I noticed a trend and I was rather worried about the students. The topic I was allowed to teach was that of Depreciation.

For this lesson I planned to teach some theory about depreciation and then go into the CXC requirements of Straight line and reducing method calculation. To start the lesson I introduced my self to the class and began with telling them about my phone. I said how much I paid for it and how long I had it for and then asked a student so tell me how much they would pay for this phone right now. I then asked another student to tell me how much they would sell their phone for and how much they paid for it. From this they started paying attention and listening to me.

As they told me why they would pay less for the phones I wrote the answers down on the board. This was done to introduce the term Depreciation and I think it was well received. From their answers I told them that the term we use to describe the reason the phone lost value was because it depreciated. From this set induction they were able to relate to me reasons an items value would be depreciated. When they gave a response I asked them to elaborate on it so as to have a better understanding so I can make it relate to the lesson.

I did not want to discourage them from answering questions so when they said something that was incorrect I asked them to explain their reasoning for it to try and get them to think more along the correct lines by using probing questions and guided questions they were able to answer the initial question I gave them. After discussing the term depreciation, they took notes on depreciation. I then told them that for their examination purposes they would only be required to know two methods of calculating depreciation which were straight line and reducing balance method.

I first told them how to calculate the straight line method but a critical mistake I made was not writing down the formula on the board. I told them what it was but I did not write it and I know that was not a good thing to do. I plan to write it on the board for the next class. While doing an example of straight line method I asked them what did they notice about the depreciation per year and they told me that it was the same. I then told them to keep that in mind.

We then did the reducing balance method and I gave them an example and calculated the first two years for them so they would see what to do on one side of the board there was the straight line calculation and on the other side of the board was the reducing balance. While working the calculation I was talking to them asking them what to do next and writing on the board. After talking to the cooperating teacher the told me that he was amazed that they could use a calculator because to press the % button on the calculator was beyond them.

I then told him well I did not write 30% in the calculations I wrote 30/100 because I assumed they would know that 30% , 30/100 and . 3 are the same in calculating a percentage of a value. So after doing this I went around and checked their books to see if they were working it out correctly, those who were doing it wrong I gave them guidance accordingly. I then asked them, spreading out my questions evenly this time, what to do next for each of the 5 years. One student told me an incorrect answer that I know could not be right because the value he gave me was larger than the initial value.

So I went over to him to see what he was doing wrong on the calculator and it seemed to me that he did not know how to calculate the percentage of a value so I showed him and he was able to continue with the calculations. I spent a lot of time giving them individual attention and I can tell that they understood. To me this is the best part of teaching, when your students understand and they want to learn. They even asked me to continue teaching them and when I would be teaching them again.

That was really heart warming to me and I really did feel motivated. I only had trouble from one student but he respected me enough to put his head down on the table and not disrupt the class when I was knocking on his table to wake him up the cooperating teacher shook his hand and signalled to leave him so I left him. When the bell rang one of the students asked me to explain something to him with regards to the profit and loss and balance sheet so I said let me go get my bag and I would be back.

I returned and explained to him the format of the trading and profit and loss account and balance sheet, another student sat next to me while I was explaining and I could tell they were interested and they were understanding what I was explaining to them. They even told me that my class was the best accounts class they had in 2 years. After the class I asked for an evaluation from the cooperating teacher and he said it was good and that he did have some issues with how I portrayed my content. He said the content was not wrong but that there were better ways to display the information and only with practice that I would know of those methods.

He said that some of the terms I used as well were not wrong but I were using it in the wrong context one of these were expense and expenditure, and costs. He said to be careful with the terms that I use to explain. Aside from these details he said my lesson was good and I felt it went well also. So to resolve the issues that came up I decided to show the depreciation in a table as Mr Mustgraves suggested and it was well received. I can understand why he said to show it in a table as it is easier to make comparisons between methods.

This was an adjustment that I made to my initial lesson. For the follow up lesson I planned to do a review of the first lesson briefly going over the calculation and why items depreciate and then practicing the calculations with them. Reflection for the 4th Class This class took place on Tuesday 23rd October. It was for the first two periods of the day and the class was to teach Principles of Business. For this class I finished the disadvantages of the command economy and did the features and advantages of the mixed economy. I did not get to do disadvantages and distribute the worksheet.

This class was good, the students were well behaved except for one or two little disruptions, which I think I handled well. One student was particularly animated and as I realised this I called him up to come and sit in front so he would not distract the other students. The objectives were not entirely met and therefore I did not want to distribute the worksheet that I had made for them. The only real problem that I can see would be the handwriting on the board. I did not get the AV room and so I had to write on the board once again. When the class was over I thanked the students for behaving good and for having me for the two weeks.

The cooperating teacher also said the lesson went well and the only issue would be to work on my hand writing. Reflection for the 5th class This class took place on Tuesday 23rd October as well. It was for the 2 periods after the break which would have been from 10 to half 11. I went to the class early to draw up the tables for the depreciation. The students said that I real serious and I just laughed. When the bell rang I started the class by greeting the class and doing a short recap of the previous lesson. I wrote the formulas on the board and drew a square around them and gave them a heading.

I told them to write it down in their books and I began working examples with them and checking their books to see if they were getting it out. The class had about 16 people on the day and so I had to give them some individual attention to bring them up to speed with the rest of the class with regards to the calculations. Some of them were having difficulty working the calculations so I needed to constantly check on them so there was a lot of walking around and individual attention. This class was mostly focused on practice as I was told that the students do not do their homework so the only practice they get is from what they do in class.

This lesson went well as I left the class feeling that the students would be able to handle calculations of straight line and reducing balance method of depreciation. I believe that the objectives that I set out to achieve were accomplished as when looking at their books and hearing their answers the content was accurate and well defined. Overall Reflection The practicum experience for this semester was very heart warming and motivating. I really felt that the students learned the content in the classroom due to the examples that they were giving and the responses to the questions that I was asking.

With a little probing questions and guiding questions the students were able to answer correctly and make valuable contributions to the class. Right now I am looking forward to going back to the school next term and hopefully preparing the Accounts class for final exams. I am really worried about the class and where they have reached in the syllabus. If I am to teach that class for the upcoming practicum they would have to cover a huge amount of work in a very short space of time this alone is enough to get any teacher worried and frustrated.

Also I am very worried about the amount of students who do not attend the class and what would happen to them when they have to write exams. I would have to listen to some words from my secondary school teacher who told us “You can’t save them all”. It seems that she was right about that. The improvements that I believe I would have to work on would be my handwriting on the board or come up with alternatives to writing on the board. I also have to work on projecting my voice as well as sometimes I forget how loud the other classrooms can be and students may not hear me properly.

I think that I have began spreading out my questions to all areas of the class and identified a few of the trouble students who might be a little disruptive. Also not setting unattainable objectives, you really have to cater your lesson for your class. Some of the little hiccups and delays can really throw off your lesson timing and how much work that you can get done for the period. Additionally I plan to start incorporating little group activities or exercises in my future lessons. I am looking forward to the next practicum experience and hope to become and even better teacher than before.

LESSON PLANS LESSON PLAN SCHOOLEl Dorado East SecondaryYEAR2012-2013TERM1 FORM4G4DURATION OF LESSON80 minutesEXAMINATION BODYCXC SUBJECTPrinciples of BusinessNO. OF STUDENTS 26AGE RANGE UNIT TOPICThe Nature of BusinessLESSON TOPIC. Economic Systems GENERAL OBJECTIVESStudents will: 1 Demonstrate knowledge of the various types of Economic Systems SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESStudents will: Cognitive Domain 1Define economy and economic system 2Describe the Traditional System 3Describe the Market System Psychomotor Domain 1Write short notes to develop note taking skills

Affective Domain 1Appreciate the significance of the various Economic Systems in Principles of Business Previous Knowledge Types of businesses, market, demand, supply TIME| ELEMENTS| CONTENT| TEACHING-LEARNING METHODS| TEACHING-LEARNING RESOURCES | TEACHER ACTIVITIES| STUDENT ACTIVITIES| EVALUATION| | Set InductionPresentation 1Summary 1Presentation 2Summary 2Presentation 3Summary 3EvaluationClosure| Short storyInform ObjectivesDefining - economy-economic systemIdentifying the 4 types of economic systemsReview of presentation 1Defining : - Traditional SystemWhat is it?

Describe life in the traditional system. Review of presentation 2 Defining-The market systemAdvantages and disadvantages of the market systemReview of presentation 3ExerciseThank students and tell them to prepare for their next class| Discussing, QuestioningDiscussingQuestioningDiscussing, informing, questioningQuestioning, discussingDiscussing, informing, questioning Questioning , DiscussingDistribute worksheet. Lesson notes, black board, black board black board black board, Lesson notes black board Lesson notes, black board, black board Lesson notes, black board, black board. Lesson notes| DiscussionWriting on black boardAsking QuestionsDiscussionAsking questions,Discussion, writing on he black boardDiscussion, askingQuestions, writing on black board Asking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black board| Listening, respondingAnsweringAskingQuestions,Respondinglisteningwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, responding| FormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeSummative|

Additional lesson notes: I was not able to do the worksheet due to the late start of the class. The work sheet was distributed to do as homework. LESSON PLAN SCHOOLEl Dorado East SecondaryYEAR2012-2013TERM1 FORM4DURATION OF LESSON90 minutesEXAMINATION BODYCXC SUBJECTPrinciples of BusinessNO. OF STUDENTS 26AGE RANGE 14-16 UNIT TOPICThe Nature of BusinessLESSON TOPIC. Economic Systems GENERAL OBJECTIVESStudents will: Demonstrate Knowledge of the various types of Economic Systems SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESStudents will: Cognitive Domain 1 Describe the Command and Mixed economic system 2 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Command economic system 3 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Mixed economic system Psychomotor Domain 1Write notes neatly in their books * Affective Domain Appreciate the significance of the various economic Systems in business Previous Knowledge Types of businesses, market, demand, supply, market system, traditional system TIME| ELEMENTS| CONTENT| TEACHING-LEARNING METHODS| TEACHING-LEARNING RESOURCES | TEACHER ACTIVITIES| STUDENT ACTIVITIES| EVALUATION| | Set InductionPresentation 1Summary 1Presentation 2Summary 2Presentation 3Summary 3EvaluationClosure| Review of Market and traditional conomiesInform ObjectivesDefining - command systemFeatures of command systemReview of presentation 1Advantages and Disadvantages of the Command SystemReview of presentation 2 Defining-The mixed systemFeatures of the mixed systemAdvantages and disadvantages of the mixed systemReview of presentation 3ExerciseWrite homework on the board, Thank students and tell them to prepare for their next class| Discussing, QuestioningDiscussingQuestioningDiscussing, informing, questioningQuestioning, discussingDiscussing, informing, questioning Questioning , DiscussingDistribute worksheet. Lesson notes, black board, black board black board black board, Lesson notes black board Lesson notes, black board, black boardlesson notes Lesson notes, black board, | DiscussionWriting on black boardAsking QuestionsDiscussionAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardDiscussion, askingQuestions, writing on black board Asking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black board| Listening, respondingAnsweringAskingQuestions,Respondinglisteningwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, responding| FormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeSummative| End of lesson notes: I was only able to teach for one period instead of two due to the bag searches at the gate delaying students to arrive to class on time. The class started at ten past nine when it was scheduled to start at nine. For this I would do the remainder of this lesson on my next teaching day which would be on Tuesday 23rd October. LESSON PLAN SCHOOLEl Dorado East SecondaryYEAR2012-2013TERM1 FORM5DURATION OF LESSON90minEXAMINATION BODYCXC SUBJECTPrinciples of AccountsNO.

OF STUDENTS 26AGE RANGE 14-17 UNIT TOPICEnd of Period AdjustmentsLESSON TOPIC. Depreciation GENERAL OBJECTIVESStudents will: Demonstrate an understanding of depreciation using conventional accounting methods SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESStudents will: Cognitive Domain 1. Define Depreciation 2. List the causes of depreciation 3. Name the factors to be considered when calculating depreciation Psychomotor Domain 1. Calculate the Depreciation using straight line method 2. Calculate Depreciation using reducing balance method Affective Domain 1. Appreciate the significance of depreciation for the use in accounting 2. Value the importance of using Straight line or Reducing balance method in accounting Previous Knowledge

TIME| ELEMENTS| CONTENT| TEACHING-LEARNING METHODS| TEACHING-LEARNING RESOURCES | TEACHER ACTIVITIES| STUDENT ACTIVITIES| EVALUATION| | Set InductionPresentation 1Summary 1Presentation 2Summary 2Presentation 3Summary 3EvaluationClosure| Story about phoneInform ObjectivesDefining * Depreciation * Causes of depreciation * Factors to consider when calculating depreciationReview of presentation 1CalculatingStraight Line methodReview of presentation 2 CalculatingReducing Balance MethodReview of presentation 3ExerciseWrite homework on the board, Thank students and tell them to prepare for their next class| Discussing, QuestioningDiscussingQuestioning, discussingDiscussing, informing, questioning, guidingQuestioning, discussingDiscussing, informing, questioning Questioning , DiscussingWrite exercise on board| Lesson notes, black board, black board black boardlesson notes black board, Lesson notes black boardLesson notes, black board, black board Lesson notes, black board, | DiscussionWriting on black boardAsking QuestionsDiscussionAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardDiscussion, askingQuestions, writing on black board Asking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black board| Listening, respondingAnsweringAskingQuestions,Respondinglisteningwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingAsking questions, Discussing, Responding| FormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeSummative| Additional lesson notes : I was able to complete the lesson LESSON PLAN SCHOOLEl Dorado East SecondaryYEAR2012-2013TERM1

FORM4DURATION OF LESSON90 minutesEXAMINATION BODYCXC SUBJECTPrinciples of BusinessNO. OF STUDENTS 26AGE RANGE 14-16 UNIT TOPICThe Nature of BusinessLESSON TOPIC. Economic Systems GENERAL OBJECTIVESStudents will: 1Demonstrate Knowledge of the various types of Economic Systems SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESStudents will: Cognitive Domain 4 Describe the Command and Mixed economic system 5 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Command economic system 6 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Mixed economic system Psychomotor Domain 1Write notes neatly in their books * Affective Domain 1Appreciate the significance of the various economic Systems in business Previous Knowledge

Types of businesses, market, demand, supply, market system, traditional system TIME| ELEMENTS| CONTENT| TEACHING-LEARNING METHODS| TEACHING-LEARNING RESOURCES | TEACHER ACTIVITIES| STUDENT ACTIVITIES| EVALUATION| | Set InductionPresentation 1Summary 1Presentation 2Summary 2Presentation 3Summary 3EvaluationClosure| Review of market and advantages of command economiesInform ObjectivesDisadvantages of Command EconomiesReview of presentation 1Defining-The mixed systemFeatures of the mixed systemReview of presentation 2 Advantages and disadvantages of the mixed systemReview of presentation 3ExerciseThank students and tell them to prepare for their next class| Discussing, QuestioningDiscussingQuestioningDiscussing, informing, questioningQuestioning, discussingDiscussing, informing, questioning Questioning , DiscussingDistribute worksheet. Lesson notes, black board, black board black board black board, Lesson notes black board Lesson notes, black board, black boardlesson notes Lesson notes, black board, | DiscussionWriting on black boardAsking QuestionsDiscussionAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardDiscussion, askingQuestions, writing on black board Asking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black board| Listening, respondingAnsweringAskingQuestions,Respondinglisteningwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, responding| FormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeSummative| | | | | | | | | Additional lesson notes : I was unable to complete this lesson due to the late start. I completed up to advantages of the mixed system and so the work sheet was not distributed. I plan to distribute the worksheet in my final class where the students would have all information to answer the questions correctly. LESSON PLAN SCHOOLEl Dorado East SecondaryYEAR2012-2013TERM1 FORM5DURATION OF LESSON90minEXAMINATION BODYCXC SUBJECTPrinciples of AccountsNO.

OF STUDENTS 26AGE RANGE 14-17 UNIT TOPICEnd of Period AdjustmentsLESSON TOPIC. Depreciation GENERAL OBJECTIVESStudents will: 1Demonstrate an understanding of depreciation using conventional accounting methods SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESStudents will: Cognitive Domain 1. Explain the concept of depreciation 2. Assess the factors that cause depreciation Psychomotor Domain 3. Calculate the Depreciation using straight line method 4. Calculate Depreciation using reducing balance method Affective Domain 3. Appreciate the significance of depreciation for the use in accounting 4. Value the importance of using Straight line or Reducing balance method in accounting Previous Knowledge

Fixed asset, cost, current asset, depreciation, straight line method, reducing balance method, profit, loss, salvage value TIME| ELEMENTS| CONTENT| TEACHING-LEARNING METHODS| TEACHING-LEARNING RESOURCES | TEACHER ACTIVITIES| STUDENT ACTIVITIES| EVALUATION| | Set InductionPresentation 1Summary 1Presentation 2Summary 2EvaluationClosure| Quickly review how to calculate depreciation on the board. Inform ObjectivesPractice working an example of Straight Line method and reducing balance method as a classCorrect work done in presentation 1Practice working an example of Straight Line method and reducing balance method in pairsCorrection of the exerciseWork an example individuallyCorrect exercise.

Thank students and tell them to prepare for their next class| Discussing, QuestioningWriting on the boardDiscussingQuestioningWritingQuestioning, discussingWriting on boardDiscussing, informing, questioning, guidingQuestioning, discussingWriting on boardQuestioning , DiscussingWrite exercise on board| Lesson notes, black board, black board black boardlesson notes black board, Lesson notes black boardLesson notes, black board, black board Lesson notes, black board, | DiscussionWriting on black boardAsking QuestionsDiscussionAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardDiscussion, askingQuestions, writing on black board Asking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black board| Listening, respondingAnsweringAskingQuestions,Respondinglisteningwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, responding| FormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativesummative| Additional lesson notes : I was able to complete the lesson. This lesson was a practical lesson where the students got to practice what they learned in he previous class until mastery of the content was attained. LESSON PLAN SCHOOLEl Dorado East SecondaryYEAR2012-2013TERM1 FORM4DURATION OF LESSON90 minutesEXAMINATION BODYCXC SUBJECTPrinciples of BusinessNO. OF STUDENTS 26AGE RANGE 14-16 UNIT TOPICThe Nature of BusinessLESSON TOPIC. Economic Systems GENERAL OBJECTIVESStudents will: 1Demonstrate Knowledge of the various types of Economic Systems SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESStudents will: Cognitive Domain 1 Explain the disadvantages of the Mixed economic system Psychomotor Domain 1Write notes neatly in their books * Affective Domain 1Appreciate the significance of the various economic Systems in business Previous Knowledge

Types of businesses, market, demand, supply, market system, traditional system TIME| ELEMENTS| CONTENT| TEACHING-LEARNING METHODS| TEACHING-LEARNING RESOURCES | TEACHER ACTIVITIES| STUDENT ACTIVITIES| EVALUATION| | Set InductionPresentation 1Summary 1Presentation 2Summary 2Summary 3EvaluationClosure| Review of command and features of mixed economiesInform ObjectivesDisadvantages of mixed economiesReview of presentation 1Quick Recap of all economiesReview of presentation 2 Review of presentation 3ExerciseThank students and tell them to prepare for their next class| Discussing, QuestioningDiscussingQuestioningDiscussing, informing, questioningQuestioning, discussingQuestioning , DiscussingDistribute worksheet to be done in class| Lesson notes, black board, black board black board black board, Lesson notes black board Lesson notes, black board, Lesson notes, black board, | DiscussionWriting on black boardAsking QuestionsDiscussionAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardDiscussion, askingQuestions, writing on black board Asking questions,Discussion, writing on the black boardAsking questions,Discussion, writing on the black board| Listening, respondingAnsweringAskingQuestions,Respondinglisteningwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, respondingwriting, listening, asking questions, responding| FormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeFormativeSummative| | | | | | | | |

Additional lesson notes : this would be the lesson for the class that I did not get to teach on Thursday 25th October due to the cultural programme that it had in the school. The plan for this lesson would be to finish off the last bit of content and then distribute a worksheet for the students to do in class either individually or in pairs. For the students who want to work by them self I planned to allow them to do so to allow for a smooth transition in the class and less disruptions in an already disruptive class. They would be allowed to use their resources to get the correct answers. There would be no reflection for this class as it was not actually taught. WORKSHEETS THAT WERE/WERE NOT DISTRIBUTED El Dorado East Secondary School Principles of Business Form 4 Date ______________________

Student Name (block letters)_____________________________________________________________ 1. Economy can be defined as which of the following (tick the correct answer) A. The efficient use of resources B. The inadequate distribution of wealth in a country C. The study of demand and supply D. None of the above 2. The way a country utilises its resources to meet current and future needs is also referred to as economy True/False 3. In the space provided below name the different types of economic systems ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- 4.

This system is where people provided for themselves and their families through direct production. Name the system here ________________________________________ 5. Give an example of the above system _______________________________________ 6. Name 3 of the economic activities for the above system _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

A market is defined as ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Give three features of the Market System I. _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ II. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. List three Advantages of the market system _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. List 2 disadvantages of the Market system ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. What are your thoughts on the two systems discussed in class today? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ El Dorado East Secondary School Principles of Business Form 4 Date ______________________ Student Name (block letters)_____________________________________________________________ 12. What are some other names for the command system i. Planned ii. Directed iii. Controlled a. I,iii,iii b. I and ii only c. I only d. I and iii only 13.

In a command system the government has control of all resources in the country. True/False 14. In the space provided below name 3 features of a command economic system ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- 15. Name three countries that practice the command economic system in more recent times ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16.

Give 3 advantages and 3 disadvantages of the command system ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. The mixed economic system is a system where ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. Give three features of the Mixed System ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. List three Advantages of the mixed system _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. List 2 disadvantages of the Mixed system ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 21. What are your thoughts on the two systems discussed in class today? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ POB lesson notes Lesson Notes Introduction/Set Induction Story about the four football teams which represent one of each type of economic system.

Each team has features of one of the major economic systems. Objectives Students will: Cognitive Domain 1Define economy and economic system 2Describe the Traditional System 3Describe the Market System Psychomotor Domain 1Write short notes to develop note taking skills Affective Domain 1Appreciate the significance of the various Economic Systems in Principles of Business Presentation 1 Defining Economy Economy * The efficient use of resources * The activities involved in the production and distribution of goods and services in a country or region * A countries income, products and resources and how efficiently these are being utilized to meet current and future needs

Defining Economic System * The way in which a society organizes for the production and distribution of goods and services The 4 types of economic system * Traditional or subsistence economic system * Free market or laissez-faire or capitalist economic system * The planned/command/directed economic system * Mixed economic system Summary 1 – (Formative) What does the term economy mean? * The efficient use of resources * The activities involved in the production and distribution of goods and services in a country or region * A countries income, products and resources and how efficiently these are being utilized to meet current and future needs

What do you understand by the term economic system? - The way in which a society organizes for the production and distribution of goods and services Name the 4 types of economic systems * Traditional * Command * Market * Mixed Presentation 2 Traditional system The traditional system is where people provide for them selves through direct production. Direct production is where a person satisfies his own needs by providing for him self and not depending on others to provide the good or service. Eg. Tribes, traditional Indians living off the land. Examples of these activities include hunting, fishing, gathering, skinning. Summary 2 (Formative) What is the traditional system?

Give some examples of the traditional system in the world. What are some of the traditional economic activities. Presentation 3 The Market System What is a market? * An arrangement where buyers and sellers are brought together to transact business. * A set of conditions that facilitates the exchange of goods and services or facilitates trade Market Economy * An economic system in which the open exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers takes place. * This is a hypothetical model, no country in the world that has an exclusive market economy. * There are countries where the private sector does have a controlling interest eg.

USA, Brazil, Canada, Japan, Sweden. * Other names for market economy are – capitalist or free market or laissez-faire * The Factors of production are owned and put into operation by private individuals and organizations and not government * The producer sets up his business and determines production and profit targets based on available data. * The customer has the freedom to satisfy his wants and needs. * Customers would look for high quality and low priced goods, therefore manufactures who can provide this would prosper whereas those who cannot provide this may end up falling out of business due to a lack of profits. Advantages of the Market system Manufacturers can produce what the consumers demand and consumers can buy what they want * Decision making is not controlled so there is greater decision making about what to produce * The market economy is adaptable to changes in demand. * There is a large variety of goods and services to either produce or consume * Little government intervention or a lack of it * A greater degree of competition Disadvantages * Only the highest profit margin goods would be produced because the private sector is motivated by high profit margins * Consumers can be exploited if there is little competition ( monopoly) and very little government regulations for goods or services that are necessities. Eg water, electricity * It can lead to inequalities in the society as the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. one

Evaluation (Summative) See worksheet 1 in Worksheet Section. Lesson Notes Introduction/Set Induction Review of previous class, referring back to the story of the football teams and going over the features of the command economy and market economy. Objectives Students will: Cognitive Domain: 1 Describe the Command and Mixed economic system 2 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Command economic system 3 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the Mixed economic system Psychomotor Domain 1 Write notes neatly in their books * Affective Domain 1Appreciate the significance of the various economic Systems Presentation 1 Command System Other names for the command economic system – planned economic system, directed economic system * An economic system where the government controls the factors of production * The government manages and distributes resources to the citizens. * The state decides the quantity and the type of products to produce Command system features * The state dictates the distribution of wealth * The production, price and distribution of goods and services, the employment or persons the dismissal of personnel, the payment for services rendered all rest with the state. * Eg of command economies – the Peoples Republic of China,Republic of Cuba, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea), Republic of Vietnam. Summary 1 – (Formative) What is the command system?

Give some examples of the command system in the world. Name some features of the command system Presentation 2 Advantages of command system * Reduced wastage of resources due to State making decision about what to produce and directs resources into these areas * Profits gained from state industries may be used to generate further production and expand the provision of public goods and services. Eg hospitals , welfare programs, national security * Consideration may be given to providing better working conditions for state employees * No group of individuals can force prices up because the State sets the prices and pays salaries. * Income is more evenly distributed Workers may tend to increase their efficiency because they may feel they are working for their countries and for them selves * Government intervention is high to prevent unfair practices against consumers and imbalance against firms. Disadvantages * Wastage of manpower because a lot of people is required for central planning * Conflict may arise because what the state decides with regard to production or needs may not be what the people really want * Equal treatment of unequal may take place. Eg someone who is working more efficiently than another may be getting paid the same salary which is very de-motivating. * It stifles creativity due to the lack of incentives for initiative. Production is usually ahead of demand and this may lead to waste as once the consumers need is satisfied they may not purchase a good they think is of inferior quality or unattractive. Summary 2 (Formative) Name some of the Advantages and disadvantages of the command economy Presentation 3 Mixed Economies Features * Both the government and the private sector participate in the decision making process about what to produce , how and for whom it is to be produced for. * Key services such as education, policing, health and roads and other infrastructure are provided by the government but private firms can also provide these services. * The state has productive activities through state owned corporations and nationalized industries * Private owned businesses compete with government owned business Advantages The state passes laws to protect against unfair trading practices * Both government and the private sector can cooperate in the delivery of certain services through franchising Disadvantages * Too much government regulation would dampen the free enterprise spirit * Some state owned industries are allowed to operate inefficiently resulting in wastage of resources * If the government intervenes and sets a maximum and minimum price it may be difficult to regulate due to forces of demand and supply. Summary 3 * What are some of the features of the mixed system * What are the advantages and disadvantages of the mixed system Evaluation (Summative)

See worksheet 2 in Worksheet Section. Principles of Accounts Lesson Notes Lesson Notes Introduction/Set Induction Talk about your phone and ask the question `how much would you pay for this phone`. Give them the cost price of the phone, how long ago it was bought, the features of the phone and how functional it is. ( how much scratches, falls it had for slight humour). Ask them why would they pay less for it and write the reasons they give on the board. These reasons would be categorised later on in the lesson. Objectives Students will: Cognitive Domain 1. Define Depreciation 2. List the causes of depreciation 3. Name the factors to be considered when calculating depreciation

Psychomotor Domain 1. Calculate the Depreciation using straight line method 2. Calculate Depreciation using reducing balance method Affective Domain 1. Appreciate the significance of depreciation for the use in accounting 2. Value the importance of using Straight line or Reducing balance method in accounting Presentation 1 What is depreciation The part of the original purchase price of the fixed asset consumed during its period of use by the firm. Ask what is a fixed asset Review fixed assets * Assets that are long life * Used in the business * Not used mainly for resale The amount that is deducted from the cost price. Depreciation is an expense

Depreciation is charged to the profit and loss account and would therefore reduce profit. Causes of Depreciation -Physical deterioration -Economic factors -Depletion Physical depreciation * Wear and tear * Erosion, rust, rot and decay Economic factors * Obsolescence -> comes from the word obsolete. The asset is no longer up to date and may not be used or be inefficient as compared to newer models * Inadequacy - > the asset would be inadequate for the firms use. For example when a firm upgrades or expands it might not be efficient to use a small transport truck, it would be more efficient to use a larger transport truck or have a larger fleet of vehicles. The smaller vehicles would be sold to a smaller firm. Depletion

Over the course of time a natural resource would be depleted or reduced from constant extraction. Eg natural gas, oil, mineral deposits. There are two methods used to calculate depreciation The straight line method Reducing balance method Summary 1 – (Formative) What is depreciation What are some of the causes of depreciation. What are the two methods of depreciation Presentation 2 Straight line method Called the fixed instalment method. You would have a cost price of the asset Might have a resale value of the asset Formula – cost price – resale value number of years of use eg a piece of machinery costs $50,000 it is estimated that it would be resold for 5000 at the end of 5 years.

To calculate the depreciation using the straight line method 50000-5000 = 45000 = 7000 5 5 The depreciation would be $7000 per year for 5 years If the machinery had no resale value the calculation would be Cost price / years of use 50000/5 = $10,000 per year for 5 years The straight line method depreciates an asset for the same amount every year. Summary 2 (Formative) Calculate the depreciation on an asset costing 100000 for 5 years. The resale value is estimated at 10000. Use the straight line method to calculate the depreciation. Presentation 3 Reducing balance method Depreciates an asset by a reducing amount each year by a percentage. Also known as the diminishing balance method. Eg

Cost price 20000 Depreciation (20%)20% of 20000 = 4000 Value of asset after one year = cost price – depreciation = 16000 Depreciation for second year = value of asset – depreciation Value of asset after first year = 16000 Depreciation (20%)= 20/100 * 16000 = 3200 Value of asset after second year = 16000-3200 = 12800 Value of asset for third year = current value of asset – depreciation Value of asset = 12800 Depreciation (20%) = . 2 * 12800 = 2560 Value of asset = 12800-2560 = 10240 Value of asset for forth year = current value of asset – depreciation Value of asset = 10240 Depreciation = . 2 * 10240 = 2048 Value of asset = 10240-2048 = 8192

Value of asset for 5th year = current value of asset – depreciation Value of asset = 8192 Depreciation = . 2 * 8192 Value of asset = 8192- 1638. 4 = 6553. 60 Once an asset has been depreciated for its full life its book value and resale value should be equal. * Give this if they are getting it out quickly To calculate the depreciation per month you would have to calculate the depreciation per year and then divide that value by 12 to calculate the depreciation per month. Calculate the following Using reducing balance method and straight line method calculate the depreciation for 4 years on an asset costing 10000 and the depreciation is 40% per annum. Principles of Business Scheme of Work

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