Practice Test #3

most important detail of Wundt’s early research that established psychology as a science
he set up a laboratory and focused on empirical evidence that could be replicated
Behavior is a result of the combination of reinforcers and punishers
B.F. Skinner
Choosing 20 people at random from 400 person class is an example of?
random sampling
which technique controls for both experimenter bias and subject bias
double blind study
damage to the occipital lobe would affect which sense
sight
a medication for depression would affect what neurotransmitter?
serotonin
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doctor examining a car crash victim would use this brain scan
MRI
physiological reactions to surprise or shocks are most controlled by which of the following parts of the nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
children who suffer brain damage may be able to regain their physical and mental abilities more quickly than older due to what property
brain plasticity
brain scan that would prove that people only use 10 percent of their brains
PET
structure in the eye most responsible for vision
cones
human senses can be divided into these two major categories based on what the senses gather from the outside world
energy and chemical
turning up the volume on a music player changes what
amplitude of the wave
research study established that most people can taste one gram of salt in one quart of water. concept that is most closely related to the goal?
absolute threshold
musician’s ability to make a distinction between two very similar pitches depends on this
difference threshold
ability to perceive depth depends primarily on what other abilities
monocular and binocular cues
REM sleep deprivation causes
interference with memory tasks
two competing theories explain the effects of hypnosis
role theory and dissociation theory
first step in CC
pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus
A+ is what kind of reinforcer
secondary
researcher who concludes that people who watch graphic violence in films are more likely to behave in violent ways than people who don’t are researching this kind of learning
observational
three-box model, the first place memories are stored
sensory memory
memories may be physically stored in the brain through strengthened connections between brain neurons. process called?
long term potentation
most mnemonic devices are examples of which memory enhancement technique
chunking
seeing someone and remembering her name is an example of what retrieval
recall
most likely to lead to a constructed memory
leading questions
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theorizes that each person is motivated by
satisfying needs from the next step in the hierarchy
brain structure most involved in hunger motivation
hypothalamus
kind of motivation that encourages positive behaviors to persist over long periods of time
intrinsic motivation
researcher tests the problem solving skills of twenty 10 y/o, 20 y/o, 30 y/o participants in a study. what research method is this?
cross-sectional
newborn reflexes that help infants find and eat food
rooting
Ainsworth placed babies into a strange situation. What developmental concept was she studying?
attachment
Piaget would test this in order to determine whether a child is in the pre-operational or concrete stage of cognitive development
concepts of conservation
the dominant factor determining our personality traits according to Freud
unconscious conflicts
developmental theory that explained who experiences in each stage of life influence personality characteristics
Erikson’s psychosexual stage theory
common way to categorize personality traits
Big Five
pencil and paper personality test that places a person in one of several categories based on which theory
trait
important technique used by Maslow and humanistic psychologists during therapy
unconditional positive regard
kind of personality theorist that uses projective test
behaviorists
achievement test
classroom test over a chapter in a textbook
kind of intelligence that holds ability to solve a new computer game based on logical puzzles
fluid intelligence
IQ tests
standardized
person with flashbacks/nightmares after accident is going to be diagnosed with which kind of psychological disorder?
anxiety disorder
kind of symptom common among somatoform disorders
experiencing a physical problem without a physical cause
psychogenic amnesia and fugue states are an indication of this disorder
dissociative
major depression sufferers have low levels of which neurotransmitters
serotonin
difference between person diagnosed with schizophrenia and dissociative disorder
schizophrenic will have hallucinations
principal tool in psychotherapy
talking to a patient
why psychoanalysts were interested in talking with a patient about their dreams
some psychoanalysts believe that dream symbols represent unconscious conflicts
this kind of therapy would be used by a somatic therapist
chemotherapy
no longer used to treat patients
prefrontal lobotomy
therapist that would prescribe lithium for a patient diagnosed with bipolar disorder
psychiatrist
nonprofit gives address labels asking for contributions. which psychological principle are they using
compliance strategy
math teacher refuses to look at the grades her students received in the past. what effect is she trying to avoid?
self-fulfilling prophecy
factors that are ignored or de-emphasized when people commit the fundamental attribution error
situational
social psychological principle that best explains prejudice
in-group bias
Robbers Cave study proves this helps reduce tensions between groups
superordinate goals
milgram’s obedience study was criticized based on what ethical grounds
risk of psychological harm
what makes the psychoanalytic perspective different from others
it focuses on the conscious mind
if a distribution of scores includes one or more outliers, which of the following measures of central tendency should be used
median
researcher needs this to determine if the difference between the mean scores of experimental and control groups are significant
inferential
how neurons communicate
chemicals travel from one neuron to another, influencing whether a neuron will fire or not
someone with brain damage who has difficulty making the muscle movements needed to produce accurate speech might have damage to this area
broca’s area
located at the most central and protected part of the brain
medulla
case study of Phineas Gage was significant because
it was one of the first well documented examples of a specific brain area being associated with a set of physical and emotional changes
artist doing a pencil drawing could use which of the following to add depth?
linear perspective
Pavlov’s dogs begin to salivate whenever they hear any sound similar to a bell
generalization
Garcia and Keolling’s studies about learned aversion established that this UCS + CS pair is the most powerful
nausea and food/drink
why might a researcher use a variable ratio rather than fixed
they’re more resistant to extinction
knowledge of different categories of trees and where they grow best is an example of what kind of long-term memory?
semantic memory
implicit memory
remembering how to tie a tie
influences sexual orientation
hormones released in the womb
teacher believes all students want to learn and creates a classroom culture that encourages this intrinsic motivation
theory Y
impacts the speed of motor development the most
myelination of brain neurons
important difference between authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles
authoritative parents set and enforce rules but explain the reasoning behind the rules
useful in a study testing Kohlberg’s concepts of pre and post conventional stages
should someone tell a lie in order to prevent someone’s feelings from being hurt?
common criticism of Freud
not tested scientifically
Fred fails an important exam and reacts by studying more and socializing less. He has this locus of control
internal
Psychometrician interpreting an IQ score of 145
3 std devs above average of 100
most complete list of the common characteristics of psychological disorders
maladaptive, unusual, disturbing, irrational
Key factor that differentiates depression from sadness
longer than two weeks w/o major cause
most helpful in avoiding groupthink problems
encouraging contrary opinions
increased conformity in Asch’s studies
size of the group
patient is advises a patient to write about his depressed thoughts and is prescribed an antidepressant. being treated in what way
cognitive and biophysical
experiments can determine causal relationships because
they isolate the effects of independent variables on dependent variables
research method used to test this hypothesis: people who conserve energy by buying hybrid cars are more likely to spend money on organic foods
correlation
person suffering from skin rash gets relief from scratching the rash, what explains the temp relief?
gate control theory
difference between classical and operant conditioning
classical conditioning is pairing stimuli and operant is pairing a response with a stimulus
major difference between negative reinforcement and punishment
punishments decrease the frequency and neg. rein. increase it
withdrawal symptoms are most directly caused by
tolerance
chomsky and skinner disagreed about how children acquire language. this concept is relevant to the differences in their theories
language acquisition device
research participant eats half a bowl of m&ms then stops eating, drive reduction theory explains this how?
primary drive motivated the person to eat and then stop when they gained homeostasis
best summary of Schacter’s two factor theory
combo of psychological changes and our cognitive interpretations combined to produce emotional experiences
Piaget would describe the process of learning something new using terminology from his cog devel theory
changing schemas through accomodation
Bandura and social cog personality theorists believe that personality results from the interaction of these factors
traits, environment and behavior
personality test tells a person she’s an extrovert first time and introvert next time
low test retest reliability
relationship between reliability and validity
a test can be reliable not valid
purpose of DSM
list diagnoses and symptoms so psychologists can make diagnoses
therapy that involves both behavioral and cognitive interventions
systematic desensitization

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