Practice Test #1

Which of the following is an example of an empirical question?
“Will you get an A in this class?”
While Margaret Floy Washburn may have been the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in the
United States (in 1894), the first African-American woman to do so was ________ in 1934 at the
Ruth Howard
Humanist Abraham Maslow suggests that when people reach self-actualization, they:
develop to their fullest potential
A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict ________ if the direction of the relationship is known.
the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of
alcoholic drinks consumed
Vido has a master’s degree and is interested in working on the causes of poverty. What type of
professional is Vido most likely to become?
psychiatric social worker
A good control group ________.
holds constant all variables in the experiment
. Shorey (2001) found that the brutal death of a Somolian prisoner in a Canadian military facility could
have been prevented. One reason the beating was not stopped was the ________.
bystander effect
. Professor Beverly approaches questions about human behavior from a perspective that emphasizes
bodily events and chemicals, such as hormones, associated with behavior. It is most likely that she
accepts which of the following psychological approaches?
Systematically collecting data in real-world environments is the essence of which descriptive research
naturalistic observation
A case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics?
the development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis
Testing a hypothesis is the third step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which goal
of psychology?
Which of the following is CORRECT concerning random assignment?
. In random assignment, each participant has an equal chance for each condition
The structuralists were important in the history of psychology because they:
examined consciousness and the structure of mental processes.
Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method?
Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?
Sandi believes that people who eat at McDonald’s are overweight, so she decides to do a naturalistic
observation of people who eat at McDonald’s. What should most concern us about Sandi’s
observer bias
test link
A correlation coefficient represents two things: ________ and ________.
strength; direction of the relationshi
Ken is planning on studying the influence of intelligence on the ability to recall events from the
1960s. If Ken does not account for variables such as age, which could also influence one’s ability to recall
these events, age could be considered a(n) ________.
confounding variable
The question “When will it happen again?” refers to which of the following goals in psychology?
In studying the bystander effect, a researcher is interested in looking at differences between prison
guards in China and the United Kingdom. The researcher is taking a ________ perspective in this crosscultural
Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology?
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
. If you are interested in how patterns, beliefs, and customs influence behavior, you are interested in
the ________ perspective.
The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one’s behavior is part of what early field of
When you watch dogs play in the park, or watch how your professors conduct their classes, you are
engaging in a form of ________.
naturalistic observation
In a laboratory, smokers are asked to “drive” using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a
stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible
on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette
immediately before climbing into the driver’s seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You
are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent
variable is ________.
the number of collisions
Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological
Association EXCEPT ________.
participants cannot be deceived or have information concealed from them at any time
during an experiment
. A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This
psychologist is most interested in the goal of ________.
Which topic would NOT be investigated by a psychologist if the definition of psychology were limited
to “the science of behavior”?
thought processes students used while trying to answer this question
Which pair of scientists shared the most similar views of behavior?
Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson
The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. “I’ll take Specialties in Psychology for
$300.” The revealed answer is, “These psychological professionals work with situations in which
environmental conditions may have an impact on mental health.” Just before the buzzer sounds, what
will you say?
“What is a psychiatric social worker?”
Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores, it was decided that she
would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?
predicting behavior
Perceiving the question is the first step in a scientific investigation. This step is derived from which
goal of psychology?
A perfect correlation, whether positive or negative, is _____________ in the real world.
. A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun
control. Which research technique is being used?
The magazine Desperate Wives publishes a survey of its female readers called “The Sex Life of the
American Wife.” It reports that 87 percent of all wives like to make love in rubber boots. The critical flaw
in this research would be _________.
the fact that the sample is not representative of American wives
Which psychologist was the first African-American to receive a Ph.D. in educational psychology from
the University of Chicago in 1925?
Charles Henry Thompson
The school of behaviorism attempted to explain behavior by studying:
how a specific stimulus evokes a specific response.
According to present research on psychologists, thirty-four percent are in the ________ subfield of
In the definition of psychology, the term mental processes refers to ________.
internal, covert activities
In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down thought processes into their
basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. What term might we use to describe
psychologists with similar interests today?
Which of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological
Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision.
Which of the following is an empirical question?
“Is there life on other planets?”
A group of randomly selected subjects for a study that matches the population on important
characteristics such as age and sex is called ________.
a representative sample
A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and
dependent variables in this experiment?
The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise.
Several years ago, two scientists announced that they had evidence of “cold fusion” in the
laboratory, but further studies failed to replicate their findings, and it was later found that the original
scientists had used sloppy methods. This highlights which of the following critical thinking principles?
All evidence is not equal in quality.
A correlation coefficient shows that smoking and life expectancy are indeed related. As a result, a
researcher could predict that ________ if the direction of the relationship is known.
. the person’s life expectancy will go up or down based on the number of cigarettes the
person smokes daily
Freud said phobias were ________ whereas Watson said phobias were ________.
. repressed conflicts; learned
Double-blind studies control for ________.
both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect
. The emerging field of brain imagery in cognitive neuroscience has developed methods, such as MRI,
to examine ________.
. images of the living brain
. A negative correlation means that ________.
high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other
Freud stressed the importance of ________.
early childhood experiences
You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods
often “fails to generalize.” Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion?
case study
Which founding contributors to psychology helped develop behaviorism?
Watson and Pavlov
Adaris has always been drawn to the saying “Absence makes the heart grow fonder,” and she
decides to incorporate this saying into her research project. Adaris is trying to define absence in a way
that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate ________.
operational definition

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