B and C are devoted to studying the way people relate to others and the unique attributes of a person. neither field focuses on one’s thought process. D deals with long-lasting changes in behavior, usually through experience. E is the experience of a meaningful pattern of a stimulus
Not B because Wundt is associated with structuralism. Not C because Watson is associated with behaviorism.
Not D because Freud is associated with psychoanalysis. Not E because Wertheimer is associated with Gestalt.
Unlike choices B, C, D and E, behaviorism was the first field to study psychology in an observable and measurable manner.
A)The study of animal instinct
B)The study of child development
C)The study of abnormal behavior
D)The study of a variety of theories within the field
E)The study of the human brain and the central nervous system
A)rewards and punishments
B)Self-esteem and self-actualization
C)Biology and genetics
D)Internal conflict and unconscious desires
E)Sensation and Perception
A, rewards and punishments, is based on behaviorism. B self esteem and self-actualization, is based on humanism.
A)it did not take into account voluntary human behavior
B)It was unethical to use dogs in a psychology experiment
C)It did not take into account involuntary behavior
D)The findings overlapped with other fields of psychology
E)It did not relate to human behavior
This explanation negates choice C. D and E are irrelevant to this question.
John Watson was behaviorist
William James studied functionalism
Max Wertheimer studied Gestalt
Sigmund Freud studied psychoanalysis
Choice A focuses on an individual’s thought process or perception. Choices B and C were both schools of thought that focused on introspection. Psychoanalysis emphasized the strength of the unconscious.
A)Structuralists analyze all mental elements, while functionalists analyze only some elements.
B)Structuralists believe all behaviors stem from the evolutionary process.
C)Structuralists wish to divide the mind into mental elements while functionalists believe behavior helps an organism adapt to the environment
D)Only functionalists believe n the importance of introspection
E)Structuralists try to manipulate the mind in order to understand behavior, while functionalists study the conscious mind to understand behavior.
A is too vague and inaccurate to be the correct answer. B does not represent either structuralism or functionalism. D is incorrect because both structuralism and functionalism used introspection as a means of determining human behavior. Once again, choice E is not using accurate information to define either structuralism or functionalism.
A is not correct because it focuses on the process of thinking, perception and attention to details of language and problem-solving. Cognition does not emphasize the human experience. B is incorrect because it focuses on complex mental elements. C is incorrect because it is based on relationships, stimulus-response, and rewards and punishments. D is incorrect because they examined mental processes, not human experience.
B is incorrect because humanism emphasizes one’s present and future, not one’s past. C is incorrect because it works on changing the client’s way of thinking, again not placing much emphasis on the past. D is incorrect because it simply means using several different approaches of psychology. E is incorrect because it tries to identify negative behaviors and eliminate the through such means as systematic desensitization.
A)Free will and self-actualization
B)Experiments in controlled settings
C)The collective unconscious
D)Thoughts, impulses and desires beyond the conscious being
Choice A, free will and self actualization, refers to humanism. B refers to experimental psychology. C refers to part of Carl Jung’s theory of personality development.
A)The conscious experiences of an infant
B)The manner in which a child develops the ability to speak, learn and understand the world around him or her
C)The mental process that helps a young person adapt to his or her environment
D)The identification of one’s environment and response to the environment
E)Experiments that emphasize actual behavior, rather than controlled settings
Choice A is too vague to be the correct answer. C is incorrect because mental process refers to cognitive psychology, not developmental psychology. D and E are incorrect because they do not answer the question.
A)The study of natural, unanalyzed behavior
B)The process of thinking and memory
C)The study of psychological mental health
D)The study of language and development
E)The process of consistent patterns and organized sets.
A)Aggression and sexual behavior
B)Depression and anxiety
C)Genetics and the nervous system
Choices B and D are incorrect because biological psychologists do not study the mind or life experiences. Choice E may appear to be correct, but the question is asking what the term biological psychology refers to, which is not drug treatment.
A)A primary tool for investigation into a client’s unconscious through dream analysis and free association
B) A study done over an entire life span of one individual, giving the psychologist detailed information of one’s psyche
C)A study that exposes the subject to some event and measures coping skills
D)An independent study used outside the natural environment of the subject
E)A comparative study of various people of different ages at the same time.
Choice B defines a longitudinal study. Choice E defines a cross-sectional study. Choices C and D do not define any type of study.
Unlike correlation research, experimental research offers the opportunity to draw conclusions because of the strict control of variables.
A) A sample in which each potential participant has an equal chance of being selected
B)A sample that is carefully chosen so the characteristics of participants correspond to the larger population
C)A selection of cases from a larger population
D)A selection of cases from the control group
E)A sample of a larger population from the experimental group
Choices B defines representative sample. Choice C defines the term sample, not random sample. Choices D and E do not accurately define random sample.
A)Expectations by the experimenter that can influence the results of an experiment
B)The change in the results of an experiment when it is “blind” versus “double blind”
C)The idea that people will alter their behavior because of the researcher’s attention and not because of actual treatment
D)Specific, testable predictions derived from a theory
E)The idea that subjects in an experiment will lie if the researcher tells them to.
Choice A is incorrect because the Hawthorne effect focuses on the researcher’s attention, not expectations. Choice B refers to the researcher’s bias and change of behavior, not the subject’s.
A)Where the experiment takes place
B)How hungry the mice were before the experiment
C)How fast the mice are before the race
D)When the experiment takes place
E)The population from which he selected the mice
A)Studying improves a student’s grade on a final exam
B)A relationship exists between studying and exam grades
C)A significant relationship exists between studying and grades
D)Students who do not study for final exams will not do well on those exams
E)Students with higher IQs tend to study more than those with lower IQs
Correlational research does not allow the researcher to draw conclusions. Surveys simply allow the researcher to gather an immense amount of data in a short period of time.
C)John B. Watson
Though there is some dispute in the literature, Wundt is credited by most as starting the first lab in psychology in 1879. This is mostly because Wundt began training his first graduate student that year.
The cognitive approach would most likely look at how adults process information. It attempts to understand human behavior by examining the ways that people process information in order to deal with the stimuli they encounter in the world.
Rene Descartes was very concerned with the mind-body problem. In fact, it consumed much of his energy as he tried to wrestle with this debate. The issue, by the way, continues to be of interest to psychologists.
A)Behavioral psychology deals with reinforcement and punishment, while cognitive psychology deals with information processing
B)Cognitive psychology focuses only on observable behavior, while behavioral psychology focuses on internal processes
C)Both focus on observable behavior; there is no difference
D)Cognitive psychology focuses only on the ego, while behavioral focuses on the id
E)Behavioral psychology focuses on the superego, while cognitive psychology focuses on the ego
Note the similarity among the answer choices; this is a common format on the AP exam, so be careful that you are selecting the one that you intend
Humanistic psychologists would be concerned with the idea that people strive toward self-actualization. In fact, they state the development of self-actualization as a goal of human behavior.
“The role of the endocrine system as a secondary transmitter” is a biological process of the endocrine system. Therefore, the only appropriate type of psychology would be biological psychology.
All the areas mentioned are valid in psychology. The key is to know that Wundt’s early approach was most concerned with determining the STRUCTURE of consciousness. To do that, people had to describe their consciousness. That is introspection.
Both Watson and Skinner were behaviorists and as such, were concerned with understanding the roe of the environment on behavior. They, like Locke, believed that children are born with no knowledge and all they know is acquired from the environment.
“The role of imagery in memory processes” would be written by a cognitive psychologist. The definition of the cognitive approach centers on the notion that to understand behavior we need to understand the way humans process information. Memory is one of the key concepts in this area.
William James and Wilhelm Wundt disagreed on how to study humans. Wundt believed we should study the structure of consciousness while James believed we should study the function. Hence, his area is called functionalism.
Titchener was one of Wundt’ most famous students and he was enormously influential in developing a lab at Cornell. this is one of those questions you just have to know.
This is a tough question. All of the mentioned areas of psychology are concerned with the environment, yet behavioral psychologists are most concerned with it. They argue that nothing else influences behavior the way the environment.
Positive psychology has emerged recently as a reconceptualization of humanism.
According to operant conditioning, the consequences of behavior are the biggest predictors of whether or not a behavior reoccurs. If we do not control the consequences, we do not control behavior.
Humanists are concerned with free will, while the other areas of psychology do not emphasize it or do not believe it exists.
Freud’s approach was groundbreaking in that he attempted to explain all of human behavior using one unifying theory.
Locke is famous for many of his thoughts, though he is most well-known for arguing one thing-that people are born as blank slates, and experience is written on them. That, then, goes on to determining behavior.
Cognitive psychologists argue that by using creative research techniques, we can study memory well.
Plato and Socrates were both nativists and argued that we are born with all the knowledge that we need. We spend our lives trying to “discover” what we already know.
Watson and Rayner designed a study to demonstrate that children learn “fear” from a variety of experiences they have when they are young.
A)Personality is the result of our reinforcement history
B)Personality is learned from our parents by being around them
C)Personality is the result of our shared evolutionary history with all those that came before us
E)Personality is the result of unconscious drives or conflicts that we need to resolve
Freud believed that personality is formed fro the unconscious drives or conflicts we need to resolve. Someone who subscribed to learning theory would say that it is formed from our reinforcement history, and someone who subscribed to trait theories would say it is formed by being around our parents
A learning theorist would believe this statement. He would believe that we are born as a blank slate. Experience is the key. Trait theorists believe we are born with traits form our parents; psychodynamic theorists believe that we carry trauma from birth in our conscious; cognitive theorists are also called trait theorists; and humanistic psychologists believe that we are all born inherently good.
Rogers championed the humanistic approach of personality. Learning perspective is similar to the theory of Skinner; trait theory is associated with Kelley; and neo-Freudians are psychologists like Carl Jung.
Rogers believed we are born as good, capable, caring people, and when we experience anxiety, we need to be reminded of that. People strive toward perfection and much of our behavior is designed toward the goal of self-actualization. This describes humanistic psychology.
The use of the word REWARDED should be the clue. Learning theorists argue that we learn behavior patterns by what has essentially worked in the past. If we have been rewarded for a behavior in the past, we are likely to repeat that behavior in the future.
A)We are all inherently good
B)We are all inherently bad
C)We are born a blank
D)We are born with genes that determine who we become
E)We are born with genes that give us potential, but our experience really determines who we become
The humanistic theory claims that we are all inherently good. That we are inherently bad is not a perspective held by psychologists. That we are born with genes that give us potential only is a belief that was held by many developmental psychologists who subscribe to the theory of behavior genetics.
D)Levels of processing
E)General adaptation syndrome
the term used by Rogers and others is self-actualization. This idea that we are striving toward perfection. The other terms are not used in personality psychology
A)Previous learning history
C)The traits we have
D)Need for achievement
According to learning theory, we are products of our environment. We act the way we do because in the past, we were reinforced for certain behaviors, and punished (or not reinforced) for competing behaviors.
Skinner could be considered a proponent of learning theory. Freud supported psychodynamic theory and Jung as well. Rogers and Maslow were both proponents of humanistic/phenomenological theories of personality.
Rogers supported the humanistic view of personality. Kelley was a proponent of trait theory, and Wundt was not a personality psychologist.