Practice Questions Chapter 6

Which are uses of qualitative research methods? (Select all that apply.)
Guiding nursing practice
Studying effects of nursing care on outcome variables
Developing survey instruments
Developing nursing theory
Guiding nursing practice
Developing survey instruments
Developing nursing theory
Scientific criteria appropriate for qualitative research include what? (Select all that apply.)
Auditability
Credibility
Fittingness
Reliability
Auditability
Fittingness
What can computer programs do for qualitative researchers? (Select all that apply.)
Code and retrieve data
Connect themes and categories
Incorporate graphics into reports
Analyze data
Code and retrieve data
Connect themes and categories
Incorporate graphics into reports
Which are ethical concerns for qualitative researchers? (Select all that apply.)
Because the study emerges over time, the researcher may not anticipate and inform the participants of a potential threat.
To maintain a naturalistic environment for interviews, formal documents such as consent forms are not used.
Because there are so few participants in a qualitative study, no participant can opt out of the study.
Because the researcher and participant interact over a period of time, relationships developed between them may change the focus of the interaction.
Because the study emerges over time, the researcher may not anticipate and inform the participants of a potential threat.

Because the researcher and participant interact over a period of time, relationships developed between them may change the focus of the interaction.

Which research method can be used for the purpose of understanding and constructing the meaning of human experience?
Phenomenological method
Grounded-theory method
Ethnographic method
Case study method
Phenomenological method
What is the research method that should be used to study the peculiarities and commonalities of a specific type of patient?
Phenomenological method
Grounded-theory method
Ethnographic method
Case study method
Case study method
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The nurse researcher is weighing the strengths and weaknesses of the phenomenological method. The nurse recognizes that the phenomenological method is what?
Cultural groups or systems
Construction of a theory
The lived experience
Understanding the past
The lived experience
The nurse researcher has chosen to bracket his or her beliefs. This means that the researcher plans to do what?
To attempt to understand the beliefs while collecting data
To analyze the beliefs for congruence with the research method
To categorize the beliefs according to abstraction
To set the beliefs aside while collecting data
To set the beliefs aside while collecting data
The phenomenological researcher knows to stop interviewing participants at which point?
When there is sufficient information to create themes
When ideas that are surfacing have been heard in other interviews
When subjects verify the accuracy of the data collected
When subjects have all been interviewed more than on
When ideas that are surfacing have been heard in other interviews
The nurse researcher is reviewing the advantages of the grounded-theory method. The nurse recognizes that which statement is true regarding the grounded-theory method?
It collects data using an etic perspective.
It is a process of constructing human experience.
It may use secondary sources.
It is an inductive approach.
It is an inductive approach.
The nurse researcher has chosen to code and cluster data for categories using the grounded-theory method. The researcher is using what?
Theoretical sampling
Constant-comparative method
Emic method
Metasynthesis
Constant-comparative method
What is a characteristic of an intrinsic case study?
It yields a better understanding of each case.
It provides a foundation to challenge a generalization.
It does not include quantitative data.
It can scrutinize only uncomplicated phenomena.
It yields a better understanding of each case.
The nurse researcher is concerned about the ethics of failing to inform study participants of all possible threats before they choose to participate. This characteristic is usually known as what?
Naturalistic setting
Emergent nature of design
Researcher-participant interaction
Researcher as instrument
Emergent nature of design
A nurse studies the problem of teenage pregnancy in the local community with the goal of preventing unwanted teenage pregnancy in the future. Which research method would be most appropriate for this study?
Historical research method
Case-study method
Community-based participatory method
Ethnographic method
Community-based participatory method
What would be a serious ethical obligation for a qualitative researcher?
To test the reliability and validity of interview instruments
To acknowledge personal biases
To avoid becoming a therapist
To maintain the anonymity of the participant
To acknowledge personal biases
The nurse researcher opts to use metasynthesis for which reason?
It is useful for triangulating research.
It synthesizes critical masses of qualitative findings.
It is not frequently used on historical or case study findings.
It leads to a higher reliability of research findings.
t synthesizes critical masses of qualitative findings
The nurse researcher is concerned about the “fittingness” of a research study. The researcher recognizes that this term is concerned with what?
Truth of findings as judged by the participants
The appropriateness of the interview questions posed
Faithfulness to everyday reality of the participants
The adequacy of the coding system used
Faithfulness to everyday reality of the participant
The nurse researcher is planning on using participant observation as the major method of gathering data in the study. The researcher is concerned about the ethics of not having consent forms signed in such cases. Such a characteristic of qualitative research is known as what?
Naturalistic setting
Emergent nature of design
Researcher-participant interaction
Researcher as instrument
Naturalistic setting
The qualitative nurse researcher who is concerned about the ethics of a naturalistic setting being used most likely is using what type of technique for data gathering in the study?
Electronic survey
Review of historical records
Participant observation
Case study
Participant observation
The nurse researcher is planning on using participant observation as the major method of gathering data in the study. The researcher is concerned about the ethics of not having consent forms signed in such cases. Such a characteristic of qualitative research is known as what?
Naturalistic setting
Emergent nature of design
Researcher-participant interaction
Researcher as instrument
Which of the following best describe the term themes? (Select all that apply.)
A theme is a label.
Themes must be determined before data analysis.
Themes describe large quantities of data in a condensed format.
Themes predict relationships among variables.
A theme is a label.

Themes describe large quantities of data in a condensed format.

Which of the following are aims of qualitative research? (Select all that apply.)
To understand phenomena
To predict phenomena
To control phenomena
To explain phenomena
To understand phenomena
To explain phenomena
3.
How can qualitative outcome analysis be used? (Select all that apply.)
To determine the reliability of intervention outcomes in a study
To confirm the applicability of clinical strategies
To develop interventions and then test those selected
To build theory
To confirm the applicability of clinical strategies
To develop interventions and then test those selected
To build theory
4.
What is included in the measure of rigor in qualitative research? (Select all that apply.)
Credibility
Reliability
Auditability
Fittingness
Credibility
Auditability
Which of the following is an emic view of a phenomenon?
The researcher was surprised by the degree of emotion being expressed.
The cancer patient was fearful of dying before her children reached adulthood.
Many people responded to the survey.
Data analysis revealed seven categories of the construct “hope.”
The cancer patient was fearful of dying before her children reached adulthood
Why is it essential to include quotes in the report of a qualitative research study?
To demonstrate trustworthiness
Engage the reader
Allow other researchers to replicate the study
Give credit to the participants
To demonstrate trustworthiness
f a qualitative researcher studies the meaning of health to migrant farm worker women, how could these findings be applied?
To participants of the study
To poor and disenfranchised women
To migrating populations
To migrant farm worker women
To migrating populations
Qualitative outcome analysis yields evidence at what level?
I
III
V
VII
V
Why are instruments that were developed using qualitative research useful?
They tend to be more reliable tools.
They are grounded in human experience.
They are already directly linked to nursing practice.
They are created using the language of the target population.
They are grounded in human experience.
What is member checking?
A way to obtain auditability
A constant comparative method of data analysis
A process of asking participants to review the data as they are reported
The method of leaving an audit trail
A process of asking participants to review the data as they are reported
The researcher should include enough information in the report to allow the reader to understand how the raw data lead to the interpretation. What does this demonstrate?
Credibility
Reliability
Auditability
Fittingness
Auditability
The researcher provides enough detail in a qualitative research report for the reader to evaluate the relevance of the data to nursing practice. What is the researcher demonstrating?
Credibility
Reliability
Auditability
Fittingness
Fittingness
n qualitative research, how is confirmability established?
By development of the audit trail
By the logical development of ideas
Through the constant comparative method
By the transferability of the data
By development of the audit trail
5.
Which question is helpful in determining the study’s credibility?
Do the participants recognize the experience as their own?
What strategies were used to analyze the data?
How were human subjects protected?
Are the findings applicable outside the study situation?
Do the participants recognize the experience as their own?
Which critiquing criterion would be applicable to both experimental and quasi-experimental designs?
Are all threats to study validity, including mortality, addressed in the report?
How are randomization, control, and manipulation applied?
Is the design pragmatic for the setting or sample?
What are the most common threats to the study validity of the findings of this design?
Is the design pragmatic for the setting or sample?
Which critiquing criterion would be applicable to an experimental design?
Are all threats to study validity, including mortality, addressed in the report?
Is there a description of power analysis?
Is the design pragmatic for the setting or sample?
What are the most common threats to the study validity of the findings of this design?
Are all threats to study validity, including mortality, addressed in the report?
Which critiquing criterion would be applicable to a quasi-experimental design?
Are all threats to study validity, including mortality, addressed in the report?
Is there a description of power analysis?
Is the design pragmatic for the setting or sample?
What are the most common threats to the study validity of the findings of this design?
What are the most common threats to the study validity of the findings of this design?
Which critiquing criterion would be applicable to an experimental design?
What are the plausible alternative explanations, and have they been addressed?
Are the findings generalizable to the larger population of interest?
Is the design pragmatic for the setting or sample?
What does the author say about the limitations of the study?
Are the findings generalizable to the larger population of interest?
The nurse researcher needs to critique an experimental research design. Which criterion would be most appropriate?
Is there a description of what the intervention group vs. control group received and what are the differences?
How are randomization, control, and manipulation applied?
Is there a detailed description of the intervention?
Are the author’s explanations of threats to study validity acceptable?
How are randomization, control, and manipulation applied?
The nurse researcher needs to critique a quasi-experimental research design. Which criterion would be most appropriate?
Is there a description of what the intervention group vs. control group received and what the differences are?
How are randomization, control, and manipulation applied?
Is there a detailed description of the intervention?
Are the author’s explanations of threats to study validity acceptable?
Are the author’s explanations of threats to study validity acceptable?
When critiquing a qualitative study, which of the following questions are helpful in determining the study’s auditability? (Select all that apply.)
Has adequate time been allowed to understand the phenomenon fully?
Can the reader follow the researcher’s thinking?
Are the results meaningful to individuals not involved in the research?
Does the researcher document the research process?
Are the results meaningful to individuals not involved in the research?
Does the researcher document the research process?
What type of research design would apply to an after-only design?
Experimental
Nonexperimental
Quasiexperimental
Both experimental and quasiexperimental
Experimental
What type of research design would apply to a time series design?
Experimental
Nonexperimental
Quasi-experimental
Both experimental and quasi-experimental
Quasi-experimental
What type of research design would apply to a nonequivalent control group design?
Experimental
Nonexperimental
Quasi-experimental
Both experimental and quasi-experimental
Quasi-experimental
What type of research design would apply to a Solomon four-group design?
Experimental
Nonexperimental
Quasi-experimental
Both experimental and quasi-experimental
Experimental
The nurse researcher needs to critique both experimental and quasi-experimental research designs. Which criterion would be most appropriate? (Select all that apply).
Is there a description of what the intervention group vs. control group received, and what are the differences?
How are randomization, control, and manipulation applied?
Is there a detailed description of the intervention?
Are the author’s explanations of threats to study validity acceptable?
Is there a description of what the intervention group vs. control group received, and what are the differences?
Is there a detailed description of the intervention?
Chapter 4
Which of the following could be considered the “context” of a study? (Select all that apply.)
Cultural understandings and beliefs of study participants
The physical setting of the study
Which of the following are expressed accurately about qualitative research? (Select all that apply.)
Qualitative research takes place in naturalistic settings.
Open-ended survey questions are one method of gathering data for qualitative research.
Which beliefs guide the constructivist paradigm
here are multiple realities.
he participant (subject) is an active part of the study.
Why is triangulation valuable to nursing research? (Select all that apply.)
Different views of the same concept can lead to a more complete understanding.
The strength and consistency of evidence collected are improved
Which of the following are consistent with the constructivist paradigm
Subjectivism is valued.
Time and place are important.
Why is knowledge gained from science valuable to nursing practice?
Nurses have more information with which to make patient care decisions
Which paradigm provides the basis for qualitative research?
Constructivism
Which statement describes how research approaches fall along a continuum?
Empirical analytical research at one end and naturalistic research at the other.
What is the definition of ontology?
The study of what is real and what exists
What are the “aims of inquiry”?
The goals of the research study
Which of the following statements is true regarding paradigms?
All research, both quantitative and qualitative, is based on paradigm
Which type of research study can be affected by detracting values of the researcher?
Quantitative
Which type of research allows researchers to be neutral observers?
Quantitative research C
What is the purpose of grounded theory?
To generate a theory from data
In research conducted using grounded theory, what signals the collection of an adequate amount of data?
Saturatio
What is the definition of case study research?
The collection of detailed information about a case from several sources
What is the philosophy underlying quantitative research?
Positivism
Why is it important to understand the philosophy underlying each type of research?
The research method that best meets intended purpose of the study should be used.
Which type of research explores the meaning of an experience?
Phenomenology
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Which question will critique the sampling of a research project?
re the informants who were chosen appropriate to inform the research?
Which conceptual analysis point of the framework for rigor used for interpretive phenomenology refers to how the study findings will continue to have meaning for the reader?
Actualization
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Which question will critique the purpose of a research project?
What is the projected significance of the work to nursing?
Which question will critique the statement of the phenomenon of interest of a research project?
What are the philosophic underpinnings of the research method?
Which question will critique the method of a research project?
Is the strategy used for analysis compatible with the purpose of the study?
Which question will critique the auditability of a research project?
Does the researcher document the research process?
Which question will critique the credibility of a research project?
Has adequate time been allowed to understand fully the phenomenon?
hich question will critique the fittingness of a research project?
s the strategy used for analysis compatible with the purpose of the study