Practice Certification Exam PPR

During a face-to-face conference about a student, which of the following strategies best ensures open communication between the teacher and parents?

A. Beginning with a discussion of the student’s behavioral weaknesses
B. Minimizing opportunities for parental suggestions on classroom management
C. Limiting the use of education-specific terminology
D. Maintaining a demeanor that emphasizes authority

Option (C) is correct because a teacher who uses education-specific terms can make it difficult for parents to completely understand the situation or possible solutions. By replacing education terminology with easier-to-understand language, the teacher can help establish an effective discussion. Option (A) is incorrect because beginning the conference by discussing student weaknesses would set a negative tone that could prevent the teacher from developing a good rapport with the parents. Option (B) is incorrect because minimizing opportunities for parental suggestions may prevent parents from being active participants in the student’s education and make them less inclined to work in collaboration with the teacher. Option (D) is incorrect because a teacher who maintains a demeanor of authority may not convey that parents are respected partners in the student’s education.
Middle school students are working in cooperative learning groups on a project. While monitoring the classroom, the teacher notices that some students are not actively working on the project. Which of the following techniques should the teacher implement first to address the issue?

A. Having students complete the remainder of the project independently
B. Reassigning group members based on the teacher’s observations
C. Asking students to view their project from a different perspective
D. Reviewing assigned roles for the project with members of each group

Option (D) is correct because speaking with individual group members will encourage student involvement. In cooperative learning, each student is assigned a particular responsibility prior to beginning group work, and all members are responsible for the final product. A reminder of the assigned role should be the first step a teacher takes in engaging students in the activity. Option (A) is incorrect because cooperative learning groups are an excellent way to increase student interactions, so removing students, especially middle school students who enjoy peer interaction, from group work is not the best first choice. Option (B) is incorrect because in this situation the teacher needs to first redirect students to encourage them to refocus on the work, before taking a step as significant as reassigning groups. Option (C) is incorrect because this will only temporarily promote thinking, but it does not directly address the stated problem.
Which of the following approaches would most effectively support kindergarten students’ social development when they participate in learning centers?

A. Balancing the students’ time between quiet learning and the activity of centers
B. Keeping the same groups of students together as they rotate through the learning centers
C. Assessing students’ strengths and weaknesses in the skills that the centers emphasize
D. Creating opportunities for interaction among students during learning center activities

Option (D) is correct because creating opportunities for interaction among students during center time supports social development by encouraging students to work together. Options (A), (B), and (C) are incorrect because providing a balanced schedule, maintaining the same groups, and assessing strengths through center activities do not encourage students to share and interact with peers in order to develop socially.
A high school English-language arts teacher wants to ensure that students successfully complete a content-specific essay. Which of the following actions by the teacher will best help students understand the teacher’s expectations for the assignment’s format?

A. Supplying students with more information about the topic
B. Asking students if they have any questions about the task
C. Showing students examples of what to do and what not to do
D. Assigning students a related reading and reviewing the content with them

Option (C) is correct because providing examples to students will clarify the task, both visually and auditorily, by showing a pattern of defining features. Providing examples of what to do and what not to do will allow students to understand that the content essay is not a persuasive essay or an outline. Non-examples can also provide information on the quality of an essay by noting that the product should not be too short, contain excessive misspellings, or numerous crossed-out words. Options (A) and (D) are incorrect because providing more information and assigning related reading material will expose students to more content but not clarify the expectations for the assignment’s format. Option (B) is incorrect because students must be provided with basic information about the assignment’s expectations before they have enough information to ask clarifying questions.
Which of the following teacher strategies best promotes ongoing communication to enhance parental involvement in student learning?

A. Creating an accessible class blog to provide parents with a forum for open discussion
B. Using graphing software to display class progress to parents at the end of each grading period
C. Producing a monthly slide show for parents of student work samples and class projects
D. Establishing an educational social networking site for parents

Option (A) is correct because a blog will allow communication between the teacher and the parents regarding information related to student learning. Option (B) is incorrect because displaying the class’s progress at the end of each grading period will not provide parents with timely information to help those students who are struggling with a concept or a certain subject. Option (C) is incorrect because producing a monthly slide show of student work samples showcases the students’ best work but does not provide information about each student’s strengths and challenges. Option (D) is incorrect because an educational social networking site will offer a means for parents to share ideas with each other but will not effectively communicate academic information about the students directly to the parents.
If a teacher suspects a student is being abused or neglected, it is the teacher’s primary responsibility to

A. interview the student thoroughly to determine the exact details of the injuries or neglect.
B. contact a parent or family member to inquire about the student’s injuries or neglect.
C. report the suspected abuse or neglect to law enforcement or family protective services within 48 hours.
D. ask a school administrator to report the abuse or neglect to law enforcement or family protective services within 24 hours.

Option (C) is correct because state law requires anyone who is licensed by the state that works with children to report suspected abuse or neglect no later than 48 hours after the certified professional first suspects the abuse or neglect. Option (A) is incorrect because questioning the child is the responsibility of the authorities after receiving a report, not the teacher’s responsibility. Option (B) is incorrect because contacting the parents may actually put the student in more danger, since it is unknown who may be causing the abuse or neglect. Option (D) is incorrect because the law states that the certified professional who suspects abuse or neglect may not delegate or rely on another person to make the report.
-Offering student choices
-Incorporating real-world applications
-Designing appropriately challenging tasks

A high school teacher can expect implementation of the listed strategies to primarily increase student

A. inquiry.
B. motivation.
C. responsibility.
D. communication.

Option (B) is correct because the strategies in the bulleted list offer students positive perspectives of their education. Offering students choices allows students to develop a sense of ownership in their learning. Incorporating real-world applications helps students see the value and benefits of education. Designing appropriately challenging tasks engages students by maintaining their interest levels; tasks that are too easy become boring and tasks that are too challenging become frustrating. Options (A), (C), and (D) are incorrect because using the combination of strategies in the bulleted list does not increase student questioning, responsibility, or communication.
A new elementary school teacher attends a writing workshop that addresses strategies for improving student writing. After the workshop, the teacher can best help students by

A. explaining the strategies to parents during parent-teacher conferences.
B. incorporating the strategies into current and future lesson plans.
C. explaining the strategies to the administrators and other faculty members.
D. incorporating the strategies in a reflective teaching journal.

Option (B) is correct because incorporating the strategies into current and future lessons is the most effective and direct strategy for positively influencing instruction for students. Option (A) is incorrect because informing parents is a more effective strategy for increasing the learning of parents, not students. Option (C) is incorrect because sharing the ideas the teacher has learned with other colleagues will enhance their learning but not the learning of the teacher’s students. Option (D) is incorrect because recording the strategies in a reflective teaching journal is better completed to enhance the teacher’s learning, rather than the students’ learning.
Claire is a 10-year-old student who is unable to focus on any academic task for more than a couple of minutes at a time. She spends much of her work time tapping her pencil, bothering others, rummaging through her desk, or crawling on the floor. She is currently receiving special education services and has a behavioral intervention plan (BIP).

Which of the following is the most appropriate way for the teacher to seek support in teaching Claire how to better manage her behaviors?

A. Encouraging Claire’s parents to initiate a system at home that will reward Claire for appropriate behaviors
B. Requesting that Claire’s behaviors be reevaluated by an Admission Review Dismissal (ARD) committee
C. Meeting with colleagues to study case histories related to behavior management
D. Consulting with the school nurse to learn about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Option (B) is correct because requesting that the ARD committee study Claire’s current behaviors will determine if the BIP needs to be modified. Since the ARD committee is responsible for establishing the educational needs of students with special needs, it is most appropriate to work with them to better support the student. Option (A) is incorrect because the student’s difficulties are at school; a reward system at home may or may not be helpful. Option (C) is incorrect because studying case histories related to behavior management will provide general academic information but will not provide support specific to the student’s situation. Option (D) is incorrect because the teacher is not a doctor and should not assume the role of diagnosing a student; rather, the teacher can best support Claire by bringing observations of her behaviors to the ARD committee to consider.
Claire is a 10-year-old student who is unable to focus on any academic task for more than a couple of minutes at a time. She spends much of her work time tapping her prencil, bothering others, rummaging through her desk, or crawling on the floor. She is currently receiving special education services and has a behavioral intervention plan (BIP).

When Claire disrupts the class, the teacher’s most appropriate course of action is to

A. send Claire to the principal’s office so that other students’ learning is not disrupted.
B. inform Claire that she will not attend her elective classes that day or the next.
C. document Claire’s behavior and implement the consequences detailed in her behavioral plan.
D. remind Claire that she must follow the school’s discipline plan.

Option (C) is correct because documenting Claire’s behaviors provides a log that Claire’s parents and the ARD committee can review to measure the progress she has made toward reaching her goals. The teacher should implement the consequences detailed in Claire’s BIP because the ARD committee has decided that those consequences are most appropriate for her, considering her qualifying condition. Options (A) and (B) are incorrect because the teacher should refer to the BIP for consequences appropriate for Claire. A special education student’s hours in general education classes are managed by the ARD, so a student should not be removed from such classes without consulting the BIP and ARD committee as needed. Option (D) is incorrect because a student’s BIP may or may not require the student to follow the school’s discipline plan. The student’s BIP should be consulted when deciding appropriate consequences for students with special needs.
Mr. Marin, a middle school teacher, wants to establish a productive learning environment for his students. Which of the following should Mr. Marin focus on first?

A. Helping his students make decisions about their future academic plans and their careers
B. Developing a feeling of trust between the students and the teacher
C. Communicating with administrators about his students’ needs
D. Assessing his students’ ability to apply concrete thinking and conflict resolution skills

Option (B) is correct because trust is one of the key components in building a productive learning environment. By developing trust, the teacher can help establish a safe learning environment and increase student productivity, which is especially important for middle school students. Option (A) is incorrect because Mr. Marin would need to first establish a feeling of trust with the students before he could effectively help students make career-related decisions. Option (C) is incorrect because although communication with administrators is an important part of a teacher’s job, Mr. Marin should first focus on establishing a good rapport with students before discussing students’ needs with an administrator. Option (D) is incorrect because by middle school, all students should be able to think concretely; therefore, assessing students’ abilities in this area is not a primary concern for Mr. Marin when establishing a productive learning environment.
Middle school science students are creating a multimedia presentation about different types of soil. The students are required to include pictures of various types of soil and an explanation of the attributes of each soil type. Which of the following best ensures that students can include pictures in the presentation without breaking copyright laws?

A. Having students copy pictures from Web sites and reference the sources within the presentation
B. Allowing students to use pictures that they scanned from available books
C. Having students use photographs that they took with a digital camera
D. Allowing students to use digital photographs that they purchased to use in the presentation

Option (C) is correct because copyright permission is not needed; since the students are taking the pictures themselves, they have the right to include the pictures in their presentation. Options (A), (B), and (D) are incorrect because copyright laws ensure copyright owners the rights related to the reproduction, distribution, and modification of copyrighted works. Consequently, to adhere to copyright laws, one may still be required to obtain permission to include a photograph in a presentation regardless of whether the photograph is from a Web site and is referenced, scanned from a book, or purchased.
For the units in her high school physics class, Ms. Galloway develops a series of experiments for students to work on independently at their own pace within a specified time frame. After each experiment, students turn in their lab notes and a detailed report, and Ms. Galloway notes any problems for students to review. Students determine how to improve and revise their work according to Ms. Galloway’s feedback before they can move on to the next experiment. As the school year progresses, Ms. Galloway is very pleased with the overall improvement in her students’ lab skills, scientific thinking, and writing skills. However, she feels overwhelmed by the amount of time she spends reviewing student work and maintaining student records. Ms. Galloway discusses the issue with her mentor teacher who helps her list the specific problems she is having, as shown below.

1. Too much class time gets wasted collecting and passing out student papers.

2. Too much time is spent sorting and matching lab notes and reports before they can be read.

3. Students sometimes misplace or lose part of their earlier sets of notes on a particular experiment, making it difficult to monitor their progress.

The teaching approach Ms. Galloway uses with her students can best be described as developmentally appropriate because it provides

A. academic support from peers.
B. challenges through competition.
C. opportunities for reflection.
D. content from varied perspectives.

Option (C) is correct because opportunities for reflection are provided when the students make decisions about how to improve and revise their work based on the teacher’s notes. Reflection is developmentally appropriate for the high school students because students develop confidence and independence as they complete their work well. Intellectual interests gain importance as students begin to consider their career paths. Option (A) is incorrect because while working with peers is important for students of this age, they are working independently in this scenario. Option (B) is incorrect because no form of competition is described in the scenario, and enjoying competition is a trait of students in late elementary grades. Option (D) is incorrect because the content is not presented from varied perspectives. The content is based upon a series of experiments which are standardized according to a procedures section. The standardized procedures are in line with concrete thinking which is mainly developed during middle school.
For the units in her high school physics class, Ms. Galloway develops a series of experiments for students to work on independently at their own pace within a specified time frame. After each experiment, students turn in their lab notes and a detailed report, and Ms. Galloway notes any problems for students to review. Students determine how to improve and revise their work according to Ms. Galloway’s feedback before they can move on to the next experiment. As the school year progresses, Ms. Galloway is very pleased with the overall improvement in her students’ lab skills, scientific thinking, and writing skills. However, she feels overwhelmed by the amount of time she spends reviewing student work and maintaining student records. Ms. Galloway discusses the issue with her mentor teacher who helps her list the specific problems she is having, as shown below.

1. Too much class time gets wasted collecting and passing out student papers.

2. Too much time is spent sorting and matching lab notes and reports before they can be read.

3. Students sometimes misplace or lose part of their earlier sets of notes on a particular experiment, making it difficult to monitor their progress.

Ms. Galloway’s system for noting problems with completed assignments will primarily benefit students by which of the following?

A. Enhancing students’ awareness of the cognitive processes involved in problem solving and decision making
B. Encouraging students to apply teacher-directed methods to promote their own learning
C. Helping students understand relationships between specific content learned and broader learning goals
D. Developing students’ sense of personal responsibility for their own achievement

Option (D) is correct because the responsibility is put on students to decide how to improve their own work rather than simply doing what the teacher tells them. Option (A) is incorrect because students have to determine how to improve their work, and they do not have to be aware of the cognitive processes involved to complete the assignments. Also, they will not become aware of these processes without direct instruction that requires them to focus on the processes. Option (B) is incorrect because the teacher is allowing students to select their own methods to make the suggested revisions without any direction. Option (C) is incorrect because according to the description, Ms. Galloway’s teaching method focuses students on one specific learning goal at a time as they complete independent experiments.
For the units in her high school physics class, Ms. Galloway develops a series of experiments for students to work on independently at their own pace within a specified time frame. After each experiment, students turn in their lab notes and a detailed report, and Ms. Galloway notes any problems for students to review. Students determine how to improve and revise their work according to Ms. Galloway’s feedback before they can move on to the next experiment. As the school year progresses, Ms. Galloway is very pleased with the overall improvement in her students’ lab skills, scientific thinking, and writing skills. However, she feels overwhelmed by the amount of time she spends reviewing student work and maintaining student records. Ms. Galloway discusses the issue with her mentor teacher who helps her list the specific problems she is having, as shown below.

1. Too much class time gets wasted collecting and passing out student papers.

2. Too much time is spent sorting and matching lab notes and reports before they can be read.

3. Students sometimes misplace or lose part of their earlier sets of notes on a particular experiment, making it difficult to monitor their progress.

Ms. Galloway’s discussion with her mentor teacher is effective primarily because it involves

A. Ms. Galloway and her mentor sharing personal experiences with similar situations.
B. Ms. Galloway and her mentor examining their personal philosophies of teaching.
C. a reflective process for Ms. Galloway to use to improve her instruction.
D. a review of proactive ideas for how Ms. Galloway can avoid future problems.

Option (C) is correct because the mentor is helping Ms. Galloway reflect on her teaching and identify problems she needs to address to improve her instructional effectiveness. Option (A) is incorrect because the mentor does not reference previous experiences with similar problems and only helps Ms. Galloway to identify her main problems. Option (B) is incorrect because Ms. Galloway is not being asked to explain her teaching philosophy but is listing the issues she is having as a teacher. Option (D) is incorrect because the problems are already present; and the mentor is not having her act before any problems surface.
For the units in her high school physics class, Ms. Galloway develops a series of experiments for students to work on independently at their own pace within a specified time frame. After each experiment, students turn in their lab notes and a detailed report, and Ms. Galloway notes any problems for students to review. Students determine how to improve and revise their work according to Ms. Galloway’s feedback before they can move on to the next experiment. As the school year progresses, Ms. Galloway is very pleased with the overall improvement in her students’ lab skills, scientific thinking, and writing skills. However, she feels overwhelmed by the amount of time she spends reviewing student work and maintaining student records. Ms. Galloway discusses the issue with her mentor teacher who helps her list the specific problems she is having, as shown below.

1. Too much class time gets wasted collecting and passing out student papers.

2. Too much time is spent sorting and matching lab notes and reports before they can be read.

3. Students sometimes misplace or lose part of their earlier sets of notes on a particular experiment, making it difficult to monitor their progress.

To best help Ms. Galloway identify potential solutions for the listed problems, the mentor should suggest that Ms. Galloway

A. initiate a personal blog of classroom management teaching experiences.
B. chat with an online community of teachers about managing materials.
C. join a professional educational association that focuses on classroom management.
D. review research-based educational articles about managing materials.

Option (D) is correct because it is important to use resources that are backed by research; otherwise, the problems may just be exacerbated. Option (A) is incorrect because blogging will promote further reflection rather than possible solutions. Option (B) is incorrect because classes and teachers vary, so it is more effective to examine best practices that are research driven rather than to chat with other teachers about potential solutions. Option (C) is incorrect because joining such an organization only provides access to a limited amount of additional resources. There is no guarantee the resources will provide Ms. Galloway with any solutions.
After meeting with her mentor teacher, Ms. Galloway devises a folder system for student work. Each student is given a record sheet stapled inside a folder for keeping all lab work together during the semester. The folders are kept in boxes on a table in the back of the classroom, with each class having its own in-box and out-box. When lab notes and reports are ready for Ms. Galloway to review, students place their folders in the in-box. After Ms. Galloway looks through a folder and notes any problems, she places the folder in the out-box. Students pick up their folders as soon as they enter the classroom and place them in the appropriate box at the end of the period. The following is part of a record sheet from one student’s folder.

A primary benefit of the folder system is that it

A. encourages students to support classroom procedures.
B. maximizes time for students’ learning.
C. promotes a sense of community among students in the classroom.
D. incorporates a variety of student learning styles.

Option (B) is correct because using the folders should save time that can then be utilized for student learning. Option (A) is incorrect because the folder system was Ms. Galloway’s idea, so students do not have ownership of it, which would improve their support of the system. Option (C) is incorrect because each student maintains his or her own individual folder, so the new system would not develop a sense of community. Option (D) is incorrect because the folder system works the same for each student.
After meeting with her mentor teacher, Ms. Galloway devises a folder system for student work. Each student is given a record sheet stapled inside a folder for keeping all lab work together during the semester. The folders are kept in boxes on a table in the back of the classroom, with each class having its own in-box and out-box. When lab notes and reports are ready for Ms. Galloway to review, students place their folders in the in-box. After Ms. Galloway looks through a folder and notes any problems, she places the folder in the out-box. Students pick up their folders as soon as they enter the classroom and place them in the appropriate box at the end of the period. The following is part of a record sheet from one student’s folder.

The student folders can best be used as a tool for which of the following?

A. Creating closure of lessons for students
B. Helping students connect lessons to the world beyond school
C. Monitoring students’ understanding of the content
D. Activating students’ prior knowledge about the content

Option (C) is correct because students’ comments in the folder allow the teacher to quickly see what students understand and what they need more help understanding. Option (A) is incorrect because students write in the folders throughout the process to note their progress. They are not used to draw lessons to a close. Option (B) is incorrect because the folders are designed around experiments that are conducted at school. While the experiments provide hands-on activities, the folders do not help relate them to the world beyond school. Option (D) is incorrect because activating prior knowledge should occur before lessons begin, not after experiments have been conducted.
After meeting with her mentor teacher, Ms. Galloway devises a folder system for student work. Each student is given a record sheet stapled inside a folder for keeping all lab work together during the semester. The folders are kept in boxes on a table in the back of the classroom, with each class having its own in-box and out-box. When lab notes and reports are ready for Ms. Galloway to review, students place their folders in the in-box. After Ms. Galloway looks through a folder and notes any problems, she places the folder in the out-box. Students pick up their folders as soon as they enter the classroom and place them in the appropriate box at the end of the period. The following is part of a record sheet from one student’s folder.

The feedback provided by Ms. Galloway, as shown on the record sheet, is primarily effective because it provides

A. encouraging support.
B. constructive criticism.
C. procedural reminders.
D. assessment criteria.

Option (A) is correct because the teacher is reassuring and positive in both of her comments. Option (B) is incorrect because it is actually the student who writes any criticism of his or her own work. Option (C) is incorrect because the folder itself is about following procedures, but neither of the comments relates to the established procedures. Option (D) is incorrect because assessment criteria are best established by a rubric or checklist. The teacher does not mention anything about assessment in her feedback.
After meeting with her mentor teacher, Ms. Galloway devises a folder system for student work. Each student is given a record sheet stapled inside a folder for keeping all lab work together during the semester. The folders are kept in boxes on a table in the back of the classroom, with each class having its own in-box and out-box. When lab notes and reports are ready for Ms. Galloway to review, students place their folders in the in-box. After Ms. Galloway looks through a folder and notes any problems, she places the folder in the out-box. Students pick up their folders as soon as they enter the classroom and place them in the appropriate box at the end of the period. The following is part of a record sheet from one student’s folder.

Which of the following is a primary purpose of the teacher’s comment section on the record sheet?

A. Extending student knowledge through questioning
B. Facilitating individual communication with students
C. Promoting equitable opportunities for student learning
D. Providing examples to clarify student expectations

Option (B) is correct because the comments are a way for the teacher and students to communicate one-on-one in an efficient and effective way. Option (A) is incorrect because no questions are included in the comments section. Option (C) is incorrect because the comments will vary from student to student, so there is nothing to make them equitable. Option (D) is incorrect because examples of assignments or procedures would not be provided in the small comment boxes.
A high school teacher observes that English-language learners (ELLs) at the beginning level of language proficiency in speaking do not participate in classroom discussions. The most effective way to help the ELLs is to

A. have native-language-speaking peers interpret discussion points and provide responses for the ELLs.
B. have English-speaking peers model discussions and then allow the ELLs to rehearse before participating.
C. provide short sentence stems and terms related to the discussion for the ELLs to practice before participating.
D. provide one-on-one oral language instruction and then practice discussing a wide range of topics with the ELLs.

Option (C) is correct because providing short sentence stems and terms for practice before conversations is an appropriate way to encourage speaking skills in beginning-level ELLs. Option (A) is incorrect because although beginning-level ELLs may draw on native-language peers, allowing native-language peers to participate in place of these students is not the best way to encourage participation. Option (B) is incorrect because having English-speaking peers model discussions does not draw out active participation from ELLs. Option (D) is incorrect because more advanced ELLs would benefit from discussions with a wide range of topics, but beginning-level ELLs need to practice starting with more familiar topics.
A father complained to Ms. Adair, a fifth-grade teacher, about an incident that occurred between his son and another fifth-grade teacher, Ms. Riley. The father feels Ms. Riley has treated his son unfairly. To best maintain her professionalism in the situation, Ms. Adair should

A. state her opinion, calm the parent, and report the complaint about Ms. Riley to the principal.
B. suggest a conference between the student, the parent, and Ms. Riley.
C. discuss the incident, agree with the parent, and advocate the parent’s perspective to Ms. Riley.
D. defend Ms. Riley’s approach to the parent and reprimand the student.

Option (B) is correct because Ms. Adair should encourage the parties directly involved to discuss the matter in an appropriate setting without outside interference. Option (A) is incorrect because if Ms. Adair states her opinion and reports the complaint to the principal before Ms. Riley has had an opportunity to respond, the situation will be complicated or escalated unnecessarily. Options (C) and (D) are incorrect because Ms. Adair should refrain from sharing an opinion on the matter, since she does not have all the facts, is not a supervisor, and is not directly involved in the situation.
Which of the following is a general education teacher’s primary responsibility in teaching special education students?

A. Implementing modifications for students according to their Individualized Education Program (IEP)
B. Identifying academic and behavioral goals for each student according to the results of a comprehensive evaluation
C. Planning and coordinating annual Admission Review and Dismissal (ARD) meetings for each student
D. Providing all modifications that the teacher believes are necessary to help each student succeed in class

Option (A) is correct because all teachers working with a student are required by law to follow the student’s IEP. Option (B) is incorrect because the entire ARD committee is responsible for creating the educational goals for each student with special needs. Option (C) is incorrect because the annual ARD meeting is coordinated by the student’s assigned special education teacher, in conjunction with the campus coordinator. Option (D) is incorrect because teachers cannot select certain modifications to implement; they must implement all modifications identified in a student’s IEP.
A high school student expresses political and religious views during class and often asks career-oriented questions. The student is most likely in which of the following stages of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development?

A. Identity versus role confusion
B. Industry versus inferiority
C. Trust versus mistrust
D. Ego integrity versus ego despair

Option (A) is correct because at the identity versus role confusion stage, development primarily depends on what a person does. Adolescents begin to develop a strong affiliation and devotion to ideals, causes, and friends. Option (B) is incorrect because at the industry versus inferiority stage, a child’s most significant relationships are within the school and neighborhood. Parents are no longer the complete authorities they once were, although they are still important. Option (C) is incorrect because at the trust versus mistrust stage, major emphasis is on a parent’s nurturing ability and care of their young child, especially in terms of visual contact and touch. Option (D) is incorrect because the ego integrity versus ego despair stage is the last stage of development, when older adults look back and examine their life.
According to the Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educators, an educator can reveal confidential information concerning a student only when the disclosure

A. is beneficial to the student’s community.
B. is requested by the media for investigative purposes.
C. improves the student’s educational opportunities.
D. serves a lawful professional purpose.

Option (D) is correct because the Texas Administrative Code outlines the Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educators in standard 3.1. The regulation states that an educator shall not reveal confidential information concerning students unless disclosure serves a lawful professional purpose or is required by law. Options (A), (B), and (C) are incorrect because benefiting a student’s community, a request from the media, and improving educational opportunities are not lawful professional purposes or required by law; so confidential information should not be disclosed in these circumstances.
After reading from a science textbook written in English, an English-language learner at the advanced-high level of proficiency completes the following activity card by listing a definition for precipitation, listing its part of speech, and listing an example.

Which of the following is a primary purpose of the activity?

A. Applying English phonetics
B. Understanding English syntax
C. Assessing reading comprehension
D. Building academic vocabulary

Option (D) is correct because the activity is a four-corners activity designed to build vocabulary understanding. The card contains a term, its definition, the part of speech, and a synonym. Option (A) is incorrect because if the activity required the application of phonetics, it would require the sounding out of each word. Option (B) is incorrect because the activity is not about understanding the arrangement of words in sentences and the relationship of their component parts. Option (C) is incorrect because the focus of the activity is on developing, not assessing, comprehension.
A high school teacher realizes during a direct-teach lesson that many students seem confused and are not participating. To best respond, the teacher should continue the lesson by

A. maintaining the established lesson sequence.
B. establishing collaborative groups as support.
C. making adjustments to the instructional approach.
D. introducing a different topic to the class.

Option (C) is correct because when students are confused the teacher should make adjustments in the teaching to ensure student understanding. Option (A) is incorrect because continuing the lesson may frustrate students and does not accomplish the learning goal. Option (B) is incorrect because if students don’t understand the material, they will not be engaged in group work. Option (D) is incorrect because changing the topic may further confuse and frustrate the students.
Jim leaves class each day to take medication in the nurse’s office. A student asks the teacher why Jim leaves each day. Which of the following is the most appropriate teacher response?

A. Asking the class not to inquire about Jim’s condition
B. Telling the student to ask Jim the question upon his return
C. Using the opportunity to clarify for the class why Jim leaves
D. Letting the student know that Jim is fine and will return shortly

Option (D) is correct because the teacher is required to maintain confidentiality about the student’s medical needs, unless such disclosure serves lawful professional purposes or is required by law. The teacher should simply reassure the class that Jim is fine so that students do not become distracted by his absences. Option (A) is incorrect because asking the class not to inquire about Jim is indirectly telling students that he has a medical condition, which is a privacy violation. Option (B) is incorrect because students should not be encouraged to ask Jim about his medical condition; rather, they should be reassured that he is fine and redirected to their own learning. Option (C) is incorrect because telling the class why Jim leaves would be a direct violation of privacy laws.
Use the conversation between Minh, a high school English-language learner (ELL), and his teacher to answer the questions that follow.
Ms. Stevenson:
Minh, I saw you at the football game last Friday. Did you have a good time?
Minh:
Yes, I am liking American football. I am liking every sports.
Ms. Stevenson:
You should join a team here at school.
Minh:
I am studying.
Ms. Stevenson:
Oh, I see. Well, I hope you’ll get some free time soon.
Minh:
I hoping.

Minh’s speech can best be classified as being at which of the following English-language proficiency levels?

A. Beginning
B. Intermediate
C. Advanced
D. Advanced-high

Option (B) is correct because Minh demonstrates an intermediate level of English-language proficiency. He is able to communicate simple messages with basic vocabulary. He speaks using limited grammatical structures, with several errors that may inhibit understanding. Option (A) is incorrect because a student at the beginning level of English-language proficiency speaks using single words and short memorized phrases. Minh is able to participate in a basic conversation, so he is not at the beginning level. Option (C) is incorrect because a student at the advanced level of English-language proficiency can communicate using all the tenses and can use abstract terminology. During the dialogue, Minh does not use different verb tenses correctly. Option (D) is incorrect because a student at the advanced-high level of English-language proficiency has a knowledge of grammar that is nearly comparable to that of a native speaker.
Ms. Stevenson:
Minh, I saw you at the football game last Friday. Did you have a good time?
Minh:
Yes, I am liking American football. I am liking every sports.
Ms. Stevenson:
You should join a team here at school.
Minh:
I am studying.
Ms. Stevenson:
Oh, I see. Well, I hope you’ll get some free time soon.
Minh:
I hoping.

During the conversation with Minh, Ms. Stevenson primarily uses which of the following techniques to create a productive classroom environment?

A. Conveying her enthusiasm for continued learning
B. Interacting with her students on a personal level
C. Relating her instruction to everyday experiences
D. Encouraging her students to respect the community

Option (B) is correct because Ms. Stevenson is showing interest in Minh’s life, which will positively impact his learning environment. Option (A) is incorrect because the conversation is centered on something that occurred outside of school without any reference to learning. Option (C) is incorrect because the conversation is about an everyday experience, but it is not connected to instruction. Option (D) is incorrect because the exchange is about something that occurred in the community, but there is not an explicit need to encourage respect for the community.
Ms. Stevenson:
Minh, I saw you at the football game last Friday. Did you have a good time?
Minh:
Yes, I am liking American football. I am liking every sports.
Ms. Stevenson:
You should join a team here at school.
Minh:
I am studying.
Ms. Stevenson:
Oh, I see. Well, I hope you’ll get some free time soon.
Minh:
I hoping.

Based on the grammatical errors Minh makes in the conversation, he would benefit most from focused English-language instruction on which of the following skills?

A. Applying the proper endings to plural nouns
B. Ensuring proper subject-pronoun agreement
C. Placing parts of speech correctly in the sentence
D. Using the correct form of present-tense verbs

Option (D) is correct because Minh uses two verbs incorrectly, “liking” and “hoping.” These verbs are nonaction verbs; therefore, they must be used in the simple, not progressive, tense. Option (A) is incorrect because Minh never displays errors in the use of plural nouns. Option (B) is incorrect because Minh never demonstrates incorrect use of pronouns. Option (C) is incorrect because Minh correctly places parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives in his sentence.
Elementary students are presenting to their classmates descriptive paragraphs that they wrote. The teacher asks students to name each new descriptive word they hear and post the new words on a word wall. The primary purpose of the activity is to

A. use various discussion methods.
B. incorporate authentic learning.
C. stimulate higher-order thinking.
D. promote active engagement.

Option (D) is correct by having students record new descriptive words as classmates present their paragraphs, the teacher is promoting active listening and encouraging students to write and name the vocabulary words. Option (A) is incorrect because recording and naming descriptive words does not require the use of various discussion methods. Option (B) is incorrect because the activity described, in which students record and name new descriptive words, does not incorporate a real-world scenario. Option (C) is incorrect because students are not required to use higher-order thinking skills (i.e., synthesizing, evaluating, debating) in this activity.
Which of the following strategies employed by a middle school teacher best conveys high expectations to students?

A. Communicating consistently to students that they have the skills and support necessary to succeed
B. Requiring students to complete extended homework assignments on the weekend
C. Implementing an accelerated curriculum to move students beyond grade-level work
D. Offering extrinsic motivators frequently to encourage student achievement and critical-thinking skills

Option (A) is correct because research indicates that verbal motivators help convey high expectations and elicit student achievement. Option (B) is incorrect because requiring extended homework assignments only increases the quantity of work; the teacher will need to address the quality of work in order to convey high expectations. Option (C) is incorrect because expecting all students to work beyond grade level may be unrealistic and may create frustration. Option (D) is incorrect because intrinsic motivators have been shown to be more effective than extrinsic motivators in conveying high expectations.
Emily, a student in Ms. Hess’s class has recently been boasting to other students about her connections to a local gang. Emily’s friends are intrigued and preoccupied by what she says and does, and they are also showing an interest in the gang. Which of the following is the most appropriate action for the teacher to take in the situation?

A. Alerting administrators to the problem and having them create and implement a punishment for the students involved
B. Calling the local authorities to alert them to the situation and to have them deal with the students at an official level
C. Requesting that a law-enforcement officer educate all of the students on gang activities and possible consequences
D. Ignoring the situation, assuming a lack of interest will diminish the students’ interest in the gang

Option (C) is correct because bringing in a law-enforcement officer will provide an opportunity to educate students about the realities of gang involvement, correct any misinformation the student is providing the class, and remove any glamorization that students perceive. Option (A) is incorrect because administrators can not create and implement a punishment, since no inappropriate activity has taken place at this point. Option (B) is incorrect because no illegal activity has taken place; therefore alerting the police is not appropriate at this point. Option (D) is incorrect because potential gang activity is a serious problem among youth, so the teacher should address students’ growing interest by taking action rather than ignoring the situation.
An intermediate-level English-language learner (ELL) in a middle school class is having difficulty with writing. When responding to short-answer questions, the student writes with little detail and with frequent errors. To best support the student, the teacher should

A. provide simple sentence stems.
B. provide a minilesson on paraphrasing text.
C. allow the ELL to use recently memorized phrases.
D. allow the ELL to analyze genres to learn how to mimic writing features.

Option (A) is correct because a student at the intermediate level whose writing lacks detail and contains frequent errors would benefit from using simple sentence stems provided by the teacher. Use of sentence stems could ensure that the student includes a set number of details, and the stems provide a model that can reduce student errors. Option (B) is incorrect because a student at the intermediate level would have a difficult time coming up with the synonyms needed for paraphrasing. Option (C) is incorrect because it is more appropriate for a beginning-level ELL to use memorized phrases. Option (D) is incorrect because analyzing genres in order to learn how to mimic writing features is more appropriate for an advanced-high level ELL.
At the beginning of the school year, a middle school science teacher presents a lesson demonstrating safe practices in the science lab. Which of the following activities is the most effective informal assessment of the lesson?

A. Asking students to record laboratory safety notes in their science journals
B. Allowing students to explore safety equipment at various laboratory stations
C. Having students match laboratory safety rules to the explanations of the rules
D. Observing students’ use of laboratory tools as they complete a simple experiment

Option (B) is correct because allowing students to explore safety equipment is an effective way to actively engage them while informally assessing their mastery of safe practices. Option (A) is incorrect because students learn better if they have a chance to participate in guided practice than if they just copy notes into a journal. Option (C) is incorrect because students cannot perform a matching activity until they have mastery of the concepts. Option (D) is incorrect because while watching students conduct an experiment may be a way to assess their knowledge of some tools, for safety purposes, the teacher should ensure that the students know how to use all the tools properly before doing their first experiment.
Which of the following is a realistic role for a mentor teacher in supporting a first-year teacher?

A. Facilitating the new teacher’s parent conferences
B. Replacing the administrator as the new teacher’s evaluator
C. Enforcing behavioral consequences for the new teacher’s students
D. Modeling instructional strategies for the new teacher

Option (D) is correct because modeling instructional strategies for the new teacher will provide the new teacher with skills to enhance classroom instruction. It also allows for follow-up discussions reflecting on the modeled behaviors. Option (A) is incorrect because the mentor teacher should not assume the primary responsibilities of the new teacher, including facilitating parent conferences. The knowledge of each student’s strengths and weaknesses is understood by daily interactions with those students. This is best communicated by the new teacher to parents during conferences. Option (B) is incorrect because evaluating the new teacher is not a role played by a mentor teacher. Taking on an assessor’s role will compromise open, honest, and reflective discussions. Option (C) is incorrect because the new teacher must establish his- or herself as the authority in the classroom. This is not a role that can be handled by anyone else if the new teacher expects to establish a well-managed classroom.
A group of teachers work together to create a common assessment for an upcoming unit. Which of the following features of word processing software is best to use for facilitating collaboration among the teachers on the assessment?

A. Capturing screen shots
B. Inserting a table
C. Tracking changes
D. Converting to Web format

Option (C) is correct because the track changes tool provides an efficient way for multiple users to share and see input as a document is reviewed and revised. Options (A), (B), and (D) are incorrect because capturing screen shots, inserting a table, and converting to Web format alters the document, but these features do not facilitate collaboration.
Ms. Ellis, a high school biology teacher, is struggling to maintain student engagement throughout her lessons. Although she has begun to use several motivational strategies, the situation has not improved. The most appropriate next step for Ms. Ellis to take is to discuss the issue with the

A. assistant principal.
B. school counselor.
C. district science coordinator.
D. head of the science department.

Option (D) is correct because the department head is the first point of contact for getting additional help with instruction. Options (A) and (B) are incorrect because the principal and counselor should not be the first point of contact when seeking instructional support. Option (C) is incorrect because there is a chain of command within a school district, and the teacher needs to seek help at the campus level first before going to the district curriculum specialist.
Ms. Tatum is teaching a mathematics unit that is an essential core of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). According to the suggested district timeline, she has only one more day to finish teaching the unit; however, based on the students’ performance, she requires three additional days to teach the unit. Which of the following is the best practice for addressing the students’ needs?

A. Continuing with her lesson plans to ensure that the students have the opportunity to complete the entire unit
B. Adhering to the district timeline and returning to the unit at the end of the year
C. Assigning the additional material from the unit for the students to complete as homework
D. Altering the lesson plans by reducing the student-learning objectives for the unit

Option (A) is correct because completing the lessons in the unit best ensures the students learn the material identified in the TEKS as essential to know. A district timeline is best utilized as a flexible framework, not rigid requirement. Option (B) is incorrect because the teacher should be responsive to the knowledge that students have not yet mastered the material in the unit. Strictly adhering to the district timeline and returning to the material at the end of the year is not responsive to student needs and is unnecessarily rigid adherence to the district’s suggested timeline. Option (C) is incorrect because homework is best assigned to students on material they already adequately understand but need additional practice on. Since this is new content within a unit, the content is best presented in the classroom with the guidance of the teacher. Option (D) is incorrect because TEKS are established by grade level for the students of the entire state and should be followed by all teachers to ensure that students have no gaps in their learning.
Erin is a kindergartner who can skip, jump, dress herself, and trace a square. Which of the following best describes this area of development?

A. Emotional development
B. Cognitive development
C. Social development
D. Motor development

Option (D) is correct because skipping, jumping, dressing oneself, and tracing a square are skills that require gross and fine motor skills, which are part of the motor-development process. Options (A) and (C) are incorrect because social development and emotional development refer to how a person interacts with others in social and intellectual ways, and also include the development of self-concept and self-esteem. Option (B) is incorrect because cognitive development refers to how a person perceives things and gains understanding of his or her world.
Because Matthew is a student who is struggling in mathematics, his teacher schedules a conference with his parents. Which of the following is the best way for the teacher to begin the conference?

A. Discussing Matthew’s low mathematics grades and better ways for him to study
B. Identifying Matthew’s strengths in other subjects before addressing his mathematics grades
C. Discussing Matthew’s mathematics grades and study habits from previous years
D. Identifying Matthew’s weaknesses in mathematics based on a recent mathematics exam

Option (B) is correct because it is always a good practice to open a parent-teacher conference on a positive note. This practice reduces the likelihood that parents will be defensive and sets a positive tone for the meeting. By identifying the student’s strengths before addressing concerns, the teacher has effectively set a positive start to the conference. Options (A), (C), and (D) are incorrect because beginning the discussions with topics such as low mathematics grades, better ways to study, grades from previous years, and student weaknesses set a negative tone.
Mr. Wylie, a seventh-grade Texas history teacher, is planning a unit to help his students understand the structure and functions of government as created by the Texas Constitution. To address the objective, he plans to have pairs of students work together to interview a city official. He gives students the following handout that provides a timeline of activities for student pairs to perform during the project.

Straight From the Source: Learning About Our City Government
Day 1
Brainstorm a list of ten to fifteen possible questions to ask a city official to help you learn how the Texas Constitution affects decisions that city officials make every day. The questions should elicit a variety of answers.
Day 2
Share your list of potential questions in small groups to get feedback. Revise your questions.
Day 3
Practice your interview using role-playing with at least two different members of the class (other than your partner). Take turns as the interviewer, asking your questions and taking notes.
Day 4
Use your experiences from Day 3 to reflect on the quality and scope of your questions.
Refine your list of questions based on your reflection.
Day 5
Conduct yourself appropriately during the interview and take good notes.
Write a summary of the information you learned from your interview.
Day 6
Make a brief oral presentation to the class to share what you learned.
PART 2
In preparing for the interviews, Mr. Wylie develops a list of officials who have an office in the city hall building. Then he contacts the officials to determine if they are interested in the project and their availability for interviews.

The project design primarily demonstrates Mr. Wylie’s understanding of the importance of

A. establishing an environment that respects diversity.
B. helping students make potential career decisions.
C. monitoring teacher effectiveness during instruction.
D. connecting students’ learning to the real world.

Option (D) is correct because students are learning about the Texas Constitution in social studies through an experience in the world beyond school as they interview officials at city hall. Option (A) is incorrect because while students are learning from others, the focus is not on diversity, or on other people’s ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Option (B) is incorrect because the purpose of interviewing the officials is to learn about government through interviews with city officials. Addressing possible careers would be better suited for a setting with exposure to a variety of industries. Option (C) is incorrect because monitoring for teacher effectiveness would include student surveys or checking for student understanding.
Mr. Wylie, a seventh-grade Texas history teacher, is planning a unit to help his students understand the structure and functions of government as created by the Texas Constitution. To address the objective, he plans to have pairs of students work together to interview a city official. He gives students the following handout that provides a timeline of activities for student pairs to perform during the project.

Straight From the Source: Learning About Our City Government
Day 1
Brainstorm a list of ten to fifteen possible questions to ask a city official to help you learn how the Texas Constitution affects decisions that city officials make every day. The questions should elicit a variety of answers.
Day 2
Share your list of potential questions in small groups to get feedback. Revise your questions.
Day 3
Practice your interview using role-playing with at least two different members of the class (other than your partner). Take turns as the interviewer, asking your questions and taking notes.
Day 4
Use your experiences from Day 3 to reflect on the quality and scope of your questions.
Refine your list of questions based on your reflection.
Day 5
Conduct yourself appropriately during the interview and take good notes.
Write a summary of the information you learned from your interview.
Day 6
Make a brief oral presentation to the class to share what you learned.
PART 2
In preparing for the interviews, Mr. Wylie develops a list of officials who have an office in the city hall building. Then he contacts the officials to determine if they are interested in the project and their availability for interviews.

Which of the following is a primary purpose of providing the handout?

A. Clarifying expectations of the students regarding the learning activities
B. Differentiating instruction for the learning activities for students of multiple ability levels
C. Involving the students in creating an assessment for the learning activities
D. Increasing students’ ownership by providing a choice of learning activities

Option (A) is correct because the handout of activities is a communication tool that clearly outlines what is expected of the students. Option (B) is incorrect because all students are completing the same work; the instruction is not differentiated. Option (C) is incorrect because the students are not involved in creating an assessment for the learning activities; the assignments are given to the students by the teacher. Option (D) is incorrect because student choice is not part of the project.
Mr. Wylie, a seventh-grade Texas history teacher, is planning a unit to help his students understand the structure and functions of government as created by the Texas Constitution. To address the objective, he plans to have pairs of students work together to interview a city official. He gives students the following handout that provides a timeline of activities for student pairs to perform during the project.

Straight From the Source: Learning About Our City Government
Day 1
Brainstorm a list of ten to fifteen possible questions to ask a city official to help you learn how the Texas Constitution affects decisions that city officials make every day. The questions should elicit a variety of answers.
Day 2
Share your list of potential questions in small groups to get feedback. Revise your questions.
Day 3
Practice your interview using role-playing with at least two different members of the class (other than your partner). Take turns as the interviewer, asking your questions and taking notes.
Day 4
Use your experiences from Day 3 to reflect on the quality and scope of your questions.
Refine your list of questions based on your reflection.
Day 5
Conduct yourself appropriately during the interview and take good notes.
Write a summary of the information you learned from your interview.
Day 6
Make a brief oral presentation to the class to share what you learned.
PART 2
In preparing for the interviews, Mr. Wylie develops a list of officials who have an office in the city hall building. Then he contacts the officials to determine if they are interested in the project and their availability for interviews.

To best help students accomplish their task on Day 4, Mr. Wylie should provide them with a

A. semantic map.
B. sample script.
C. performance rubric.
D. behavior checklist.

Option (C) is correct because a rubric helps students to evaluate and reflect on the quality of the questions they wrote and to improve them. Option (A) is incorrect because a semantic map is primarily used for vocabulary comprehension and would not be helpful in reviewing the effectiveness of the questions that students’ composed. Option (B) is incorrect because a sample script would be helpful for Day 2, not Day 4. Option (D) is incorrect because the activity on Day 5 requires students to focus on their behaviors, not the activity on Day 4.
Mr. Wylie, a seventh-grade Texas history teacher, is planning a unit to help his students understand the structure and functions of government as created by the Texas Constitution. To address the objective, he plans to have pairs of students work together to interview a city official. He gives students the following handout that provides a timeline of activities for student pairs to perform during the project.

Straight From the Source: Learning About Our City Government
Day 1
Brainstorm a list of ten to fifteen possible questions to ask a city official to help you learn how the Texas Constitution affects decisions that city officials make every day. The questions should elicit a variety of answers.
Day 2
Share your list of potential questions in small groups to get feedback. Revise your questions.
Day 3
Practice your interview using role-playing with at least two different members of the class (other than your partner). Take turns as the interviewer, asking your questions and taking notes.
Day 4
Use your experiences from Day 3 to reflect on the quality and scope of your questions.
Refine your list of questions based on your reflection.
Day 5
Conduct yourself appropriately during the interview and take good notes.
Write a summary of the information you learned from your interview.
Day 6
Make a brief oral presentation to the class to share what you learned.
PART 2
In preparing for the interviews, Mr. Wylie develops a list of officials who have an office in the city hall building. Then he contacts the officials to determine if they are interested in the project and their availability for interviews.

Before arranging for his students to leave the school grounds for the project on Day 5, it is most important for Mr. Wylie to

A. notify the students’ other teachers in writing.
B. create a trip schedule to present parents with procedures to ensure students’ safety.
C. obtain a consent form signed by a parent from each student.
D. provide information to each student about their legal rights with regard to the trip.

Option (C) is correct because the teacher must have permission from the students’ parents before students can leave the campus for the field trip. Option (A) is incorrect because although notifying other teachers of the students’ departure is helpful, it is not required. Option (B) is incorrect because a teacher may create a trip schedule for parents that includes procedures to ensure students’ safety, but it is not required. Option (D) is incorrect because it is not necessary to provide information to students about their rights; however, a teacher does need to ensure students’ rights by providing a safe environment and ensuring that emergency contact information will remain confidential.
Mr. Wylie, a seventh-grade Texas history teacher, is planning a unit to help his students understand the structure and functions of government as created by the Texas Constitution. To address the objective, he plans to have pairs of students work together to interview a city official. He gives students the following handout that provides a timeline of activities for student pairs to perform during the project.

Straight From the Source: Learning About Our City Government
Day 1
Brainstorm a list of ten to fifteen possible questions to ask a city official to help you learn how the Texas Constitution affects decisions that city officials make every day. The questions should elicit a variety of answers.
Day 2
Share your list of potential questions in small groups to get feedback. Revise your questions.
Day 3
Practice your interview using role-playing with at least two different members of the class (other than your partner). Take turns as the interviewer, asking your questions and taking notes.
Day 4
Use your experiences from Day 3 to reflect on the quality and scope of your questions.
Refine your list of questions based on your reflection.
Day 5
Conduct yourself appropriately during the interview and take good notes.
Write a summary of the information you learned from your interview.
Day 6
Make a brief oral presentation to the class to share what you learned.
PART 2
In preparing for the interviews, Mr. Wylie develops a list of officials who have an office in the city hall building. Then he contacts the officials to determine if they are interested in the project and their availability for interviews.

The project develops students’ higher-order thinking skills primarily by promoting which of the following?

A. Problem solving
B. Inquiry learning
C. Community involvement
D. Multisensory learning

Option (B) is correct because students have to develop a variety of questions to ask during the interview. Developing questions, especially open-ended questions, will promote students’ higher-level thinking about the subject matter. Option (A) is incorrect because students are only learning about government. They are not being asked to attempt to solve any political or societal issues. Option (C) is incorrect because higher-order thinking is not achieved through the community involvement part of the project. Option (D) is incorrect because using multiple senses while preparing for and conducting the interview does not promote higher-level thinking skills.
Mr. Wylie, a seventh-grade Texas history teacher, is planning a unit to help his students understand the structure and functions of government as created by the Texas Constitution. To address the objective, he plans to have pairs of students work together to interview a city official. He gives students the following handout that provides a timeline of activities for student pairs to perform during the project.

Straight From the Source: Learning About Our City Government
Day 1
Brainstorm a list of ten to fifteen possible questions to ask a city official to help you learn how the Texas Constitution affects decisions that city officials make every day. The questions should elicit a variety of answers.
Day 2
Share your list of potential questions in small groups to get feedback. Revise your questions.
Day 3
Practice your interview using role-playing with at least two different members of the class (other than your partner). Take turns as the interviewer, asking your questions and taking notes.
Day 4
Use your experiences from Day 3 to reflect on the quality and scope of your questions.
Refine your list of questions based on your reflection.
Day 5
Conduct yourself appropriately during the interview and take good notes.
Write a summary of the information you learned from your interview.
Day 6
Make a brief oral presentation to the class to share what you learned.
PART 2
In preparing for the interviews, Mr. Wylie develops a list of officials who have an office in the city hall building. Then he contacts the officials to determine if they are interested in the project and their availability for interviews.

A primary benefit of creating the list of people to interview is that it will facilitate

A. scheduling to maximize learning opportunities.
B. planning experiences for students to practice problem solving.
C. sequencing of learning activities in a logical way.
D. improving students’ understanding of the unit’s content material.

Option (A) is correct because creating a list and contacting city officials to schedule interviews will allow students to spend as much time as possible in an interview learning from an expert. The advance notice will allow the officials to prepare thoughtful and appropriate responses. Option (B) is incorrect because practicing problem solving would occur when the students are engaged in problem-solving tasks, not when the teacher is creating a logistical plan for the students. Option (C) is incorrect because sequencing learning activities in a logical way is accomplished by the teacher’s lesson plans, not by the teacher’s logistical plans for the interviews. Option (D) is incorrect because student understanding will develop from the interview, not from the list of people to interview.
Mr. Wylie, a seventh-grade Texas history teacher, is planning a unit to help his students understand the structure and functions of government as created by the Texas Constitution. To address the objective, he plans to have pairs of students work together to interview a city official. He gives students the following handout that provides a timeline of activities for student pairs to perform during the project.

Straight From the Source: Learning About Our City Government
Day 1
Brainstorm a list of ten to fifteen possible questions to ask a city official to help you learn how the Texas Constitution affects decisions that city officials make every day. The questions should elicit a variety of answers.
Day 2
Share your list of potential questions in small groups to get feedback. Revise your questions.
Day 3
Practice your interview using role-playing with at least two different members of the class (other than your partner). Take turns as the interviewer, asking your questions and taking notes.
Day 4
Use your experiences from Day 3 to reflect on the quality and scope of your questions.
Refine your list of questions based on your reflection.
Day 5
Conduct yourself appropriately during the interview and take good notes.
Write a summary of the information you learned from your interview.
Day 6
Make a brief oral presentation to the class to share what you learned.
PART 2
In preparing for the interviews, Mr. Wylie develops a list of officials who have an office in the city hall building. Then he contacts the officials to determine if they are interested in the project and their availability for interviews.

To best help officials understand the expectations for the interviews, it is most important for Mr. Wylie to explain the

A. question-and-answer format the students will use during the students’ interviews.
B. students’ learning objectives to be achieved for the unit.
C. lesson format that will be followed after the students’ interviews.
D. students’ varied learning preferences for the unit.

Option (B) is correct because knowing the student learning objectives will explain the purpose of the interview, which helps the officials focus on relevant information. Option (A) is incorrect because a discussion of the interview format will not help officials understand the expectations for learning. Option (C) is incorrect because the teacher’s lesson format for completing the unit is not something that the officials need to know before their interviews. Option (D) is incorrect because students’ varied learning preferences will not help the city officials include relevant information to meet Mr. Wylie’s expectations regarding the lesson objectives.
Mr. Wylie, a seventh-grade Texas history teacher, is planning a unit to help his students understand the structure and functions of government as created by the Texas Constitution. To address the objective, he plans to have pairs of students work together to interview a city official. He gives students the following handout that provides a timeline of activities for student pairs to perform during the project.

Straight From the Source: Learning About Our City Government
Day 1
Brainstorm a list of ten to fifteen possible questions to ask a city official to help you learn how the Texas Constitution affects decisions that city officials make every day. The questions should elicit a variety of answers.
Day 2
Share your list of potential questions in small groups to get feedback. Revise your questions.
Day 3
Practice your interview using role-playing with at least two different members of the class (other than your partner). Take turns as the interviewer, asking your questions and taking notes.
Day 4
Use your experiences from Day 3 to reflect on the quality and scope of your questions.
Refine your list of questions based on your reflection.
Day 5
Conduct yourself appropriately during the interview and take good notes.
Write a summary of the information you learned from your interview.
Day 6
Make a brief oral presentation to the class to share what you learned.
PART 2
In preparing for the interviews, Mr. Wylie develops a list of officials who have an office in the city hall building. Then he contacts the officials to determine if they are interested in the project and their availability for interviews.

Which of the following best describes Mr. Wylie’s role during the interview day?

A. Content specialist
B. Facilitator
C. Interview director
D. Evaulator

Option (B) is correct because Mr. Wylie prepares everything for the interviews in order to facilitate students’ independent learning. Option (A) is incorrect because as the unit is described, students are learning from experts in the field during their interviews, not from direct instruction. Option (C) is incorrect because Mr. Wylie is not participating in the interviews himself. Option (D) is incorrect because as the unit is described, the students, and not Mr. Wylie, evaluated their interview questions during peer reviews and learning.
A primary benefit of using classroom portfolios for assessment purposes is to

A. facilitate comparing students’ work to that of their peers.
B. provide an opportunity for students to reflect on their progress.
C. promote the implementation of cooperative group projects.
D. support the application of learning strategies across the curriculum.

Option (B) is correct because portfolios are a collection of student work compiled over time to show progress and growth. Option (A) is incorrect because a norm-referenced assessment is more appropriate for comparing student learning to that of their peers. Option (C) is incorrect because portfolio work is not intended to promote cooperative group projects. Option (D) is incorrect because a cross-curricular assessment would better support learning across the curriculum.
In a middle school classroom, which of the following methods for returning graded papers most effectively and appropriately maximizes instructional time?

A. Distributing graded assignments quietly while students complete seat work
B. Calling students up to the front of the classroom to pick up graded assignments
C. Assigning a trustworthy student to hand out graded assignments during class
D. Returning graded assignments during the last few minutes of the class while students wait

Option (A) is correct because handing out papers while students work maximizes instructional time by giving students an instruction-related task to complete while the teacher quietly takes care of an administrative task. Option (B) is incorrect because having students come to pick up their papers is disruptive to instructional time and it is unnecessary to actively engage students in the process. Option (C) is incorrect because grades are confidential information that should be given by the teacher directly to the individual student. Option (D) is incorrect because returning graded assignments at the end of a class period limits opportunities to utilize the results of previous assignments in current instruction and reduces instructional time.
A third-grade teacher has several English-language learners (ELLs) at varying language proficiency levels in the class. Which of the following best ensures that the ELLs will participate in whole-class discussions?

A. Modeling different sentence structures found in English and having the ELLs repeat the sentences
B. Pairing ELLs with native English speakers and encouraging conversation between them
C. Increasing wait time to allow ELLs to process information before contributing ideas
D. Incorporating systematic documentation to record when ELLs participate

Option (C) is correct because increasing wait time is a research-based tool for teachers to use to improve student participation, because, as the option states, it allows ELLs the time necessary to process and understand the information. Option (A) is incorrect because having the ELLs simply repeat the different sentence structures in English does not promote their ability to participate in discussions about the actual content material. Option (B) is incorrect because pairing ELLs with native English speakers will not contribute to whole-class discussion; rather, it may lead to side conversations between the student pairs. Option (D) is incorrect because, while such documentation is a good thing for the teacher to keep, the documentation does not provide linguistic support across the varying proficiency levels.
During a lesson about the American Revolution, the teacher asks students the following questions.

• Why did the Americans rebel?
• Where did the Revolution begin?
• What is a Patriot and what is a Tory?

By asking these questions, the teacher best demonstrates an understanding of how to

A. foster students’ inquiry skills.
B. measure students’ evaluation skills.
C. assess students’ recall of the content.
D. promote students’ critical thinking about the content.

Option (C) is correct because these questions help the teacher see if the students have learned and are able to recall the content. Option (A) is incorrect because students are not asking questions, so this will not foster their inquiry skills. Option (B) is incorrect because these questions are not asking students to evaluate or draw conclusions about what occurred. They are only determining students’ understanding of the content. Option (D) is incorrect because these questions, which are lower-level Bloom’s taxonomy questions, are determining students’ basic understanding and will not promote critical thinking.
Ms. Yan is using a weekly interactive online journal to encourage her middle school students to write about mathematics and to discuss concepts with each other. Students write entries related to one of the topics Ms. Yan has posted. She hopes that the interactive online journal will encourage ongoing dialogue among her students, both online and during class.

After the teacher briefly explains the process of making an entry in an interactive online journal, which of the following teacher actions would best ensure that the students are successful with the journal?

A. Giving detailed, step-by-step directions before students begin working on their own
B. Modeling the journal-entry process in great detail, using complex technology terms
C. Allowing students to write a journal entry independently and to ask questions while they are working
D. Using a projector to display and model how to write a journal entry before students begin working

Option (D) is correct because using a projector to display and model the journal-entry process allows students an opportunity to see the action completed correctly. This will best provide students with auditory and visual information needed to correctly complete the task independently. Option (A) is incorrect because detailed directions are helpful as a reference but if used alone, they are insufficient for students to learn to create an online-journal entry. Option (B) is incorrect because modeling the process using complex technology terms will likely confuse students rather than best ensure they are successful. Option (C) is incorrect because students have been given only a brief explanation. The students less proficient on the computer will not have enough information to complete the task independently and will be confused.
Ms. Yan is using a weekly interactive online journal to encourage her middle school students to write about mathematics and to discuss concepts with each other. Students write entries related to one of the topics Ms. Yan has posted. She hopes that the interactive online journal will encourage ongoing dialogue among her students, both online and during class.

Ms. Yan wants to increase the level of ongoing dialogue and student investment in the interactive online journal. She could best promote positive student engagement by

A. requiring students to answer questions in their journal entries that will clarify misconceptions.
B. increasing the number of times a week students are expected to log in to the online journal.
C. allowing students to add new topics and questions to which other students respond.
D. posting assignments and student solutions to homework and test questions.

Option (C) is correct because providing student choice and ownership in an activity is a strong motivator for students. By allowing students to post new topics and answer each other’s questions, the teacher can effectively increase student interest and promote their engagement in the interactive online journal. Option (A) is incorrect because requiring students to answer questions to clarify misconceptions will increase the workload but not effectively increase student engagement. Option (B) is incorrect because increasing the number of times a week students log into the online journal will provide more exposure to the online dialogue; however, it might not increase the students’ interest level in the topics. Option (D) is incorrect because posting assignments and solutions to assignments will provide students with an additional need for going to the online journal but will not necessarily be effective at increasing their engagement in the activity.
Ms. Yan is using a weekly interactive online journal to encourage her middle school students to write about mathematics and to discuss concepts with each other. Students write entries related to one of the topics Ms. Yan has posted. She hopes that the interactive online journal will encourage ongoing dialogue among her students, both online and during class.

Ms. Yan is aware that two of her students do not have computers at home, making it difficult for them to complete their weekly interactive online journal assignment. To best address this situation without depriving the two students of important learning opportunities, the teacher should

A. exempt them from their weekly journal assignment that requires Internet access to complete.
B. provide them with Internet access during the school day to work on their weekly journal assignment.
C. allow them to submit their weekly journal assignment on paper.
D. allow them an extra day to complete their weekly journal assignment.

Option (B) is correct because providing the two students with Internet access during the school day gives them the same learning experience as that of students who do have Internet access at home. Option (A) is incorrect because the students will miss the learning opportunity provided to the other students in class by being exempted from it. Option (C) is incorrect because the online activity is an ongoing dialogue that requires participation to learn from appropriately. The two students will not get the same experience if they just submit an answer to the teacher on paper. Option (D) is incorrect because an additional day does not address the problem that the students lack access to a computer.
Which of the following steps should a high school teacher take first when introducing procedures at the beginning of the year?

A. Explaining the details of the procedures
B. Correcting misunderstandings about the procedures
C. Reinforcing effective use of the procedures
D. Practicing the procedures regularly with the class

Option (A) is correct because at this age level the details of the procedures should be explained before actually practicing the procedures. Options (B), (C), and (D) are incorrect because while these steps are important, the students must understand the procedures first.
A high school science teacher has students keep a personal dictionary of content-related vocabulary words. The teacher first models for the students and then asks them to come up with personal learning connections for each word, such as graphics, lab notes, and references to enhance understanding. Which of the following skills will the activity most likely help the students develop?

A. Abstract thinking
B. Stimulus-response learning
C. Critical thinking
D. Self-directed learning

Option (D) is correct because students are self-directing their own learning. They are making their own connections and enhancing their understanding of the words. Option (A) is incorrect because the assignment lends to more fact-level learning because students are concerned with the denotation of the word. Option (B) is incorrect because students are not responding to a stimulus so that they can learn a behavior. Option (C) is incorrect because this assignment is a very concrete, fact-level task that does not lend itself to critical thinking directly.
Which of the following is the most effective way for a teacher to establish a solution-focused approach to parent-teacher conferences?

A. Providing school safety procedures to each parent
B. Explaining student behavior management structures
C. Seeking to establish a partnership with each parent
D. Conveying interest in each student’s hobbies

Option (C) is correct because the goal of a parent-teacher conference is to establish a strong working relationship with the parents to best ensure the success of the student. Option (A) is incorrect because information about safety procedures is not generally a priority during a parent-teacher conference. Rather, the focus should be on the specific successes and needs of the student. Option (B) is incorrect because explaining classroom expectations is best accomplished with students rather than parents. Focusing on a specific disruptive behavior and the related classroom expectation is appropriate at times, but sharing the entire management structure should not be the goal of a parent-teacher conference. Option (D) is incorrect because conveying interest in a student’s hobbies may be a part of getting to know each student, but it does not effectively create a solution-focused approach to parent-teacher conferences.
In order to provide the most beneficial feedback to students on their research papers, a teacher should

A. provide students with corrective marks on their graded papers.
B. schedule individual conferences to address comments and questions.
C. return the graded papers and display a graph of the overall class performance.
D. return the graded papers and offer students the option to set up a teacher conference.

Option (B) is correct because effective feedback is specific, timely, and focuses on improvements that each individual student can control or correct. Option (A) is incorrect because providing students their papers without an explanation limits the students’ ability to correct their mistakes. Option (C) is incorrect because providing a graph of the overall class performance provides students information that is not specific enough to improve their own learning. Option (D) is incorrect because it is most beneficial for the teacher to have a conference with all students rather than with just those students who choose to meet with the teacher.
Mr. Chan is preteaching intermediate-level English-language learners key content-area vocabulary for an upcoming unit. He begins by telling them the definitions of the words. To most effectively help them comprehend the meanings, Mr. Chan’s best next step is to have students

A. relate the words to their daily lives.
B. create a sentence for each of the words.
C. memorize the words and their relevant definitions.
D. practice the words with word games and puzzles.

Option (A) is correct because relating the vocabulary to the students’ daily lives will build upon their prior knowledge and, therefore, help them make personal connections to the words. Option (B) is incorrect because while creating sentences for the words is a good way to reinforce students’ understanding of the words, the strategy is best implemented after they have developed personal connections to the words. Option (C) is incorrect because memorizing words and their definitions does not necessarily mean that students comprehend the meaning of what they have memorized. Option (D) is incorrect because while practicing the words with games and puzzles is often a good way to reinforce students’ understanding of the word meanings, the approach would best follow learning the words by personally connecting to them.
A high school teacher is creating a mathematics unit assessment for the class. It is most important for the teacher to align the assessment questions with the

A. objectives in the national mathematics standards.
B. content of the previous mathematics unit as a review.
C. interests of the students during the mathematics unit.
D. material taught during the mathematics unit.

Option (D) is correct because aligning material to previously taught material during the mathematics unit is most important when planning a unit assessment. Option (A) is incorrect because the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) that have been taught are what should be assessed, not the national mathematics standards. Option (B) is incorrect because although reviews are important, especially if the unit includes foundational material, the current material is the most important aspect of the assessment. Option (C) is incorrect because although relating the information to students’ interests is beneficial, it is most important to align the assessment with previously taught material.
PART 1

Ms. Soto, a fourth-grade teacher, begins a unit about endangered animals with her class. Read the following excerpt from the student assignment sheet.
Our Precious Animals
Goals:
Mathematics: To practice estimation skills by writing estimation statements about the endangered animals
Science: To understand factors that contribute to the endangerment of animals
Social Studies: To learn about various world cultures and land formations
English/Language Arts: To incorporate research into a concise computer-based slide show and to write song lyrics
There are hundreds of endangered animals in our country alone and many more around the world. Over the next three weeks, we will be studying such endangered animals.
You will be assigned to a group of 3-4 students and to a specific region of the world. Each group will be asked to research ten animals within the group’s assigned region that are considered endangered and present the information to the class.

Which of the following terms best characterizes the project described?

A. Culminating
B. Interdisciplinary
C. Multicultural
D. Kinesthetic

Option (B) is correct because an interdisciplinary unit incorporates teaching objectives from multiple curriculum areas, allowing students to make links between disciplines. The excerpt provided from the student assignment sheet shows goals and objectives in all the core subject areas, as required of an interdisciplinary unit. Option (A) is incorrect because a culminating project should provide a clear assessment of the students’ understanding of a topic or skill that has been taught previously. The introductory information states that the class is beginning the unit and describes aspects that support interdisciplinary units. Option (C) is incorrect because the primary purpose of a multicultural project should be to explore various perspectives reflected in a diverse world, reaching across nationality, race, social paradigms, and cultural identities. Instead, the project focuses primarily on the endangerment of animals. Option (D) is incorrect because kinesthetic learning focuses on using the body to actively do something. While kinesthetic learners may benefit from movement permitted during the project, it focuses primarily on cognitive learning of estimation skills, understanding factors that cause endangerment to animals and integrating computer skills.
Ms. Soto, a fourth-grade teacher, begins a unit about endangered animals with her class. Read the following excerpt from the student assignment sheet.

Our Precious Animals
Goals:

Mathematics: To practice estimation skills by writing estimation statements about the endangered animals
Science: To understand factors that contribute to the endangerment of animals
Social Studies: To learn about various world cultures and land formations
English/Language Arts: To incorporate research into a concise computer-based slide show and to write song lyrics
There are hundreds of endangered animals in our country alone and many more around the world. Over the next three weeks, we will be studying such endangered animals.

You will be assigned to a group of 3-4 students and to a specific region of the world. Each group will be asked to research ten animals within the group’s assigned region that are considered endangered and present the information to the class.

Ms. Soto allows each student to select two or three animals to research for the group. The purpose of allowing students to choose the animals is to

A. ensure organization.
B. monitor effectiveness.
C. increase motivation.
D. use hands-on learning.

Option (C) is correct because allowing students to make choices is an appropriate strategy for increasing student motivation. If students choose the animals they want to research, their interest level in the project increases. Option (A) is incorrect because allowing students to choose two or three animals does not ensure organization. Creating a chart of the animals that students choose in order to avoid overlap would better ensure organization of this aspect of the project. Option (B) is incorrect because allowing choice is not a strategy for monitoring effectiveness of student learning. Allowing choice is better identified as a motivation strategy. Option (D) is incorrect because allowing choice is not a strategy for achieving hands-on learning. Allowing the students to work in groups to produce a slide show or song would be a more appropriate aspect of the project whose primary purpose is incorporating hands-on learning.
PART 2
Before students begin their research, Ms. Soto posts the broad mathematics goal on the chalkboard. The following is the class discussion.
Ms. Soto:
OK, I have written the mathematics goal on the board, “To practice estimation skills.” We completed an estimation unit about a week ago. We used a jar of jelly beans to start out the unit… does anyone remember what estimating is in measurement?
Corey:
It’s when you figure how much something weighs or how many things there are, or something like that. I mean, not exactly how much, but around how much.
Ms. Soto:
Yes, that’s correct. You give an educated guess. We estimated how many jelly beans were in a jar based on the size of the jar and the size of the jelly beans. Now, for our research, we are going to use estimation to help others understand the size of the animal based on things that we already know. For example, let’s look at this science textbook. We don’t know how much it weighs, but what can you tell me about its weight? [No one volunteers to answer the question.] Well, let’s see, is the textbook heavier or lighter than this magazine?
Several students:
Heavier!
Ms. Soto:
Good! Now what’s another question you could ask to help us estimate its weight?
Amanda:
You could ask if it’s heavier or lighter than a student dictionary, and it’s lighter.
[The conversation continues, and students practice estimating the relative heights and volumes of different objects.]
Ms. Soto:
So for each of the endangered animals you research, you will be responsible for helping us understand its height and weight in terms of estimation based on things that we already know. For example, an African elephant can weigh more than four tons and stand twelve feet tall. In terms that we can understand, that’s the weight of three average-sized cars and the height of a tall man standing on the shoulders of another tall man.

Ms. Soto mentions the jelly bean activity primarily to do which of the following?

A. Connect ideas to prior knowledge
B. Relate the project to real life
C. Stimulate critical thinking
D. Encourage visual learners

Option (A) is correct because the teacher connects ideas related to estimation with the students’ prior knowledge. The teacher mentions jelly beans, which draws on an activity that students completed together at an earlier date. By reminding students of the activity, the teacher allows students to consider how the previous lesson might relate to the current lesson. Option (B) is incorrect because the jelly bean activity was completed as a class assignment or lesson; there is no authentic connection to how estimation is valuable in real-life scenarios. If students were asked to go to the grocery store with their parents and estimate the price of items purchased, then the activity would provide a real-life connection to estimation. Option (C) is incorrect because the teacher has not asked students to use a combination of complex skills that would be required of critical thinking. Option (D) is incorrect because the teacher verbally referred to the jelly bean jar. The teacher would have to actually show the jar to the students to best encourage visual learners.
PART 2
Before students begin their research, Ms. Soto posts the broad mathematics goal on the chalkboard. The following is the class discussion.
Ms. Soto:
OK, I have written the mathematics goal on the board, “To practice estimation skills.” We completed an estimation unit about a week ago. We used a jar of jelly beans to start out the unit… does anyone remember what estimating is in measurement?
Corey:
It’s when you figure how much something weighs or how many things there are, or something like that. I mean, not exactly how much, but around how much.
Ms. Soto:
Yes, that’s correct. You give an educated guess. We estimated how many jelly beans were in a jar based on the size of the jar and the size of the jelly beans. Now, for our research, we are going to use estimation to help others understand the size of the animal based on things that we already know. For example, let’s look at this science textbook. We don’t know how much it weighs, but what can you tell me about its weight? [No one volunteers to answer the question.] Well, let’s see, is the textbook heavier or lighter than this magazine?
Several students:
Heavier!
Ms. Soto:
Good! Now what’s another question you could ask to help us estimate its weight?
Amanda:
You could ask if it’s heavier or lighter than a student dictionary, and it’s lighter.
[The conversation continues, and students practice estimating the relative heights and volumes of different objects.]
Ms. Soto:
So for each of the endangered animals you research, you will be responsible for helping us understand its height and weight in terms of estimation based on things that we already know. For example, an African elephant can weigh more than four tons and stand twelve feet tall. In terms that we can understand, that’s the weight of three average-sized cars and the height of a tall man standing on the shoulders of another tall man.

Which of the following excerpts from the discussion best indicates that Ms. Soto adjusted instruction based on students’ needs?

A. Yes, that’s correct. You give an educated guess.
B. …but what can you tell me about its weight?
C. …we are going to use estimation to help others understand…
D. …is the textbook heavier or lighter than this magazine?

Option (D) is correct because the teacher asks students if the textbook is “heavier or lighter than this magazine” directly after no one volunteers to answer the previous question. The silence indicates that students do not have enough knowledge to answer the previous question. The teacher adjusts instruction by asking a clarifying question to scaffold students’ learning. Option (A) is incorrect because saying “yes, that’s correct. You give an educated guess” is an example of the teacher restating and affirming a comment made by a student. Option (B) is incorrect because asking the student “but what can you tell me about its weight” is asking students to make observations. Option (C) is incorrect because telling the students that they are “going to use estimation to help others understand” gives purpose to their assignment but is not an adjustment of instruction based on student need.
PART 3
After the groups have compiled their research, students are to choose and present relevant facts. Ms. Soto brings them to the school computer lab to give them time to create their group slide shows. Before having the students begin their assignment, Ms. Soto reviews how to create a slide show with the students.

After their group presentations, students are given an assignment that will count as their final assessment for the unit. They are to choose one endangered animal from their group and compose song lyrics to the tune of a nursery rhyme or popular song. The song lyrics should describe the animal.

Which of the following will best ensure that Ms. Soto clearly explains the directions for the slide show assignment?

A. Giving students two minutes to discuss the assignment with a partner
B. Providing a visual example of a completed assignment
C. Asking each student to write his or her understanding of the assignment
D. Restating the goal of the assignment after discussing the directions

Option (B) is correct because showing the students a visual example of a correctly completed assignment will best help the teacher communicate to the students her expectations. Option (A) is incorrect because giving students two minutes to discuss the assignment with a partner may lead to more confusion and off-task behavior, rather than serve to clarify the directions. Option (C) is incorrect because asking each student to record his or her understanding of the assignment may be a more appropriate way to informally assess each student’s understanding of the assignment. Option (D) is incorrect because restating the goal will best help students understand the purpose of the assignment, but not the specific expectations of how the teacher wants the assignment completed.
PART 3
After the groups have compiled their research, students are to choose and present relevant facts. Ms. Soto brings them to the school computer lab to give them time to create their group slide shows. Before having the students begin their assignment, Ms. Soto reviews how to create a slide show with the students.

After their group presentations, students are given an assignment that will count as their final assessment for the unit. They are to choose one endangered animal from their group and compose song lyrics to the tune of a nursery rhyme or popular song. The song lyrics should describe the animal.

The best reason for incorporating the slide show portion into the unit is to have students

A. use productivity tools to communicate information.
B. gain experience using new computer software.
C. work collaboratively to ensure understanding.
D. access information from electronic sources.

Option (A) is correct because the teacher wants the students to share what they have learned about endangered animals with the class. By using slide show software to display their information, the teacher uses an appropriate electronic software tool to achieve her goal. Option (B) is incorrect because the information provided in Part 3 states that the teacher reviews how to create a slide show with the students, which indicates that it is not new software for the students. Option (C) is incorrect because students have already achieved the goal of working collaboratively in small groups during other portions of the unit. Option (D) is incorrect because creating a slide show is an aspect of the project that occurs after the research portion is complete. Students may or may not have researched information from electronic sources. Incorporating the slide show portion only provides an opportunity for students to use an electronic tool to communicate information to others.
PART 3

After the groups have compiled their research, students are to choose and present relevant facts. Ms. Soto brings them to the school computer lab to give them time to create their group slide shows. Before having the students begin their assignment, Ms. Soto reviews how to create a slide show with the students.

After their group presentations, students are given an assignment that will count as their final assessment for the unit. They are to choose one endangered animal from their group and compose song lyrics to the tune of a nursery rhyme or popular song. The song lyrics should describe the animal.

To make the final assessment most valid, the teacher should instruct the students to

A. tell a fictional story about the animal in the song.
B. use a familiar song.
C. include facts about the animal in the song.
D. memorize the song.

Option (C) is correct because an assessment is valid when it measures what it is intended to measure. The teacher intends for the song to describe the animal, which will measure the students’ learning about the endangered animal. If the students include facts about the animal in the song, the assessment will best meet the teacher’s intended purpose. Option (A) is incorrect because telling a fictional story in a song does not guarantee the students will incorporate facts to allow the teacher to measure how much the students have learned about the endangered animal. Options (B) and (D) are incorrect because using a familiar song and memorizing the song do not ensure that the song accurately describes the animal, which is the intended purpose.
Which of the following classroom management approaches for high school students is based on Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning?

A. Providing breakfast for students to help them pay attention better in class
B. Praising students who are on task while correcting students who are off task
C. Creating collaborative groups for students to assist one another in learning
D. Developing hands-on activities to promote the highest level of engagement

Option (B) is correct because both positive and negative reinforcement can elicit desired effects. Option (A) is incorrect because ensuring that physical needs are met before learning aligns best with Maslow’s work on the hierarchy of needs. Option (C) is incorrect because social learning through collaborative groups is aligned with Vygotsky’s work. Option (D) is incorrect because constructivist theory supports authentic learning, which is typically associated with hands-on activities‚ and is aligned with Bruner’s work.
When conducting a class discussion, a high school teacher makes eye contact with individual students and listens intently to their responses. Which of the following classroom management techniques does the teacher’s conduct best exemplify?

A. Redirecting student focus
B. Modeling desired behaviors
C. Monitoring student behavior
D. Enforcing desired expectations

Option (B) is correct because the teacher is modeling how students should behave when participating in a classroom discussion. Option (A) is incorrect because the teacher is not trying to gain students’ attention. Option (C) is incorrect because the example does not provide evidence that the teacher is monitoring students’ behavior. Option (D) is incorrect because the teacher is not administering consequences to students who are not conforming to behavioral expectations.
According to Piaget, which of the following is the last stage of cognitive development?

A. Preoperational stage
B. Formal operational stage
C. Sensorimotor stage
D. Concrete operational stage

Option (B) is correct because according to Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, the expected order of development is sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational, respectively. Options (A), (C), and (D) are incorrect because these stages emerge earlier in the development process.
A teacher can best simplify language for an English-language learner with which of the following strategies?

A. Eliminating nonverbal facial expressions and gestures
B. Avoiding the use of cognates while doing group work
C. Reducing the number of pronouns used in spoken instructions
D. Using slang commonly spoken by students of that age group

Option (C) is correct because reducing the use of pronouns will increase comprehension by eliminating the ELL’s need to guess what the pronouns are referencing. Option (A) is incorrect because an ELL often depends on nonverbal facial expressions and gestures to comprehend what is being said; reducing such support potentially reduces the ELL’s comprehension. Option (B) is incorrect because using cognates, which are words in English that are similar to words in other languages, during any type of instruction, is an excellent way to simplify instruction for ELLs; therefore, such support should be used when appropriate, not avoided. Option (D) is incorrect because using slang may hinder comprehension and may cause the ELL, without understanding of the terminology, to feel marginalized.
An elementary school teacher presents a lesson in which students write a positive statement about each of their classmates. Which of the following is a primary purpose of the activity?

A. Promoting a respectful learning environment
B. Fostering equitable achievement
C. Developing skills for self-directed learning
D. Integrating the use of goal setting

Option (A) is correct because writing a positive statement about each classmate promotes students focusing on positive qualities in one another and may produce a more respectful environment. Option (B) is incorrect because writing a positive statement about each classmate will not promote equitable achievement among the students. Option (C) is incorrect because writing a positive statement about each classmate will not develop skills for self-directed learning, as students are not given a checklist or something to guide them as they complete a project. Option (D) is incorrect because students are writing statements about their classmates, not setting goals for themselves or their classmates.
Su-Mei, a high school English-language learner, is at an intermediate level of English-language proficiency. She can communicate and understand a wide range of everyday topics but has difficulty understanding complex content material in class lectures. Which of the following strategies is the most appropriate for her teachers to use to help her comprehend academic content?

A. Assigning supplemental homework based on content material
B. Discussing learning objectives at the beginning and end of class
C. Modeling the use of inferential skills to develop prediction skills
D. Monitoring progress through observation during group work

Option (B) is correct because discussing learning objectives before the lesson focuses the English-language learner on what she needs to learn, and restating them after the lesson helps recap for the student what she should have learned from the lesson. Option (A) is incorrect because assigning more homework is not a specific strategy to help make the material more comprehensible; in fact, increasing the workload without providing linguistic support for the ELL will likely be more frustrating than helpful to her. Option (C) is incorrect because modeling the use of inferential skills does not target the student’s need for linguistic support. Option (D) is incorrect because the ELL needs support during class lectures; thus, monitoring her progress during small-group discussions is not an appropriately matched assessment.
At the beginning of the school year, a sixth-grade language arts teacher gives students a hand-shaped cutout and tells them to write an “I” statement on it focusing on something they like to do in relation to language arts. Students then present their statements to the class and put their cutouts up on a classroom bulletin board. Which of the following teacher’s goals is best achieved through the activity?

A. Assessing students’ current skill levels and learning styles to appropriately differentiate instruction
B. Establishing a means to monitor students’ academic goals throughout the year
C. Using students’ diverse skills and interests to create a sense of community within the classroom
D. Planning instruction that helps students identify their goals for future careers

Option (C) is correct because the teacher is trying to promote a learning community where students are aware of their peers’ interests and skills and can seek out one another as resources. Option (A) is incorrect because the activity cannot be used to assess a skill level or guide instruction. Option (B) is incorrect because the activity does not offer a way to monitor academic growth; one written statement is insufficient for assessing a student’s abilities. Option (D) is incorrect because the activity addresses students’ interests, not their goals for future careers.
A middle school teacher observes an unusually high number of behavior problems in one class. The students are violating multiple rules during a typical class period despite having watched a presentation on class expectations at the beginning of the school year. Which of the following strategies is the best next step for the teacher to take to help improve the behavior of the class?

A. Rewarding the class when the students keep violations below a predetermined number
B. Setting up a video camera to record student violations to show parents at conferences
C. Assigning extra work for the class to make up for instruction time that was lost due to violations
D. Sending any student who violates the same rule more than once to the principal’s office

Option (A) is correct because an incentive system is an effective way to motivate students to want to maintain correct behavior. Option (B) is incorrect because showing parents a video of their child’s misbehaviors is not appropriate for a parent conference and may break confidentiality of other students who may be in the video. Option (C) is incorrect because assigning extra work is a negative consequence but does not address improving student behaviors through positive reinforcement. Option (D) is incorrect because sending students to the office after more than one violation is too harsh a consequence and, therefore, would not be the next best logical step in helping improve their behavior.
After teaching a unit on the War of 1812, a teacher assesses the students’ learning by asking them to summarize the war, first as if they were a United States journalist and then as if they were a British government official. Which of the following teaching strategies does the assignment primarily use?

A. Providing instructional scaffolding
B. Activating prior knowledge
C. Exploring multiple perspectives
D. Promoting student choice

Option (C) is correct because the assignment is using multiple perspectives to create a deeper understanding of the topic. Option (A) is incorrect because asking students to summarize events is not an example of instructional scaffolding, which might include modeling a task or providing prompts, cues, or hints for completing a task. Option (B) is incorrect because the activity described is a post-assignment activity, and activating prior knowledge is a pre-assignment strategy. Option (D) is incorrect because each student must write two summaries, and they are not given a choice in the assignment.
A teacher would like to create a more collaborative environment in the classroom but does not know how to implement strategies to do so. Which of the following would be the best first step in developing more collaboration?

A. Observing another teacher who effectively implements collaborative activities on a regular basis
B. Grouping the students by various learning styles to promote more collaboration
C. Consulting with the administrator to enlist suggestions for improving the level of collaboration in the classroom
D. Discussing the goals with the school guidance counselor to learn more about the psychology behind grouping students

Option (A) is correct because observing another teacher effectively implement collaborative activities will provide the teacher with firsthand observations and a stronger knowledge base to readily integrate collaborative activities into his or her own classroom. Option (B) is incorrect because grouping students by various learning styles does not necessarily ensure more collaboration. Understanding students’ learning styles is a more effective strategy for learning how a student processes information. Option (C) is incorrect because consulting with an administrator for suggestions will likely provide a list of ideas but does not allow the teacher to observe the strategies firsthand. Option (D) is incorrect because gaining this type of knowledge may be indirectly helpful, but seeing another teacher effectively demonstrate collaborative activities is the best first step in learning to do it in one’s own classroom.
One day a week, a middle school social studies teacher holds a class discussion on a current event. To prepare students for the discussion, the teacher sends home an article and a list of online sites related to the topic. The teacher also suggests that students watch the news for additional information regarding the issue. Which of the following is a primary benefit of the teacher’s actions?

A. Accommodating students’ differing access to resources
B. Using student diversity to enhance and guide learning
C. Providing instruction to support learning goals and objectives
D. Differentiating instruction for students’ varying reasoning abilities

Option (A) is correct because sending home the article allows students who do not have access to other sources of information on the issue to prepare for the class discussion. Option (B) is incorrect because while student diversity might enhance the discussion, the teacher providing the article beforehand does not relate to diversity. Option (C) is incorrect because the exact learning goals and objectives for the activity cannot be determined from the information in the question. Option (D) is incorrect because while the teacher can differentiate instruction for varying abilities during the discussion, the teacher’s actions before the discussion do not provide such accommodations.
A teacher finds a cell phone after students have left class. Which of the following is the most ethical way for the teacher to handle the situation?

A. Turning off the phone and returning it the following day
B. Taking the phone to the school office as soon as possible
C. Asking other students if they know who owns the phone
D. Searching for information on the phone to determine the owner

Option (B) is correct because turning the phone in to the office is the best choice in the situation. The school office has procedures for returning cell phones as well as for notifying parents. Option (A) is incorrect because the student who owns the phone may need it later that day and the teacher may forget to return the phone. Option (C) is incorrect because it is not ethical to ask other students about the cell phone that has been found. Students may not be truthful about the owner. Option (D) is incorrect because looking at the cell phone violates the student’s privacy.
While grading students’ research projects, a teacher observes that many of the students document unreliable Internet sources. To best ensure students use the most reliable sources, the teacher should provide students with

A. Internet sites that list basic technology terms and concepts.
B. a list of several school-subscribed Web sites.
C. Web sites that provide examples of correct references.
D. names of widely used Internet search engines.

Option (B) is correct because by providing students with a list of school-subscribed Internet sources, the teacher is giving students examples of reliable, reputable sources to use for their research. Option (A) is incorrect because Web sites that list basic terms and concepts of technology are too broad to help students identify reliable Internet sources. Option (C) is incorrect because Web sites that provide examples of correct references will assist students with learning the correct format for citing sources but will not necessarily help them understand how to identify reputable sources. Option (D) is incorrect because using widely known Internet search engines will result in students accessing both reliable and unreliable sources.
A fourth-grade teacher reviews whole-number place value before introducing decimal place value. It is evident that four students still struggle with the concept of whole-number place value. The teacher’s best approach is to

A. continue with the lesson plans to avoid deviating from the mathematics-curriculum timeline.
B. adapt the lesson plans to include small-group instruction for those students who have not mastered the concept.
C. plan lessons to reteach place-value concepts to the whole class, to review and reinforce students’ understanding.
D. prepare lessons to teach the next concept during class, and assign practice activities on place value as homework.

Option (B) is correct because the teacher responds to the learning needs of the four students by adapting the lesson plan to include small-group instruction on the foundational skill. Adjusting the lesson plan in this way also provides for the needs of the rest of the class because students who understand the foundational skill will remain engaged in lessons that are appropriately challenging. Option (A) is incorrect because continuing with the lesson plan without any adjustments would not address the learning needs of students who do not fully understand the foundational concept; this will cause further frustration for those particular students. Option (C) is incorrect because reteaching the foundational skill would not be engaging for the majority of students who already understand the concept. Option (D) is incorrect because teaching the next concept will cause further frustration for the students who do not understand the foundational concept. In addition, assigning homework practice on the foundational skill would not benefit students who need instructional assistance in this area because the practice does not occur during class time.
While teaching a new science unit on weather, a teacher wants to measure the instructional effectiveness of lessons that have been presented against specific science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). The best way to determine the lessons’ effectiveness is to

A. incorporate cooperative learning activities into the unit and have students reflect on their contribution to the group.
B. record how much time students are actively engaged and on task during the unit.
C. ask students to develop learning goals for the unit and to reflect on their progress.
D. monitor students’ learning by asking specific questions and measuring students’ performance on assignments.

Option (D) is correct because monitoring student learning informally through asking questions will allow the teacher to adjust instruction quickly. Monitoring student performance on assignments will allow the teacher to objectively measure student mastery toward specific TEKS objectives. Options (A) and (C) are incorrect because the strategies are more appropriate for encouraging students to monitor their own learning and participation in group tasks, rather than for measuring the effectiveness of lessons presented during the unit. Option (B) is incorrect because measuring how frequently students are on task during the unit better measures the level of student engagement, but it does not necessarily provide objective data on student mastery of TEKS.
Mr. Smigla’s students are reading a novel in history class. He provides twenty minutes for sustained silent reading each class period. Near the end of the established time frame, one of the students asks Mr. Smigla a question about a character in the novel. He answers the question, and this sparks a conversation about the novel that involves the whole classroom. The best way for Mr. Smigla to respond to this situation is by

A. extending the time frame for the sustained silent reading.
B. stopping the discussion and having the students write any comments they may have in their journals.
C. giving an impromptu quiz after the students have finished the conversation.
D. allowing the students to continue the conversation while he monitors the discussion.

Option (D) is correct because allowing the students to continue the conversation best takes advantage of the unplanned opportunity for students to gain insight from each other—a teachable moment. Option (A) is incorrect because little or no sustained silent reading time is lost by allowing the class to address the question. A more important opportunity to engage students in discussion around a student-generated question should be utilized to enhance all students’ understanding of the novel. Option (B) is incorrect because this is a fleeting opportunity where a concept has inadvertently captured the students’ collective interest and can best be used to maximize learning by allowing the discussion to continue monitored by the teacher. Option (C) is incorrect because giving students an impromptu quiz is an ineffective method for addressing the students’ interest in the character in the novel.
Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

-Allows for purposeful selection of student work
-Promotes self-reflection on accomplishments
-Provides an emphasis on improvement
-Encourages meaningful goal setting

The listed information best describes

A. portfolio assessment.
B. objective testing.
C. observational assessment.
D. performance testing.

Option (A) is correct because portfolio assessments provide students an opportunity to select the work they want included, invite students to reflect on the growth they see, and encourage improvement by allowing students to set goals based on strengths and weaknesses. Option (B) is incorrect because objective testing does not allow for student selection of work. Option (C) is incorrect because observational assessments do not allow students to select the work or encourage goal setting. Option (D) is incorrect because performance testing does not involve student selection of work.
A class reads a novel about a man who returns to his homeland. The teacher extends the reading by having the students each create a family tree, research their family’s homeland, model that country’s traditional clothing, and share a food of that country. A primary benefit of including the project in the curriculum is that it

A. promotes acceptance of and respect for students’ diverse backgrounds.
B. adapts materials and instruction to address students’ varied learning styles.
C. communicates the teacher’s enthusiasm and high academic expectations.
D. provides instruction that is responsive to cultural and socioeconomic differences.

Option (A) is correct because, according to research, this activity helps students become more accepting of the foods, clothing, and history of different cultures. Option (B) is incorrect because this activity does not adapt materials for different learning styles. Option (C) is incorrect because the teacher does not participate in the project and the activity does not provide an opportunity for the teacher to communicate his or her enthusiasm for learning. Option (D) is incorrect because all of the students must complete the same assignment, and parts of the activity could actually be difficult for a student whose family cannot afford to supply the food and clothing that the assignment requires.
A teacher allows students in a seventh-grade science class to choose objects from home or from the classroom to use for a demonstration. By allowing the students to choose the objects for the demonstration, the teacher primarily addresses the typical adolescent’s developmental need for

A. success.
B. autonomy.
C. acceptance.
D. reflection.

Option (B) is correct because the students will develop a sense of independence as a result of selecting materials for themselves. Option (A) is incorrect because a sense of success is not guaranteed since demonstrations created with their choice of objects may or may not go as planned. Option (C) is incorrect because a sense of acceptance might occur if a demonstration is particularly successful; however, allowing students to choose their objects does not directly address their need for acceptance. Option (D) is incorrect because allowing students to choose the objects does not necessitate a reflection period.
While reviewing student data from a recent mathematics exam, a high school teacher notices that a majority of students do not understand a key concept. Which of the following actions should the teacher take first to address the students’ deficiency in understanding?

A. Readministering the exam to improve student performance
B. Allowing students to make corrections to their original answers
C. Reteaching the essential concept before covering any new material
D. Presenting the original lesson using the same instructional methodology

Option (C) is correct because reteaching a concept is a necessary step in effective lesson planning when there is evidence that a majority of the students do not understand the essential concept. The teacher should not move on until students understand the concept. Option (A) is incorrect because reassessing students before reteaching the key concept will most likely lead to the same level of student performance as the first time they took the exam. Option (B) is incorrect because students who answered the question incorrectly will need help in order to develop a better understanding of the concept. Option (D) is incorrect because presenting the original lesson using the same instructional methodology would not be effective; the teacher should reteach the lesson in a new format or approach that will be more helpful to the students.