PR Ch. 9-12

tactics
specific recommended actions designed to help an organization achieve the objectives stated in a public relations plan; channels with a message
PR tactics
values in action
three kinds of channels
special events, controlled media, uncontrolled media
special event
a planned happening that serves as a PR tactic
cliche to describe the message-sending power of a special event
actions speak louder than words
pseudo-event
a special event, often of questionable news, created for the purpose of attracting the attention of the news media; created solely to generate publicity; suggests fakery on the PR practitioners part and gullibility on the part of journalists who report on the activity
controlled media
communication channels in which the sender of the message controls the message as well as its timing and frequency
examples of controlled media
newsletters, brochures, speeches, podcasts, and websites
disadvantage of controlled media
lack of credibility and cost
uncontrolled media
communication channels in which a PR practitioner cannot control the message, its timing, or frequency
examples of uncontrolled media
news media- news papers, radio/tv, magazines, online news providers, social media
social media
online technologies and practices that allow people to share information and opinions
characteristics of social media
participation, openness, conversation, community, connectedness
blogs
regularly updated internet journals or news forums that focus on a particular area of interest
social networks
the often informal structures through which individuals/organizations maintain relationships
example of a social network
facebook
content communities
in social media, web sites that seek particular kinds of input from individuals/organizations
example of a content community
YouTube
wikis
web sites or multimedia documents that allow different individuals to contribute and edit information; hawaiian for “quick”
podcasts
downloadable audio essays or programs
social media news releases
news releases formatted for social media practitioners, particularly bloggers; features snippets of information, such as facts/quotes, and links to other information
third party endorsement
verification of a story’s newsworthiness that the news media provide when they publicize or broadcast a story; appearance in an uncontrolled news medium lends credibility to the story because the media are neither the sender nor the receiver
independent endorsement
verification by a disinterested outside party, which can lend credibility to a message
disadvantage of uncontrolled media
ultimate control rests with others
successful tactics
are part of a written plan tied to an organizations values-based mission statement; target one public at a time; based on research about the target publics values, interests, and preferred channels of communication; tries to create win-win situations in which both the sender and receiver benefit; are specific; are evaluated as they are performed and after they are executed
tactics for employees
face-to-face meetings; newsletters; magazines; videos; bulletin boards; speeches; special events; intranet; e-mail; instant messaging
face-to-face meetings
most employees want to receive important messages from their employers in this
intranet
a controlled access internal computer network available only to the employees of an organization
e-mail
a process by which a written message is sent electronically via computer to a receiver
instant messaging
an electronic process that allows two or more people to conduct a real-time, written conversation via computer
tactics for news media
news release, media kit, media advisory, pitch, video news release, actualities, news conference, public service announcements, guest editorials/comments, letters to the editor, interviews, magazines
news release
a client-related news story that a PR practitioners writes and distributes to the news media; an objective, straightforward, unbiased news story
two deadly sins of a news release
having no local interest and being too promotional
92-98%
percentage of news releases journalists throw away, online or not
media kit
a package of documents and other items offering extensive coverage of a news story to the news media; includes a fact sheet, backgrounded, photo opportunity sheet, brochures, product samples, and other documents; can placed on cds or dvds
fact sheet
a who-what-when-where-why-how breakdown of a news release; gives just the facts of the story contained in the news release
backgrounder
a document that supplies information to supplement a news release; written as a publishable story
photo opportunity sheet
a document that promotes the visual interest of an upcoming event
cd-roms
a medium for storage of digital data
dvds
a computer disk that stores multimedia messages in a digital format
media advisory
a fact sheet that is faxed or emailed to news media to alert them of a breaking news story or an event they may wish to cover
pitch
a persuasive message sent by a PR practitioner to a journalist, often on an exclusive basis, describing a newsworthy human-interest story whose publication would generate helpful publicity for an organization; offers exclusive stories to an individual news outlet; via letter, email, or telephone
video news release (vnr)
videotaped news stories that an organization produces and distributes to the news media; includes a b-roll
b-roll
unedited video footage that follows a vnr; allows tv stations to create their own news story
actualities
recorded quotable quotes or sound bites supplied to radio stations on cassette tape or via a dial-in phone system or a website
news conference
a structured meeting between an organizations representatives and the news media for the purpose of providing information for news stories
when to schedule a news conference
if you have a highly newsworthy breaking story; if it is advantageous to meet with reporters as a group, instead on individually; if you know the journalists will be happy they came
news conferences are like dynamite
used only when necessary and with caution because they are the ultimate experience in uncontrolled media
public service announcements (psa)
broadcast announcements made on behalf of nonprofit organizations or social causes; news media do not charge for these, as they do for commercials
satellite media tour (smt)
a series of interviews with reporters in different cities, conducted by means of satellite technology
trade magazines
magazines for members of particular trades or professions
association magazines
magazines for members of an association
tactics for investors
newsletters, magazines, letters, annual meetings, annual reports, websites, facility tours, conference calls, news release to financial news media, webcasts
investors
represent a source of capitalization for an organization; technically owners of the organization
annual meeting
a once-a-year information conference that a publicly held company must, by law, send to its stockholders
annual report
a once-a-year informational statement that a publicly held company must, by law, send to its stockholders
webcasts
audiovisual telecasts, usually live, delivered through a website
tactics for community groups
volunteering, donations, sponsorships, cause marketing, speeches, open houses/tours, face-to-face meetings
community groups
churches, schools, professional organizations, clubs, chambers of commerce, and other local groups whose values somehow intersect with those of an organization
cause marketing
a concerted effort on the part of an organization to address a social need through special events and other marketing tactics; designed to create goodwill among governmental officials, consumers, current/potential employees, and other important publics
coalition building
efforts to promote consensus among influential publics on important issues through tactics such as face-to-face meetings; hopes to pave the way for alliances or partnership on future problems/opportunities
tactics for governments
lobbying, grassroots lobbying, political action committees (pac), soft money, disclosure documents
lobby
an organization that exists solely to influence governmental legislative and regulatory processes on behalf of a client
lobbyist
someone who, acting on behalf of a special-interest group, tries to influence various forms of government regulation
most effective lobby
AARP
grassroots lobbying
organized efforts by ordinary citizens to influence legislative and regulatory governmental processes; informal, infrequent, “unprofessional” form of lobbying; “voice of the people”
soft money
money donated to national political parties for general expenses; legislation passed in 2002 restricted such donations but allowed contributions to local political parties and national political conventions
tactics for customers
product-oriented news releases and media kits, special events, open houses/tours, responses to customers contacts, text messaging
text messaging
the process of sending a written message from one cell phone to another
tactics for constituents (voters)
letters, newsletters, news releases, media advisories, news conferences, speeches, face-to-face meetings, websites; responses to these contacts must be quick, personalized, and detailed
tactics for businesses
stories in trade magazines, extranets
extranets
controlled-access extensions of an organizations intranet to selected external publics such as suppliers
six key factors to execute a plan’s tactics
delegation, deadlines, quality control, communication within the team, communication with clients and supervisors, and constant evaluation
a memorable message is
simple, unexpected, concrete, credible, emotional, and story (SUCES[s])
journalists
write to inform
advertisers
write to persuade
PR practitioners
write to manage relationships
PR writing
should address the values and interests of the writers organizations as well as the values and interests of the targeted public
writing process
an organized system for producing effective PR documents; begins with values and ends with evaluation
10 stages of the writing process
credibility, research, organization, writing, revision, macro-editing, micro-editing, approval, distribution, and evaluation
credibility
aristotle believed that the most powerful persuasive strategy of all often is the character of the communicator
research
what is my purpose in writing? what is my targeted public? what are the values/interests of the targeted public? what messages should i send? what information supports my message?
demographic information
data on non-attitudinal characteristics of a person or group, such as race, gender, age, and income
psychographic information
data on attitudinal characteristics of a person or group, such as political philosophy and religious beliefs
organization
should draw the targeted publics attention to the message and to the information that supports/develops it; use an outline
inverted pyramid
a symbol that represents the traditional organization of a news story; most important information occurs within the few sentences; as the story progresses, the information becomes less important
writing tips
challenge “to be” verbs; use active voice; challenge modifiers; challenge long words; challenge prepositional phrases; challenge long sentences; avoid overused expressions; avoid placing important words/phrases in the middle of a sentence; keep the focus on the reader; read your sentences aloud
modifiers
words/phrases that develop the meaning of another word, such as an adjective that modifies a noun or an adverb that modifies a verb
active voice
a grammatical term designating that, within a sentence, the subject does the action denoted by the verb
passive voice
a grammatical term, designating that, within a sentence, the subject does not do the action denoted by the verb, instead the subject is affected by the action denoted by the verb
revision
making a good document even better
euphoria of creation
the feeling that your just-finished document is great and needs no revision- let this subside and then revise
macro-editing
where the writer examines the “big picture” of a document, including format, organization, and completeness of information; last opportunity for significant rewriting before you deliver the document to others
micro-editing
where the writer examines each sentence of a document for factual accuracy as well as correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and style
approval
involves knowing who needs to review the document, how soon each reviewer must respond, and who has the final say over requested revisions
distribution
document should be delivered in the manner and at the time and in the place preferred by the targeted public; the best writer and most polished document in the world can be defeated by this
evaluation
see whether the document succeeded or not; an on-going process throughout the entire writing process; helps us to identify and reinforce what we did well and to identify and not repeat any errors we may have made
tips for writing for the web
must have current information, include highlighted links to other sites, sentences should be concise, use headlines and captions effectively, incorporate graphics
tips for writing for the ear
remember that the speaker has to breath (use short sentences); limit each sentence to one idea; use concrete words and images, not abstractions; use precise nouns and verbs; challenge every word in every sentence; spell out big numbers and give phonetic spellings for hard-to-pronounce words; use traditional syntax (word order); link sentences and paragraphs with clear transitions; attribute direct quotations at the beginning of a sentence; introduce important points with general, descriptive sentences; gracefully repeat main points; avoid concluding with “in conclusion”; break any of these when doing so will assist the listener
transition
a device that clarifies the introduction of a new topic within a document
attribution
the part of the sentence that identifies the speaker of a direct quotation
public speaking
ranks number one among peoples greatest fears
a successful presentation requires
research, planning, communication, and evaluation
research
begins with knowing your targeted public, identify decision makers/opinion leaders, learn about the room/place you will be speaking
planning
message creation; everything should support the central, unifying theme of the message; length is guided by the audience; create an outline; practice; use visual aids; plan for trouble; be flexible
visual aids
displays presented to an audience to enhance the meaning of the speakers words; EX: computer projections, slides, flip charts, handouts, etc.
communication
making the presentation
evaluation
most important comes from the targeted public
tips for writing for diverse publics
draw on diverse individual sources; balance personal pronouns; avoid words that describe particular relationships; know the dates of major religious holidays; don’t describe individuals by race, ethnicity, religion, age, sex, or physical/mental disabilities unless relevant; remember that words have power
global village
marshall mcluhan’s idea that because of advances in telecommunications technology, we live in a world in which everyone can share simultaneous experiences
world wide web
a graphics-oriented computer network developed in 1991 that made the internet more accessible and attractive and helped spur its rapid development
digital
transmitted in a computer readable format; easy to use in a variety of media; has transformed society
internet
a global network, originally for military and scientific research, that links computer networks to allow the sharing of information in a digital format
december 1990
only one website in the world, located at CERN
website
a series of computer files maintained by an organization or individual that can be accessed via the internet; created to project an organizations image and to share information with various publics
web 2.0
a term coined by Silicon Valley consultants in 2004 to describe a new generation of internet services that emphasize online collaborating and sharing
challenge for PR practitioners
to identify, monitor, and if necessary, engage in those nontraditional social networks
the medium can alter the perception of a message
an appropriate message delivered via an inappropriate medium is just as ineffective as an inappropriate message delivered via an appropriate medium
first book ever produced in mass quantities
the Bible
analog
transmitted in the form of continuously varying signals; relays all information present in the original message in varying signals
conversion of analog communication into a digital format
makes it possible to filter out unwanted information
digital technology
makes it possible to store a remarkable amount of data in a relatively small space and permits simultaneous transfer of more information
convergence of media
a blending of media made possible by digitization; one of the most important consequences of the digital revolution; as different media adopt digital technology in their product and distribution processes, the differences among them become less apparent, and various media being to incorporate one another’s characteristics
hypermedia
integrated multimedia incorporating audio, visual, and text information in a single delivery system
wireless communications technology
makes it possible for people in all corners of the world to share simultaneously in a common experience; EX: TV; may have been the most important social, economic, and technological development of the 20th century
social ramifications of digital technology
a new town commons, redefined communities, mergers of media companies, preservation of personal privacy, job security, protection of intellectual property, and individuals as publishers
a new town commons
now the internet is where people gather the latest news
redefined communities
PR practitioners must learn the values/preferences of nontraditional online communities if they want to build and maintain mutual relationships
mergers of media companies
Time Warner is one of the largest
job security
improved technology can make people more productive in the workplace but the increased ability to do more with less lowers the demand for highly skilled workers
protection of intellectual property
digital technology makes it easier to copy and distribute the results of someone else’s labor
individuals as publishers
push technology, blogging, wikis, podcasts, citizen journalists, cyber-smears, gripe sites; most self-published materials are inaccurate, incomplete, or biased, and poorly written
push technology
computer software that permits users to customize information received automatically from the internet; allows information to be automatically delivered or “pushed”directly to a user; may make it harder to get the attention of certain individuals
most popular example of a podcast
iTunes
citizen journalist
individuals not formally trained as journalists, but who through the use of digital technology, assist in the traditional news-gathering and reporting process
cyber-smears
instances of using the internet to unfairly attack the integrity of an organization and/or its products and services
gripe sites
websites dedicated to airing complaints, either real or imagined, against individuals or organizations
internet related issues for PR practitioners
the online generation gap, the global digital divide, internet research problems, unwelcome visitors (spam, spim, hackers, viruses), passive communication, and career implications
digital divide
term used to describe the uneven distribution of internet access along the geographical and socioeconomic line
internet research problems
for all the information readily available online, the total represents only a small fraction of what can be gathered through more traditional forms of research
spamming
the mass distribution of an advertising oriented e-mail; cyberspace equivalent of junk mail
spim
the unwelcome commercial use of instant messaging
hackers
individuals who seek unauthorized access to websites and computer networks; sometimes for personal amusement, other times to steal, alter, or damage data
computer viruses
software programming that attaches to a computer user’s e-mail address book and is spread to computers around the world; often the product of mischief, they have been known to erase or damage data on the computer they infect
choosing which technology to use
depends more on whether the technology works than on whether it is new
problem
a commonplace occurrence of limited scope; usually can be addressed in a limited time frame, often without arousing public attention or without draining an organizations resources
crisis
an event that if allowed to escalate can disrupt an organizations normal operations, jeopardize its reputation, and damage its bottom line; tends to be less predictable than problems, requires a considerable investment of time and resources to resolve and often bring unwanted public attention; can challenge an organizations core values
Steven Fink
characterizes crises as being prodromal situations (often marked by forewarning) that run the risk of escalating in intensity, falling under close media/governmental scrutiny, interfering with the normal operations of business, jeopardizing the positive public image enjoyed by a company and its officers, and damaging a company’s bottom line
crises cast organizations to be
victims, villains, or heros, depending on how they handle the situation
four stages of crises
warning stage, point of no return, cleanup phase, things return to normal
warning stage
if warning signs are recognized and appropriate action is taken quickly, the negative effects of a crisis can be averted or minimized
point of no return
once this moment is reached, a crisis becomes unavoidable
cleanup phase
during this stage, an organization deals with a crisis and its aftermath; how long this period lasts is influenced by the degree to which the organization is prepared to handle crises
things return to normal
during this stage, the immediate threat created by the crisis is over, but its lingering effects are still felt; normality may be much different from what it was before the crisis
proactive zone of the four stages
warning stage and return to normal
reactive zone of the four stages
point of no return and cleanup
most important lesson in crisis communications
not all outcomes of crises have to be bad; crises can bring opportunity
Meyer and seven potential benefits that can be reaped from a crisis
heroes are born, change is accelerated, latent problems are faced, people can be changed, new strategies evolve, early warning systems develop, new competitive edges appear
four steps to effective crisis communications
risk assessment, crisis communications planning, response and recovery
risk assessment
practitioners identify potential hazards their organization may face; the best crises are those that are averted; organizations can avert crises by clearly articulating and actively implementing their core values; organizations can choose to hire outside consultants or perform an in-house evaluation; all employees should participate in this
crisis planning team (cpt)
a broad-based internal task force that develops an organizations crisis communications plan
crisis plotting grid
a risk assessment tool developed by Steven Fink for prioritizing crisis communications planning needs; identifies the areas where crisis planning is needed most
crisis impact value (civ)
the vertical axis on the crisis plotting grid; specific questions are used to measure the impact a given crisis would have on an organizations operations
crisis probability factor (cpf)
the horizontal axis on the crisis plotting grid; an estimate on the probability that a given crisis will occur
crisis communications planning
practitioners use the information gathered during risk assessment to develop strategies for communicating with key publics during crises; best to have a flexible plan that is not even specific; is an ethical imperative
crisis plans should include
crisis definitions, a list of crisis managers, stakeholder communication strategies, planned coordination and information sites, and an employee training program
crisis management team (cmt)
an internal task force established to manage an organizations response to a crisis while allowing other operations to continue; should consist of the CEO or designated crisis manager, legal counsel, PR counsel, financial counsel, appropriate technical experts, and support personnel
crisis manager
the person designated as the leader of a crisis management team
emergency operations center (eoc)
the place where a crisis management team meets to develop its response to a crisis; should be in a secure location and free from interruptions
media information center (mic)
a place where a large number of reporters can gather to collect information on a crisis; should be close to, but separate from, the emergency operations center
credentialing
a process for establishing the identity of people working in an otherwise restricted area
most important person in a crisis
often the first person to recognize it
apologia
a speech of self-defense; people and organizations engage in this as a way to present their side of the story in the face of negative events or allegations as a means of repairing damaged images and/or reputations
image restoration discourse
one of the dominant theories of apologia; developed by William Benoit; five apologia strategies include denial of wrongdoing, evasion of responsibility, reduction of the perceived offensiveness of the act, promise to take corrective action, and mortification-when one admits responsibility and seeks forgiveness
does everyone require an apology or an explanation?
no
response
where practitioners utilize their crisis communications plan; this is where an organization is rewarded for its hard work
recovery
practitioners evaluate the quality of the organizations response to a crisis and takes appropriate actions as a result of the lessons learned
a good crisis communication plan should
be flexible; guide, not dictate, the organizations response; lay the foundation for success