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Principles of Measurement (International) For Works of Construction JUNE 1979 Published by RICS Business Services Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, under the RICS Books imprint, Surveyor Court Westwood Business Park Coventry, CV4 8JE UK No responsibility for loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of any material included in this publication can be accepted by the authors, publisher or The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.

The views expressed and the conclusions drawn in this book are those of the authors. ISBN 0 85406 108 8 First Edition 1979 Reprinted 1988, 1991, 1994, 2001, 2002 and 2004 © RICS 1988.

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Copyright in all or part of this publication rests with the RICS, and save by prior consent of the RICS, no part or parts of this publication shall be reproduced in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, now known or to be devised. Printed by Q3 Print, Loughborough

Foreword The use of bills of quantities is a well-established means of enabling the financial control and management of building works. The key to the success of the use of bills of quantities is a clear understanding by all parties to the contract of what is included, or excluded, in the measurement. It is this that gives rise to the requirement for clearly defined standard methods of measurement. Since these principles of measurement were first issued in 1979, many countries have developed their own more detailed standard methods.

A recent survey of its international membership carried out for the RICS Construction Faculty by the Building Cost Information Service (BCIS) identified that 14 of the 32 responding countries had their own method of measurement. However, the Principles of Measurement (International) (POMI) were still being used in about half of the countries and are still widely used on international contracts. There has been a trend in the UK and elsewhere to move away from measurement-based procurement, passing the responsibility for measuring the building work down the supply chain to the contractor or sub-contractor.

However, research commissioned by the Construction Faculty showed that where bills of quantities were not provided as part of the procurement process, 95% of contractors would undertake their own measurement, with the majority of this carried out in accordance with the current Standard Method of Measurement (SMM). There is no doubt that the proliferation of procurement practices will continue. However, in circumstances in which there is a degree of design certainty before the contractor is appointed, measurement-based procurement will still be appropriate.

Furthermore, where design decisions are being passed down the supply chain, measurement should be undertaken at the level at which the design is carried out, in order to remove the need for duplication. It is in the interests of the industry as a whole, including its clients, that measurement is carried out consistently. There is therefore a continued need for standard methods of measurement and, by implication, a continued need for measurement skills. These principles require a detailed specification and tender drawings to be provided.

RICS recognises that circumstances vary from country to country, and from contract to contract, and that the principles therefore need to be flexible in order to accommodate variations in practice and techniques. Any comments on the principles should be sent to the RICS Construction Faculty, at 12 Great George Street, Parliament Square, London, SW1P 3AD. The principles are also available in French, German and Arabic. RICS is grateful to the original authors: Michael Rainbird, Alan Charter, James Diebel, Derek Lawrence and Michael Pagulatos. Simon Cash Chairman RICS Construction Faculty December 2003 Contents

SECTION GP – GENERAL PRINCIPLES GP1 Principles of measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GP2 Bills of quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 GP3 Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GP4 Items to be fully inclusive GP5 Description of items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/2 GP6 Work to be executed by a specialist nominated by the employer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GP7 Goods, materials or services to be provided by a merchant or tradesman nominated by the employer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 GP8 Work to be executed by a government or public authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 GP9 Dayworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/3 GPI0 Contingencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SECTION A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS A1 Conditions of contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A2 Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A3 Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A4 Contractor’s administrative arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A5 Constructional plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A6 Employer’s facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A7 Contractor’s facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A8 Temporary works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 A9 Sundry items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 SECTION B – SITE WORK B1 Site exploration generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 B2 Trial holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 B3 Boreholes (including pumping test wells) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 B4 Site preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 B5 Demolitions and alterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B6 Shoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B7 Underpinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B8 Earthworks generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B9 Excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 B10 Dredging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B11 Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 B12 Filling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B13 Piling generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B14 Driven piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 B15 Bored piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B16 Sheet piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B17 Performance designed piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 B18 Testing piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B19 Underground drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B20 Paving and surfacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 B21 Fencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B22 Landscaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B23 Railway work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B24 Tunnel excavation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 B25 Tunnel linings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B26 Tunnel support and stabilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 SECTION C – CONCRETE WORK C1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 C2 Poured concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 C3 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 C4 Shuttering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 C5 Precast concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 C6 Prestressed concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 C7 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10/11 SECTION D – MASONRY D1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 D2 Walls and piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 D3 Sills, etc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 04 Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 D5 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SE:CTION E – METALWORK E1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 E2 Structural metalwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11/12 E3 Non structural metalwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SECTION F – WOODWORK F1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 F2 Structural timbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 F3 Boarding and flooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 F4 Grounds and battens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Finishings and fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12/13 Composlte items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Sundry items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Metalwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Ironmongery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 SECTION G – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION G1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 G2 Coverings and linings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 G3 Damp-proof courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 G4 Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 SECTION H – DOORS AND WINDOWS H1 Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 H2 Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 H3 Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 H4 Ironmongery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 H5 Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 H6 Patent glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 SECTION J – FINISHES J1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 J2 Backgrounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 J3 Finishings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 J4 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 J5 Suspended ceilings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 J6 Decorations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 J7 Signwriting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SECTION K – ACCESSORIES K1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 K2 Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 SECTION L – EQUIPMENT L1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 SECTION M – FURNISHINGS M1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 M2 Curtain track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 SECTION N – SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION N1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 N2 Enclosures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 N3 Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 SECTION P – CONVEYING SYSTEMS P1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 P2 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 P3 Work incidental to conveying systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 SECTION Q – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING INSTALLATIONS Q1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Q2 Pipework and gutterwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Q3 Ductwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Q4 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Q5 Automatic controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Q6 Connections to supply mains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Q7 Insulation, including linings and protective coverings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Q8 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Q9 Work incidental to mechanical engineering installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 SECTION R – ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING INSTALLATIONS R1 Generally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R2 Main circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R3 Sub-main circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R4 Final sub-circuits and auxiliary installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R5 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 R6 Control gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 R7 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 R8 Connections to supply mains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 R9 Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 R10 Work incidental to electrical engineering installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 APPENDIX Amendments to principles of measurement …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 SECTION GP – GENERAL PRINCIPLES GP1 Principles of measurement GP1. 1 Principles of measurement These principles of measurement provide a uniform basis for measuring bills of quantities for works of construction. More detailed information than is required by this document may measurement be given to define the precise nature of work or the circumstances under which it is to be carried out. Amendments to these principles of measurement for use in a particular locality or adopted for work not envisaged by this document shall be stated; an appendix is provided for such amendments to be recorded.

These principles of measurement may be applied equally to the measurement of proposed works and of completed works. Bills of quantities The objects of bills of quantities are: 1. To assist in the accurate preparation of tenders, by providing for measurement of quantities on a uniform basis 2. To provide a basis for the financial control of a project, in accordance with the conditions of contract. Bills of quantities shall describe and represent the works to be carried out; work which cannot be measured accurately shall be described as approximate or given in bills of approximate quantities.

Conditions of contract, drawings and specifications shall be provided with the bills of quantities. The section headings and classifications do not impose restrictions upon the format and presentation of bills of quantities. Measurement Work shall be measured net as fixed in position and each measurement shall be taken to the nearest 10 millimetres; this principle shall not apply to dimensions stated in descriptions. Unless otherwise stated, no deduction shall be made from items required to be measured by area for voids of less than 1. 00 m2.

Minimum deductions of voids shall refer only to voids within the edges of measured areas; voids which are at the edges of measured areas shall always be deducted, irrespective of size. These principles of measurement may be used with other units of measurement but the particular amendments shall be stated. Notwithstanding these principles of measurement, a separate minor building or structure may be enumerated. Items to be fully inclusive Unless otherwise stated, all items shall be fully inclusive of all that is necessary to fulfill the Items to be fully liabilities and obligations arising out of the contract and shall include: 1.

Labour and all associated costs 2. Materials, goods and all associated costs 3. Provision of plant 4. Temporary works 5. Establishment charges, overheads and profit. Description of items Items which are required to be enumerated. or for which an item is required, shall be fully described. Items which are to be measured by length or depth shall state the cross-sectional size and shape, girth or ranges of girths or such other information as may be appropriate; for items of pipework it shall be stated whether the diameter is internal or external.

Items which are to be measured bv area shall state the thickness or such other information as may be appropriate. Items which are to be measured by weight shall state the material thickness and unit weight if appropriate (for example, ductwork). GP1. 2 GP1. 3 GP2 Bills of quantities GP2. 1 GP2. 2 GP2. 3 GP2. 4 GP3 Measurement GP3. 1 GP3. 2 GP3. 3 GP3. 4 GP3. 5 GP4 Items to be fully inclusive GP4. 1 GP5 Description of items GP5. 1 GP5. 2 GP5. 3 GP5. 4 1 GP5. 5 Notwithstanding these principles of measurement, proprietary items may be measured in a manner appropriate to the manufacturer’s tariff or customary practice.

The description of items in bills of quantities may refer to other documents or drawings and any reference to such information shall be understood to fulfill any requirement of these principles of measurement; alternatively, reference may be made to published information. Work to be executed by a specialist nominated by the employer Unless otherwise required by the conditions of contract, work which is required to be executed by a specialist nominated by the employer shall be given as a sum; such sum shall be exclusive of contractor’s profit and in each case an item shall be given for the addition of profit.

An item shall be given in each case for assistance by the contractor, which shall include: 1. Use of contractor’s administrative arrangements 2. Use of constructional plant 3. Use of contractor’s facilities 4. Use of temporary works 5. Space for specialist’s offices and stores 6. Clearing away rubbish 7. Scaffolding required by the specialist, giving particulars 8. Unloading, distributing, hoisting and placing in position items of plant, machinery or the like, giving particulars.

Goods, materials or services to be provided by a merchant or tradesman nominated by the employer Unless otherwise required by the conditions of contract, goods, materials or services which are required to be provided by a merchant or tradesman nominated by the employer shall be given as a sum; such sum shall be exclusive of contractor’s profit and in each case an item shall be given for the addition of profit. Fixing goods and materials shall be given in accordance with the relevant clauses in these principles of measurement; fixing shall be understood to include unloading, storing, distributing and hoisting the, goods and materials.

Particulars shall be given of any requirements for the contractor to arrange for delivery or pay any costs of conveying goods or materials. Work to be executed by a government or public authority Unless otherwise required by the conditions of contract, work which may only be carried out or by a government or public authority shall be given as a sum; such sum shall be exclusive of contractor’s profit and in each case an item shall be given for the addition of profit. An item shall be given in each case for assistance by the contractor as described in clause GP6. . Dayworks The cost of labour in dayworks shall be given as a sum; alternatively, a schedule of the different categories of labour may be given containing a provisional quantity of hours for each category. The cost of labour included in a sum or schedule shall include wages, bonuses and all allowances paid to operatives directly engaged on dayworks (including those operating mechanical plant and transport) in accordance with the appropriate employment agreement or, where no such agreement exists, the actual payments made to the work people concerned.

The cost of materials in dayworks shall be given as a sum; alternatively, 3 schedule may be given containing a provisional quantity of different materials. The cost of materials included in a sum or schedule shall be the net invoiced price, including delivery to site. The cost of constructional plant employed exclusively in dayworks shall be given as a sum; alternatively, a schedule of the different categories of plant may be given containing a provisional quantity of hours, or such other period of time as may be appropriate, for each category.

The cost of constructional plant included in a sum or schedule shall include fuel, consumable stores, repairs, maintenance and insurance of plant. An item shall be given for the addition of establishment charges. overheads and profit to each of the sums or schedules of labour, materials or plant. Description of items (continued) GPS. 6 GP6 GP6. 1 Work to be executed by a specialist nominated by the employer GP6. 2 GP7 GP7. 1 GP7. 2 Goods, materials or services to be provided by a merchant or tradesman nominated by the employer GP8 GP8. 1 Work to be executed by a government or public authority GP8. 2 GP9 GP9. 1

Dayworks GP9. 2 GP9. 3 GP9. 4 GP9. 5 GP9. 6 GP9. 7 2 Dayworks (continued) GP9. 8 Establishment charges, overheads and profit shall include: 1. Costs related to the employment of labour 2. Costs related to the storage of materials, including handling and waste in storage 3. Contractor’s administrative arrangements 4. Constructional plant, except plant employed exclusively on dayworks 5. Contractor’s facilities 6. Temporary works 7. Sundry items. Contingencies GP10 GP 10. 1 Unless otherwise required by the conditions of contract, contingencies shall be given as a sum; no item shall be given for the addition of profit.

SECTION A – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS A1 Conditions of contract A1. 1 A1. 2 Conditions of contract A schedule of the clause headings shall be set out in the bills of quantities. Where there is an appendix to the conditions of contract requiring insertions to be made, a schedule of the insertions shall be set out in the bills of quantities. Specification Where the specification contains clauses related to any of the following General Requirements, the bills of quantities shall make reference to the appropriate clauses. Restrictions Particulars shall be given of any restrictions, which shall include: 1. Access to and possession or use of the site 2.

Limitations of working space 3. Limitations of working hours 4. The maintenance of existing services on, under or over the site 5. The execution or completion of the work in any specific order, sections or phases 6. Items of a like nature. Contractor’s administrative arrangements An item shall be given for contractor’s administrative arrangements, which shall include: 1. Site administration 2. Supervision 3. Security 4. Safety, health and welfare of workpeople 5. Transport of workpeople. Constructional plant An item shall be given for constructional plant, which shall include: 1. Small plant and tools 2. Scaffolding 3.

Cranes and lifting plant 4. Site transport 5. Plant required for specific trades. Employer’s facilities Particulars shall be given of any facilities required for the employer or the employer’s representatives, which shall include: 1. Temporary accommodation (for example, offices, laboratories, living accommodation), including heating, cooling, lighting, furnishing, attendance or related facilities 2. Telephones, including costs of calls; alternatively, the cost of calls may be given as a sum 3. Vehicles 4. Attendance of staff (for example, drivers, laboratory assistants) 5. Equipment (for example, surveyor laboratory equipment) 6.

Special requirements for programmes or progress charts 7. Any other facilities (for example, progress photographs, signboards). A2 Specification A2. 1 A3 Restrictions A3. 1 A4 Contractor’s administrative arrangements A4. l A5 Constructional plant A5. 1 A6 Employer’s facilities A6. 1 3 A7 A 7. 1 Contractor’s facilities An item shall be given for facilities required by the contractor, which shall include: 1. Accommodation and buildings, including offices, laboratories, compounds, stores, messrooms and living accommodation 2. Temporary fencing, including hoardings, screens, roofs and guardrails 3.

Temporary roads, including hardstandings and crossings 4. Water for the works; particulars shall be given if water will be supplied to the contractor 5. Lighting and power for the works; particulars shall be given if current will be supplied to the contractor 6. Temporary telephones. Particulars shall be given where the nature or extent of the facilities is not at the discretion of the contractor. Temporary works An item shall be given for temporary works, which shall include: 1. Traffic diversion 2. Access roads 3. Bridges 4. Cofferdams 5. Pumping 6. De-watering 7. Compressed air for tunnelling. Particulars shall be given where the nature r extent of the temporary works is not at the discretion of the contractor. Sundry items An item shall be given for sundry items, which shall include: 1. Testing of materials 2. Testing of the works 3. Protecting the works from inclement weather 4. Removing rubbish, protective casings and coverings and cleaning the works at completion 5. Traffic regulations 6. Maintenance of public and private roads ‘ 7. Drying the works 8. Control of noise and pollution 9. All statutory obligations Particulars shall be given where the nature or extent of the sundry items is not at the discretion of the contractor.

Sundry items Temporary works Contractor’s facilities A7. 2 A8 A8. 1 A8. 2 A9 A9. 1 A9. 2 SECTION B – SITE WORK B1 B1. 1 B1. 2 B1. 3 B2 B2. 1 Site exploration generally Keeping records of site observations, site tests and laboratory tests shall be given as an item. Samples, site observations, site tests, a oratory tests an analyses shall be given as an item, Providing reports shall be given as an item. Trial holes Excavating trial holes shall be measured by depth, taken along the centre line, stating the number and the maximum depth below commencing level.

Earthwork support which is not at the discretion of the contractor shall be measured by depth. Boreholes (including pumping test wells) Driving boreholes shall be measured by depth, taken along the centre line, stating the number and the maximum depth below commencing level; raking boreholes shall be so described. Lining which is not at the discretion of the contractor shall be measured by depth. Cap pings shall be enumerated. Boreholes (including pumping test wells) Trial holes Site exploration generally B2. 2 B3 B3. 1 B3. 2 B3. 3 4 B4 Site preparation B4. 1 B4. 2 B4. 3 Site preparation Removing isolated trees shall be enumerated.

Removing hedges shall be measured by length. Site clearance, which shall include removing vegetation, undergrowth, bushes, hedges, trees or the like, shall be measured by area. Demolitions and alterations The location of each item shall be given. Unless otherwise stated, old materials shall be understood to become the property of the contractor and shall be cleared away; old materials required to remain the property of the employer shall be so described. Removing individual fittings, fixtures, engineering installations or the like from an existing structure shall each be given as an item.

Demolishing individual structures (or part thereof) shall each be given as an item; alternatively, demolishing all structures on a site may be given as an item. Cutting openings in existing structures and alterations to existing structures shall each be given as an item; making good all work damaged shall be understood to be included. Temporary screens and roofs shall be given as an item. Shoring Shoring incidental to demolitions and alterations, together with clearing away and making good all work damaged, shall be understood to be included.

Shoring (other than that incidental to demolitions and alterations) shall be given as an item, stating the location; clearing away and making good all work damaged shall be understood to be included. Particulars shall be given where the design of the shoring is not at the discretion of the contractor. Shoring which is required by the specification to be left in position shall be so described. Underpinning Work in underpinning shall be given under an appropriate heading, stating the location. Unless otherwise stated, work shall be measured in accordance with the appropriate sections of this document.

Temporary support shall be given as an item; particulars shall be given where the design of the temporary support is not at the discretion of the contractor. Excavation shall be measured by volume, taken to the outside line of the projecting foundations or to the outside line of the new foundations (whichever is the greater), classified as follows: 1. Excavation in preliminary trenches down to the base of the existing foundations 2. Excavation below the base of the existing foundations. Cutting away projecting foundations shall be measured by length.

Earthworks generally Any information available concerning the nature of the ground and strata shall be provided with the bills of quantities. The quantities for excavation, dredging or tunnelling shall be understood to be the bulk before excavation, and no allowance shall be made for any ‘orking space or subsequent variation in bulk; existing voids shall be deducted. Multiple handling of materials and transporting about the site shall be understood to be included; multiple handling which is required by the specification shall be so described in the item of disposal.

Earthwork support shall be given as an item. Excavation in rock shall be so described; alternatively, it may be measured as extra over excavation (that is, B5 Demolitions and alterations B5. 1 B5. 2 B5. 3 B5. 4 B5. 5 B6 Shoring B6. 1 B6. 2 B6. 3 B6. 4 B7 Underpinning B7. 1 B7. 2 B7. 3 B7. 4 B7. 5 B8 Earthworks generally B8. 1 B8. 2 B8. 3 B8. 4 B8. 5 5 the volume of rock shall be measured bur no deduction shall be made from the volume of excavation in which the rock occurs). B8. 6 For the purposes of measurement rock is defined as any material met with which is of such size or position that. n the opinion of the employer’s representative. It can only be removed by means of wedges, special plant or explosives. Excavation Unless otherwise stated, excavation shall be measured by volume as the void which is to be occupied by the permanent construction, or vertically above any part of the permanent construction, classified as follows: 1. Oversite excavation to remove top soil, stating the average depth 2. Excavation to reduce levels 3. Excavation in cuttings 4. Basement excavation 5. Trench excavation to receive foundations, which shall include pile caps and ground beams 6.

Pit excavation to receive foundation bases, stating the number 7. Excavation for diaphragm walls, stating the width of the permanent construction and the type of support fluid. Excavation of trenches for service pipes, drain pipes, cables or the like shall each be measured by length, stating the average depth; disposal and filling shall be understood to be included. For excavation in tunnelling see clause B24. Dredging Dredging shall be measured by volume, stating the location and limits; unless otherwise stated, measurement shall be understood to be taken from soundings.

Disposal Disposal of material arising from excavation, dredging or tunnelling shall be measured by volume as equal to the volume of excavation, dredging or tunnelling and each shall be classified as follows: 1. Backfilled into excavation 2. Backfilled in making up levels 3. Backfilled oversite to make up levels, giving details of special contouring, embankments or the like 4. Removed, which shall include providing a suitable tip. Filling Filling material (other than that arising from excavation, dredging or tunnelling) shall be measured by volume as equal to the void to be filled, classified as follows: 1. Filled into excavation 2.

Filled in making up levels 3. Filled oversite to make up levels, giving details of special contouring, embankments or the like. Piling generally For the purposes of measurement, driven piling shall include timber, precast concrete or metal piles. Other piling systems (for example, preformed casing with concrete filling) shall be measured in accordance with the principles for driven piling or bored piling as may be appropriate. Unless otherwise stated, reinforcement shall be measured in accordance with Section C. Driven piling Supplying piles shall be measured by length, stating the number; reinforcement shall be given separately.

Heads and shoes shall be enumerated. Driving piles shall be measured by length, taken from the pile point in contact with the ground when pitched to the pile point when driven, stating the number; driving piles on rake shall be so described. Cutting off tops of piles and connections for lengthening piles shall be enumerated. Earthworks generally (continued) B9 B9. 1 Excavation B9. 2 B9. 3 B10 B10. 1 Dredging B11 B11. 1 Disposal B12 B12. 1 Filling B13 B13. 1 B13. 2 Piling generally B13. 3 B14 B14. 1 B14. 2 B14. 3 Driven piling B14. 4 6 B15 Bored piling B15. 1

Bored piling Boring for piles shall be measured by length, taken from the formation level of the ground to the bottom of the pile hole, stating the number; the measurement shall include for blind boring when the pile top is to be below the formation level of the ground. Boring through rock shall be measured by length as extra over boring for piles (that is, the length of boring through rock shall be measured but no deduction shall be made from the total length of boring). Linings for piles shall be measured by length. Disposal of material arising from boring shall be measured in accordance with clause B11.

Concrete filling shall be measured by volume. Cutting off tops of piles and forming enlarged bases shall be enumerated. Sheet piling The measurements for sheet piling shall be taken along the centre line. Supplying sheet piling shall be measured by area, taken as the area when in final position. Corner piles or the like shall be measured by length. Driving sheet piling shall be measured by area, taken from the formation level of the ground to the bottom edge of the sheet piling when driven; strutting and waling and withdrawing sheet piling shall be understood to be included.

Cutting sheet piling shall be measured by length. Sheet piling which is required by the specification to be left in position shall be so described. Performance designed piling Performance designed piles shall be enumerated; reinforcement and disposal of material arising from boring shall be understood to be included. Details shall be given when the pile top is to be below the formation level of the ground. Testing piling Testing piling, which shall include trial piles and testing working piles, shall be given as an item.

Underground drainage Drain pipes shall be measured by length, taken along the centre line over all fittings; drain pipes within inspection chambers or the like shall be so described and shall be understood to drainage include fixings and supports. Drain fittings in the length (for example, bends, junctions) shall be enumerated, grouped together for each size of pipe and described as ‘fittings’. Drain accessories (for example, gullies, traps) shall be enumerated; concrete surrounds and additional excavation shall be understood to be included.

Concrete beds and coverings for drain pipes shall each be measured by length, stating the diameter of the pipe; surrounds to vertical pipes shall be so described and shall be understood to include formwork. Inspection chambers or the like shall be enumerated; alternatively, they may be measured in accordance ‘ith the relevant sections of this document and given under an appropriate heading. Connections to existing drains shall be enumerated, subject to clause GP8. Paving and surfacing Paving and surfacing shall be measured by area. Expansion joints and ‘ater stops shall be measured by length.

B15. 2 B15. 3 B15. 4 B15. 5 B15. 6 B16 Sheet piling B16. 1 B16. 2 B16. 3 B16. 4 B16. 5 B16. 6 B17 B17. 1 B17. 2 B18 Testing piling B18. 1 B19 Underground drainage B19. 1 B19. 2 B19. 3 B19. 4 B19. 5 B19. 6 B20 Paving and surfacing B20. 1 B20. 2 7 B20. 3 B21 B21. 1 Channels, curbs, edgings or the like shall be measured by length; curved work shall be so described. Fencing Fencing, which shall include posts and supports in the length, shall be measured by length; excavating pits, disposal and filling shall be understood to be included.

Special posts (for example, gate posts, straining posts) shall be enumerated; excavating pits, disposal and filling shall be understood to be included. Gates, barriers or the like shall be enumerated. Finishes shall be measured in accordance with Section J. Landscaping Cultivating and fertilising ground shall be measured by area. Soiling, seeding and turfing shall be measured by area. Hedges shall be measured by length. Trees and shrubs shall be enumerated. Railway work Track, guard rails and conductor rails shall each be measured by length, taken along the centre line over all fittings; curved work shall be so described.

Sleepers and chairs shall be enumerated. Switches and crossings shall be enumerated, classified as follows: 1. Switches and turnouts 2. Diamond crossings 3. Single slip crossings 4. Double slip crossings 5. Other switches and crossings. Ballast shall be measured by volume, without deduction for track, classified as follows: 1. Bottom ballast, placed before the track is laid 2. Top ballast, placed after the track is laid. Concrete track foundations shall be measured by length, except that overwidth foundations for switches and crossings shall be measured by area; reinforcement and shuttering shall be understood to be included.

Bitumen filler to complete rail assemblies shall be measured by length. Buffer stops, wheel stops or the like shall be enumerated. Signalling installations shall be measured in accordance with Section L or Section R. Tunnel excavation Excavation shall be measured by volume as the void which is to be occupied, including the volume of permanent linings, grouped as may be appropriate to identify different lengths and classified as follows: 1. Straight tunnels 2. Straight shafts 3. Curved tunnels 4. Curved shafts 5. Tapered tunnels 6. Tapered shafts 7.

Other cavities, which shall include transitions, breakaways and intersections between shafts and tunnels. Forward probing shall be measured by length, stating the number of probes. For disposal see clause B11. Paving and surfacing (continued) Fencing B21. 2 B21. 3 B21. 4 B22 B22. 1 B22. 2 B22. 3 B22. 4 B23 B23. 1 Landscaping Railway work B23. 2 B23. 3 B23. 4 B23. 5 B23. 6 B23. 7 B23. 8 B24 B24. 1 Tunnel excavation B24. 2 B24. 3 8 B25 Tunnel linings B25. 1 Tunnel linings Poured concrete linings shall be measured by area, stating whether spray or cast concrete, classified as follows: 1. lining 2. Secondary lining.

Preformed segmental tunnel linings shall be enumerated. Tunnel support and stabilisation Timber supports shall be measured by volume. Sprayed concrete supports and reinforcement shall be measured by area. Rock bolts shall be measured by length. Face packers shall be enumerated. Metal arch supports shall be measured by weight. Injection of grout materials shall be measured by weight. B25. 2 B26 Tunnel support and stabilisation B26. 1 B26. 2 B26. 3 B26. 4 B26. 5 B26. 6 SECTION C – CONCRETE WORK C1 Generally C1. 1 C1. 2 Generally Reinforced poured concrete and plain poured concrete shall each be so described.

Poured concrete required by the specification to be placed, compacted, cured or otherwise treated in a particular manner shall be so described. No deduction shall be made for voids less than 1. 00 m3, nor for the volume of any reinforcement or structural metal enclosed in the concrete, except that voids caused by boxed or tubular structural metalwork shall always be deducted. Unless otherwise described, horizontal surfaces of concrete shall be understood to be tamped. Poured concrete Unless otherwise stated, poured concrete shall be measured by volume, classified as follows: 1. Foundations, which shall include combined or isolated bases 2.

Pile caps, which shall include ground beams 3. Blinding 4. Beds, which shall include roads and footpaths, stating the thickness 5. Suspended slabs, which shall include floors, landings, roofs or the like, stating the thickness 6. Walls, which shall include attached columns, stating the thickness 7. Columns, which shall include casing to metal stancheons 8. Beams (measured below the slab), which shall include lintels and casing to metal beams 9. Staircases, which shall include steps and strings 10. Diaphragm walls 11. Other classifications (for example, tunnel linings, bridge abutments) as may be appropriate.

Poured concrete suspended slabs of special construction, including floors, landings, roofs or the like, shall be measured by area; coffered and troughed slabs shall be so described, giving details of solid margins or the like. Where an item is required to be measured by volume and the thickness stated, then items of differing thickness may be grouped together, provided that the range of the different thicknesses is stated. Reinforcement The weight of bar reinforcement shall be the net weight without addition for rolling margin, supports, spacers or tying wire. Bar reinforcement shall be measured by weight, stating the diameter; bars of iffering diameters shall be given separately. Fabric reinforcement shall be measured by area, without addition for laps. C1. 3 C1. 4 C2 Poured concrete C2. 1 C2. 2 C2. 3 C3 Reinforcement C3. 1 C3. 2 C3. 3 9 C3. 4 C4 C4. 1 Reinforcement shall be given as an item where the detailed design work is the responsibility of the contractor. Shuttering Unless otherwise stated, shuttering shall be measured by area, taken as the net area in contact with the finished face of concrete, classified as follows: 1. Soffits; shuttering to soffits of special construction shall be so described 2. Sloping soffits, which shall include soffits of staircases 3.

Sloping upper surfaces, which shall include surfaces more than 15° from horizontal 4. Sides of foundations, which shall include bases, pile caps and ground beams 5. Sides of walls, which shall include attached columns 6. Returns to walls, which shall include ends, projections and reveals of openings or recesses 7. Sides and soffits of beams, which shall include lintels and breaks in soffits; isolated beams shall be so described 8. Sides and soffits of sloping beams, which shall include lintels and breaks in soffits; isolated beams shall be so described 9. Sides of columns 10. Staircases, which shall include treads, isers and strings but exclude soffits 11. Other classifications (for example, tunnel linings, bridges, bridge abutments) as may be appropriate. Shuttering to edges, which shall include face of curb or upstand or break in upper surface of floor, shall be measured by length; items of differing height may be grouped together, provided that the range of different heights is stated. Grooves, which shall include throats, rebates, chamfers or the like, 2500 mm2 sectional area or over shall be measured by length; grooves less than 2500 mm2 sectional area shall be understood to be included.

Shuttering may be enumerated where it is more appropriate to do so (for example, decorative features). Shuttering which is required by the specification to be left in position shall be so described. Shuttering to curved, conical and spherical surfaces shall each be so described. Shuttering to provide a special finish shall be so described. Unless otherwise stated, if the volume of concrete has not been deducted, shuttering to the faces of a void shall be understood to be included. Precast concrete Moulds for precast units shall be understood to be included.

Reinforcement shall be measured in accordance with clause C3 and given under an appropriate heading; alternatively, it may be described in the item. Floor slabs, partition slabs or the like shall be measured by area. .’ Lintels, sills, duct covers or the like shall be measured by length; alternatively, duct covers may be measured by area. Structural units (for example, beams, stanchions, tunnel rings) shall be enumerated. Padstones, cappings or the like shall be enumerated. Prestressed concrete Prestressed concrete work shall be given under an appropriate heading.

Prestressed concrete shall be measured by volume, classified in accordance with clause C2. Reinforcement shall be measured in accordance with clause C3; supporting steel wires or cables shall be measured by weight. Shuttering shall be measured in accordance with clause C4, stating whether to pre-tensioned or post-tensioned members. Sundries Surfaces finished to falls or cross-falls shall be measured by area. Reinforcement (continued) Shuttering C4. 2 C4. 3 C4. 4 C4. 5 C4. 6 C4. 7 C4. 8 C5 C5. 1 C5. 2 Precast concrete C5. 3 C5. 4 C5. 5 C5. 6 C6 C6. 1 C6. 2 C6. 3 Prestressed concrete C6. 4 C7 C7. 1 Sundries 0 Sundries (continued) C7. 2 C7. 3 C7. 4 C7. 5 Surface finishes shall be measured by area, except that tamped finishes shall be understood to be included. Expansion material or the like shall be measured by area. Designed joints, water stops, cast-in channels or the like shall be measured by length. Forming sinkings, channels or the like shall be measured by length and, where appropriate, the item may include additional excavation, hardcore, shuttering and concrete; alternatively, they may be enumerated. Fixings, ties, inserts or the like shall be enumerated; alternatively, they may be measured by area.

Mortices, holes or the like shall be understood to be included. C7. 6 C7. 7 SECTION D – MASONRY D1 Generally D1. 1 D1. 2 D2 Walls and piers D2. 1 Generally Sloping, battering and curved work shall each be so described. Reinforced masonry shall be so described. Walls and piers Walls and piers shall be measured by area, classified as follows: 1. Walls; integral piers shall be measured as walls of combined pier and wall thickness 2. Walls built against other construction 3. Cavity walls measured as a composite item, including skins and cavity; alternatively, the skins and cavity may each be measured by area.

Closing cavity walls at ends or around openings shall be understood to be included 4. Isolated piers. Faced or fair faced work shall each be so described; alternatively, it may be measured as extra over walls, stating whether faced or fair faced on one or both sides (that is, the area of faced or fair faced work shall be measured but no deduction shall be made from the area of walling on which the faced or fair faced work occurs). Sills, etc. Sills, copings, oversailing or receding courses or the like shall be measured by length. Arches shall be measured by length.

Reinforcement Reinforcement shall be measured in accordance with clause C3; alternatively, fabric reinforcement may be measured by length. Sundries Concrete filling to cavities shall be measured by area. Expansion joints or the like shall be measured by length. Air bricks or the like shall be enumerated. D2. 2 D3 Sills, etc. D3. 1 D3. 2 D4 Reinforcement D4. 1 D5 Sundries D5. 1 D5. 2 D5. 3 SECTION E – METALWORK E1 Generally E1. 1 Generally The weight of metalwork shall be the net weight, without addition for rolling margin or welding material and without deduction for holes, splay cuts, notches or the like.

Welded, riveted or bolted work shall each be so described. Structural metalwork Unless otherwise stated, structural metalwork shall be measured by weight, classified as follows: 1. Grillages 2. Beams 3. Stanchions E1. 2 E2 Structural metalwork E2. 1 11 4. 5. 6. 7. E2. 2 E2. 3 E2. 4 E2. 5 Portal frames, stating the number Roof trusses, stating the number Support steelwork, which shall include sheeting rails, braces, struts or the like Other classifications, as may be appropriate. Structural metalwork (continued) Fittings (for example, caps, brackets) shall be given as an item.

Fixings (for example, bolts, distance pieces, rivets) shall be given as an item. Wedging and grouting bases or the like shall be enumerated. Holding down bolts or the like shall be enumerated; temporary boxes and grouting shall be understood to be included. Protective treatment shall be given as an item. Non-structural metalwork Floor plates, duct covers, sheet metal coverings and linings or the like shall be measured by area. Bearers, balustrades, handrails (except where included with a staircase), frames or the like shall be measured by length.

Matwell frames, cat ladders, gates, staircases or the like shall be enumerated. Non-structural metalwork E2. 6 E3 E3. 1 E3. 2 E3. 3 SECTION F – WOODWORK F1 F1. 1 Generally Timber which is sawn (that is, not milled) and timber which is finished (that is, milled) shall each be so described. Descriptions of timber members shall state whether the sizes are basic (that is, before machining) or finished (that is, milled, within permitted deviations). Structural timbers Structural timbers shall be measured by length, classified as follows: 1. Floors and flat roofs 2.

Pitched roofs 3. Walls 4. Kerbs, bearers or the like 5. Cleats, sprockets or the like. Strutting and bridging between joists shall be measured by length, taken overall the joists. Boarding and flooring Unless otherwise stated, boarding and flooring shall be measured by area, without addition for joints or laps, classified as follows: 1. Floors, which shall include landings 2. Walls, which shall include returns, reveals of openings or recesses and attached and unattached columns 3. Ceilings, which shall include attached and unattached beams and soffits of staircases 4.

Roofs, which shall include tops and cheeks of dormers and sides and bottoms of gutters, stating whether flat, sloping or vertical; firring pieces and bearers shall be understood to be included. Eaves and verge boards, which shall include fascias, barge boards or the like, shall be measured by length. Fillets and rolls shall be measured by length. Grounds and battens Open-spaced grounds and battens shall be measured by area, taken overall. Individual grounds and battens shall be measured by length. Framework Framework shall be measured by area, taken overall; alternatively, it may be measured by length.

Framework Grounds and battens Boarding and flooring Structural timbers Generally F1. 2 F2 F2. 1 F2. 2 F3 F3. 1 F3. 2 F3. 3 F4 F4. 1 F4. 2 F5 F5. 1 12 F6 Finishings and fittings F6. 1 Finishings and fittings Finishings shall be measured by length, classified as follows: 1. Cover fillets, which shall include architraves, skirtings or the like 2. Beads, which shall include stops or the like 3. Edgings, which shall include window boards, nosings or the like. Unless otherwise stated, fittings shall be measured by length, classified as follows: 1. Work tops, which shall include seats or the like 2. Handrails or balustrades.

Shelving shall be measured by area; alternatively, it may be measured by length. Backboards or the like shall be enumerated. Built-up members shall be so described. Plastic coverings or the like shall be described with the item on which they occur, stating whether on one or more faces; alternatively, they may be measured separately by area. Sheet linings shall be measured by area, classified as follows: 1. Walls, which shall include returns, reveals of openings or recesses and attached and unattached columns 2. Ceilings, which shall include attached and unattached beams and soffits of staircases.

Composite items Unless otherwise stated, composite items (which shall mean items which might be fabricated off-site whether or not they are fabricated off-site) shall be enumerated; all metal work or the like shall be understood to be included. Any associated work (for example, decorations) shall be measured in accordance with the relevant sections of this document. Sundry items Finished surfaces on sawn items shall be measured by length. Metalwork Metalwork items associated with woodwork shall be enumerated; alternatively, waterbars or the like may be measured by length. Ironmongery Units or sets of ironmongery shall be enumerated.

F6. 2 F6. 3 F6. 4 F6. 5 F6. 6 F6. 7 F7 Composite items F7. 1 F7. 2 F8 Sundry items F8. 1 F9 Metalwork F9. 1 F10 Ironmongery F10. 1 SECTION G – THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION G1 Generally G1. 1 G1. 2 G2 Coverings and linings G2. l Generally Work shall be measured flat without addition for laps or seams. Curved, spherical and conical work shall each be so described. Coverings and linings Unless otherwise stated, roofing, tanking, waterproof coveri