Politics Exam 6 MC

The emergence of hyperpartisanship has brought the American party system ______ the standards for a responsible party system.
farther away from
Of the following choices, party discipline applies only to the ______.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding issue positions of the major parties?
Democrats are more likely than Republicans to believe that government should let each person get ahead on his or her own rather than guaranteeing jobs and standards of living.
The statement that third parties are irrelevant in modern-day politics is ______.
less accurate than in the past due to the Tea Party victories of the 2010 midterm elections
The current party era is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT this:
A weakening in party identification among voters
Realignments are significant because they ______.
usually result in a change in policy direction
Party officials complain about the open primary because ______.
members of the other party can contaminate the nomination process
Party organizations engage in recruiting candidates ______.
for races they think they can win but that are not attractive to ambitious politicians
In contrast to the ideas of James Madison, political observers today argue that political parties ______.
are essential to the maintenance of democracy
Which of the following is NOT a reason the United States has a two-party system?
The American public strongly supports a two-party system.
Parties help to overcome the problem of ______ created by the Constitution.
fragmented government
The responsible party model ______.
makes it easier for voters to hold parties accountable for their actions
Since the 1960s, ______.
Republicans and Democrats have become more consistent with respect to their ideologies
The Democratic Party has become more liberal and the Republican Party more conservative because of the ______.
movement of conservative, southern Democrats to the Republican Party
The election of 1828 was significant to the development of electoral politics because ______.
it was the first election in which mass participation occurred
An election signaling a significant change in popular allegiance from one party to another is a ______ election.
Electioneering refers to ______.
the process of getting a person elected to public office
The two functions of parties are ______.
electioneering and governing
The third party mentioned in the text that had a significant impact on the 2010 midterm elections is the ______.
Tea Party
According to the textbook, the relationship between citizens and parties today is best reflected by ______.
citizens’ growing dissatisfaction with parties because moderates find themselves poorly represented and frustrated at the emergence of hyperpartisanship
All of the following statements concerning party identification in the electorate are true EXCEPT this one:
Most people who are registered members of a party work actively for their party organization.
Election campaigns changed during the twentieth century in all of the following ways EXCEPT this one:
The voters became less important in the nomination process.
Party activists are important to the parties for all of the following reasons EXCEPT this one:
They are the source of the drive to capture moderate voters and win elections.
Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding party machines?
Party machines were strongest in rural areas.
The party activity of governing involves ______ and ______.
controlling government; enacting the party’s policy agenda
One impact of televising the national conventions is that ______.
political parties choreograph events during prime time
The positive aspect of partisanship is that it ______.
keeps politicians honest and allows the best political ideas and policies to emerge
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the responsible party model?
Each party should act in a polarized fashion to such an extent that their behavior impedes government functions.
Why would the two American parties feel the need to take more extreme issue positions?
To satisfy the party activists
Parties appeal to moderate voters by all of the following EXCEPT this:
Publicly denouncing the more extreme wing of their own party
All of the following statements are true of party eras EXCEPT this one:
Throughout American history, the balance of parties has usually resulted in different parties controlling the executive and legislative branches of the federal government.
A critical election leads to a(n) ______.
American political parties are decentralized for all of the following reasons EXCEPT this one:
Americans resist efforts of the parties to become more centralized.
All of the following statements concerning parties in American democracy are true EXCEPT this one:
They have become an impediment to the operation of modern democracy.
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the American party system?
American parties are more ideologically extreme than many of their European counterparts.
The party ______ are the members of a political party who consistently vote for that party’s candidates.
Which of the following questions is NOT one that needs to be asked by a critical reader of party platforms?
Do public opinions polls show this party’s platform was the one supported by the voters at the time it was written?
Primary voters, party activists, and big-money donors ______.
tend to be more ideological and issue oriented than the voters in the general election
The current state of American political parties can be described as ______.
being in a period of both realignment and dealignment
Media coverage of the general election process has ______.
made campaigns more candidate centered
According to the text, ______ should find it easiest to band together to pursue common goals due to the nature of their goals.
business owners
At the time the health care bill was being debated in Congress, the insurance industry was in a tough position because ______.
if it stayed outside of the political process but was unable to stop health care reform, it risked being stuck with a policy it hated
Selective incentives are necessary for some interest groups because ______.
collective benefits cannot be kept from those who do not join the group, and the group needs paying members to join
Expressive benefits are ______.
selective incentives that derive from the opportunity to express values and beliefs and to be committed to a greater cause
Which statement best reflects the political influence of labor unions?
Labor union membership has decreased, but unions still provide a formidable political force.
Corporate and business interest groups are the most numerous and powerful of all interest groups because ______.
the government plays a key role in regulating the economy and setting the rules for economic competition
Based on the definitions in the textbook, the difference between factions and other interest groups is that factions ______.
have goals that are opposed to the rights of other citizens or to the interests of the whole community
The part of the federal government that is least subject to the revolving-door phenomenon is ______.
the courts
So-called 527 groups are important because they can ______.
raise unlimited amounts of money to mobilize voters with issue advocacy ads
Traditional social protest has been used most effectively by ______.
civil rights leaders
The likelihood that people with a shared interest will form a group is increased when each of the following occurs EXCEPT this:
The potential members are unemployed and have a great deal of time to engage in politics.
A common feature of all interest groups is that they ______.
are organized around shared interests among members
______ are interest groups that try to influence government to produce collective goods or services that benefit the general public.
Public interest groups
The text indicates that ______ are the type of interest group that is least likely to meet Madison’s definition of “factions.”
public interest groups
After reading the sections of the textbook on group formation and on types of interest groups, one could conclude all of the following EXCEPT this:
Worthy interests will be served regardless of whether or not they are organized.
The only way an interest group can directly lobby the judiciary is to ______.
challenge the legality of laws or administrative regulations by filing suit or filing amicus briefs in courts
PAC money is directed primarily toward ______.
congressional incumbents
In addition to the usual goals of other types of indirect lobbying, demonstrations and spontaneous protests seek to ______.
recruit those who have not formed an opinion on a certain topic or change the minds of those who have
Interest groups perform all of the following roles in politics EXCEPT this one:
Electing members to public office
An interest group ______ is an effective leader who is likely to have organized an interest group and can effectively promote its interests.
The argument that there is a “free rider problem” means that ______.
people obtain the benefits provided by an interest group without being part of it because the benefit is available to everyone
What is often the most important triggering mechanism that causes interest groups to form?
An external threat that causes citizens to band together to protect their well-being
AARP is very large because ______.
AARP provides a wide variety of selective benefits for a small cost
To be a critical consumer of direct mail, one should ask all of the following questions EXCEPT this one:
Are they registered with the federal government as a lobbying organization?
Political action committees contribute to congressional campaign funds largely to influence ______.
only members of relevant congressional committees because the contributions directly shape the process of specific legislation
_______ is/are crucial to helping interest groups form, sustain, and achieve policy goals, regardless of the group’s financial resources.
Effective leadership
Political action committees were created as a result of ______.
interest group restrictions in the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974
The ______ is the interest group that argued a number of key civil rights cases in court, including Brown v. Board of Education.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Economic interest groups include all of the following EXCEPT this:
Consumer groups
When directly lobbying Congress, interest groups may make use of all of the following EXCEPT this:
Public relations campaigns
The “revolving door” exists because ______.
some of the most effective lobbyists are former government officials
The ______ role of interest groups is reflected in MADD’s attempts to increase public awareness of problems related to drunk driving and to direct legislative attention to the issue.
The ability to make sizable and strategically placed campaign contributions helps interest groups ______.
buy access to representatives, senators, the White House, and their staffs
Interest groups are formed with the common goal of ______.
altering public policy
The Eagle Forum is an interest group that ______.
advocates a more traditional role for women in society
This type of interest group can trace its origin back to Earth Day in 1970:
Environmental groups
______ is a nonpartisan defender of individual rights against the encroachment of a powerful government.
The American Civil Liberties Union
Astroturf lobbying refers to ______.
indirect lobbying efforts that manipulate public sentiment
Pluralists believe that interest groups ______.
give more power to citizens and enhance democratic life
Liberals who criticized President Obama’s strategy for getting the health care bill passed say he ______ when he dealt with interest groups from the health insurance industry.
“gave away the store” by not insisting on inclusion of the public option
When a group provides a collective good or service, ______.
the group will inevitably confront the free rider problem
Many interest groups face the ______ when recruiting members who can gain the benefits of their activities whether or not they join.
free rider problem
Second Amendment groups lobby for or against ______.
gun control
Political action committees, or PACs, are ______.
the fundraising arm for interest groups
Issue advocacy advertisements are ______.
legal only if they do not tell citizens how to vote
Interest groups overcome the free rider problem by doing all of the following EXCEPT ______.
providing collective goods only to people who join the group
Interest groups often provide selective incentives, which are ______.
benefits available only to group members
The 2010 decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission had the effect of ______.
lifting the prior financial contribution restrictions on issue advocacy advertisements, such as the McCain-Feingold Act
Following the stricter rules on gifts and travel established by the 1995 Lobbying Disclosure Act, over the past decade, Congress has ______.
eased the restrictions on gifts and travel provided for representatives and senators by lobbyists