play final

Preschool play: motor skills
– improved motor skills
– reflexive movement (reflex)
– rudimentary movement (simple)
– fundamental movement (primary)
– specialized movement (specific)
– motor development
* gross motor skills: locomotor dexterity, upper body & arm skills
* fine motor skills
* perceptual motor skills: body awareness, directional awareness, temporal awareness
preschool play: movement phase
– reflexive movement phase: ranges from birth to 1 year
– rudimentary movement: basic motor skills acquired in infancy, reaching, grasping, releasing objects, sitting, standing, and walking
– fundamental movement: children gain increased control over their gross and fine motor movements focus on developing and refining motor skills like running, throwing, and catching
– specialized movement: begins at 7 and continues through adolescence
preschool play: play and physical development
– directed play: organized sports, adult directed
– free play: spontaneous unstructured play (playgrounds)
preschool play: play and cognitive development
– piaget: practice and symbolic play
– simlansky: sociodramatic play – stages of play development (functional, constructive, dramatic play, games w. rules)
– vygotsky: representational and fantasy play
preschool play: play and social development
– piaget: play as a response to social environment
– erikson: make believe play helps learn about world and new social skills
– vygotsky: helps play out rules and situations
– sutton smith: relationship between play and evolution
characteristics of preschool play
– integrated nature
– individual differences (SES, culture, gender)
– rough and tumble play
– superhero play
– block play
– chase games
Preschool play: adult role in play
– need to believe in importance of social play
– providing play activities that will lead to thinking and problem solving
– facilitators, models, supervisors, and participants in play
preschool play materials
– those that develop large motor skills
– sensory materials
– props for imaginary play
– art materials: skill oriented materials
school age overview
– engage in practice play to help them refine their skills and use them to accomplish a set of goals, practice play abounds w memorization of songs and simple action games
– physical activies are practiced in the context of musical action games
– exploration of art materials begins and children beging to shift their attention from enjoying the process to creating a recognized proccess of play to the goal or product of play
– when first learn a skill goal is more focused on the process as they progress become more focused on product
– children build structures with play goal in mind, often successful in meeting the goal
– sociodramatic play becomes more cooperative in nature
– in middle childhood children display a need for order, to belong and need to master the tools for literacy and numeracy
– begin consolidating their knowledge and skills through practice play
– less constructive in play because of material and lack of opportunity
school age play: physical development
– risk taking play: desire for physical challenge and risk taking
– directed play: physical education with a teacher
– free play: recess or outdoors
School age play: mastery play
– children want to do well in school
– arts and crafts, drama, playing music and a host of other areas
– especially if their peers value the activity
school age play: symbolic play
– exploration of materials
– for process but progresses to product focus
– decline in symbolic play
school age play: make believe play
– begins to diminish or only happens at home in small groups of friends
– when do make believe play incorporate pretense into their games with rules like dungeons and dragons
– daydreaming carries them into adolescene and adulthood
school age play: imaginative play
– floor play, board games, video games, storytelling, drama
school age play: social play
cooperative in nature
school age play: cognitive development (piaget – stages of play)
– increased cogntive & social maturity, creates the condition for a new kind of play based on rules, children take charge of the rules and games with rules – very important
– piaget explains that 4 successive developmental stages can be distinguished in the practice and application of rules
* stage 1: purely motor and individually driven, children handle objects according to their desires and capacities (first 2 years of age)
* stage 2: children start recieving rules from outside but play in an egocentric way – invent their own rules without relizing it (2-5)
* stage 3: rules now for cooperation and competition (age 6 – 7) very rigid adherence to rules – extreme
* stage 4: rules can now be changed and adapted if everyone agrees (age 10 or 11) more flexible and mature
school age play: gender play
– elementary school more so than other ages boys and girls usually play at different things and in seperate group
– boys mostly engage in chase games, war toys, ball games, rough and tumble play
– girls more diversified in types of play, engage in verbal and jumping games, ball games etc
– play in late childhood holds a different function for boys than girls, boys seem to value an activity most for the activity itself, girls value surrounding social context, for both overall goals are the same; have fun, belong to a group, friends
school age play: organized sports
– for younger children may include new rules and exclude old ones so as to keep the game moving, older children about mastering skills and maturity
– advantages and disadvantages: readiness, parent involvment, coaching
curriculum and play: play based curriculum
– most play based cirricula focuses on creative procces: imaginative expression of ideas and open ended experimentation rather than on an end product
curriculum and play: educational play
– play remains the center for early childhood curriculum and attempts to extend edu play into school age
– includes the notion of educational goals, intended outcome, achieving some end point
– links edu goals, objectives, outcomes to one or more of the significant characteristics of play
– school age: play activities promote learning and make lesson more interesting, some argue should play and learn as a result, based on outcome and what need to learn, play could distract
curriculum and play: 3 factors that keep play in education
– developmentally appropriate
– constructivism: asserts that learning is an active social process in which children build their own understandings based on experience, cognitive, interation, active participant to learning
– self regulation: increasing attention given to the development of self regulation, the set of abilities that enable children to control their behaviors (body, emotions), engage in positive interactions w others, become independent learners, materials, harder in school age, needs to already be there to keep classroom under control
curriculum and play: developmentally appropriate
– NAEYC: programs grounded in child development theory and research designed to meet developmental needs of child, teachers provide learning environments materials, and activities that match teachers observations of children’s emerging cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development
– developmentally based programs place the developmental characteristics of the child (learner) at the center of curriculum
– play centered curriculum supports whole child’s development, 1st grade, some not even kindergarden
– edu should promote development of competent child and competent future adult
– best accomplished w play centered program, play is balance between either spontaneous or teacher guided or directed
– increased quality most people trained on developmentally appropriate practices each state has different core practices
curriculum and play: spontaneous
– arise from intrinisc motivation, self directed, represent expression of own interests, intrinsic motivation, active engagement, attention to means rather than ends, freedom from external rules, nonliteral behavior
– process not outcome, intrinsic, decrease in rules, no right or wrong way
– what child needs to do ex: blocks
curriculum and play: guided
– influence thinking or activity, influenced intentional manner by adults
curriculum and play: teacher directed play
– organized and literally directed or controlled by an adults, teachers intentions are clear and specific
curriculum and play: game educational play
– can be used to promote learning of academic skills and knowledge, advantage over traditional worksheets, motivation to work comes from children, children invent their own strategies and ways of achieving goals, children supervise and correct eachother, memory, counting, colors, therapeutic
curriculum and play: stimulations educational play
– special type of game based on model or real situtation, role playing used to increase
– have to take individuals differences and how they will accept it and make meaning, ex: 8-9 graders do better with a fake baby and protect because when get older will take less seriously and not make connections
curriculum and play: barriers to educational play
– belief that play is the opposite of teaching and edu learning
– preschools not using DAP activites being more assessment oriented, implementing standards, is art copying model bad v intrinsic, should be materials hands on v route learning and worksheets
– primary grades: standardized testing, emphasises on direct instruction, lack of time, appropriate space, high student to teacher ratios when too many students hard to do teacher guided so depend on directed majority of the time, lack of materials, messy materials not allowed, lack of support from parents or adminsitrators because may believe play is wasting time
curriculum and play: curriculum
– schools course of study: academic subjects, objectives, goals, instructional strategies, learning activites, methods of evaluation
– design of activities and experienced used by teachers to cogntive physical, social development
content driven: teachers organize and develop cirriculua around meaningful to content should match how children think and learn
curriculum and play: learning goals
– knowledge: learn new info or gain knowledge
– skills: things can do, small units of action
– disposition: mental habits or tendencies to react in consistent ways under similar circumstances
curriculum and play: play based curriculum
– clear defined play centers or learning centers that connect well through a flowing design
curriculum and play: design to promote play
– 3 play center design features promote play development and learning
– logical arrangment of space and materials: increase play frequency and quality, promote learning, compatible materials are placed near eachother
– modified open floor plan: centers are divided into 2 or 3 sides but left open on at least 1 for easy access
– stimulus shelters: space for children to be alone and enjoy break from active classroom
– amt of space says how many children can be in classroom, need 35 square feet minimum per child, not counting space for tables, toys, furinture, programs go by minimum beacuse not really enough space
play based curriculum – prescott (types of materials)
– balance of play materials most critical quality of childrens play
– prescott: good balance between complex and simple materials, open ended vs. closed ones associated with greater play involvement and a smoother day in child care centers
– complex: materials w many uses (clay)
– simple: only one or few uses (books)
– open ended: those w which children are able to express themselves freely and creativly (blocks)
– closed materials: those w only single use (ordering game by size)
– research suggests children benefit from an optimal mix of these materials
– balance among activies can be achieved within a single play center: softness / hardness, high / low mobility, open / closed, risk / safety, large group / individual, intrusive / seclusion
– early childhood dies of as central and becomes more of a model as grow
content driven curriculum: emergent curricula
– curriculum planning emerges from daily life of children and teachers in a learning community, practical, sensible, hard to plan because experiences dont always happen
– ex: brown eyes v blue eyes experiment or snow brings snow inside and talk about it and watch it turn to water
content driven curriculum: thematic units
– focuses study on central content area, creates context for shared ownership of curriculum and learning between student and teachers, teacher presents a broad category and students choose subtopics and plan day to day, pick theme for a period of time when it fits and emergent curriculum fits since on that subject
– ex: talk about winter in december could now do the snow emergent experiment
– thematic usually guides and emergent fills in
types of curriculum: project
– integrated curriculum, connecting content areas like math, science, history, projects often develop from themes being studied, context for development of knowledge skills dispositions
types of curriculum: learning centered
– sometimes called stations, interest centers, zones, or activity area
– can have free choice (child chooses) collaborative desicon making (teacher and child plan where to go what might be done) assigned activities (restrictive from a center managment) helps to develop and implement curriculum that fits the needs of individuals, balance instructional modes between teacher directed and child directed, balance opportunities to develop interdependence and independence, creates forum to develop understanding and cooperation among children with differing abilities
curriculum models: relationship between play and curriculum
– isolation or segregation: childrens play activites are completely seperate from rest of curriculum, occurs when recreational play alloweed in a program, such as recess
– juxtaposition: children presented w play opportunites that are related to the academic curriculum, no attempt is made to take advantage of these relationships, teachers more likely to take ideas from free play, use them as basis for follow up related activities
– true integration: teacher provides connection between play and curriculum make concerted effort to exploit learning potential of connections, serves as spokesperson for reality during free play and takes advantage of teachable moments
curriculum models: role of teacher in play
– free play: child chooses
– guided play: teacher selects materials to use in play, some freedom but adult intervenes by questioning
– directed play: teachers instructing children how to accomplish specific task: songs
– work disgused as play: highly structured activities that are assigned to children, present activity feel will be fun, required activity
Curriculum Model: Teacher role as observer
learn from children if observe their naturally occuring behavior, spontaneous play – no interaction
Curriculum Model: Teacher role as stage manager
contribution to play begins with physical environment, stage setting, whats available, switching around materials in stations, could change them by theme
Curriculum Model: Teacher role as mediator
teacher asks geniune questiosn that enable children to use their words in effective communication
Curriculum Model: Teacher role as planner
planning for play is an emergent process, change environment, fit into lesson plan, projects
Curriculum Model: Teacher role as scribe
keeps notes on children, anecdotal info valuable to those who dont see value in play, look for developmental info
Curriculum Model: Teacher role as player
like play and feel participation builds relationships with children and enriches context of play
Curriculum Model: Benefits of play in assesment
– children are not good test takers: better demonstrate abilities through play
– formal assesment often requires unnatural actions: play is natural and perform at highest level
– play has intrinsic value for children willing to spend considerable social and cognitive resources on it
– children play develop in all areas
– When children are young is the time to evaluate play, this changes at elementary level, play shows achievement & problem solving but hard to score so it is criticized by parents or other teachers
Curriculum models: facilitate play approach
teacher provide materials and activities encourage children to play independently, strive to enhance specific play or activity, enhancing play leads to higher quality play interactions, not seen as one model in most classrooms but some schools use parts of it
curriculum model: learn and teach through play
provides play opportunities and intervenes regularly to promote certain non play concepts and skills
therapeutic play: why play is essential to psychotherapy of children
– children communicate feelings effectively and is a natural avenue for doing so
– allows adults to enter world of children and be accepting of them, equalization of power
– observing children play helps adults to understand them better
– play is fun: don’t need to add to it or mess it up, children will do what is important to them
– intrinsically rewarding and complete by itself
– play is spontaneous, non goal directive
– self expression
– don’t usually play in new or frightening situations, could be anxiety not that they dont need it
– play is child’s language so we must go to their level
– play reveals what child has experienced, feelings reactions, needs in their life, self concept, bridges gap and makes meaning of what they don’t understand, controllable part of their life will help increase academic work because feel in control
– concrete present experience could be livign out past experience sharing it now
psychoanalytic approach to play therapy
client must be highly motivated to change, able to achieve transference w therapist, engage in free association
relationship approach to play therapy
inspired by carl rogers, emphasis on quality of interaction between therapist and child, respect for clients is essential, nondirective relationships creates climate of acceptance, unconditional positive reward, accepting of childs genuine expression of self
structured approach to play therapy
compramise between 2 extremes, emphasis on shorter treatments, specific goal strategies clearly outlined at begining of therapy, focus on present realities rather than unconcious mechaninsims rooted in past, avoid use of heavy symbolic intepretation, stress importance of realtionship between child and therapist, growing tendency to use expressive arts
play therapy v therapy through play
– Play therapy: more child centered, not lead by adults, not much talking, child just plays & therapist makes little comments, good for less verbal kids or younger, feel problems will reveal themselves w no interference
– therapy w play: regular therapy in an office but using toys to distract & make child comfortable to let the talking stat ex: feelings card game or clay
virginia axline child centered therapy
– warm friendly relationship with child
– accept child completly for what he or she is without praise or criticism
– climate of permisiveness
– recognize childs feelings attempt to reflect them back to child
– respect for child
– child leads the way
– therapy must not be hurried
– limits must be set: structure provides security
types of therapy
costume, storytelling, bibliotherapy, art therapy
Therapeutic play: stress and play
stress should be seen as characteristic intrinsic neither to certain environments or to certain children but result of complex dynamic evolving interaction between environment and children, diff environments can elecit diff level of reaction
Piaget perspective on play therapy
– play is medium children use to assimilate and gain knowledge, 2 distinct but complementary types of play that serve restorative functions
1. compensatory combinations: assimilating process, modify real life events to fit child’s wish & turn negative experiences more positive
2. liquidating combinations: neutralize strong emotions aroused by specific events
Vygotsky perspective on play therapy
play can lead child development instead of simply being expression, central to development of childs ability to use symbols
Both Vygotsky and Piagets perspective on play therapy
play is a means for children to emancipate from situational constraints and gain control over them
Therapeutic play: quality play program
– protected time and space to play
– age appropriate and culturally sensitive play materials
– careful balance of adult presence and involvement
– presence of involvement of peers family and community
Technology and play: technology and media
– 2-4 year olds use media 4 hours a day
– 8-13 year olds use media 8 hrs per day
– 14-18 year olds use media 7 hours per day
– more hours of video and TV children watch the more likely they are to be overweight
– TV competes with alternate activities like physical activity, reading, playing, talking
Technology and play: benefits and dangers
– Dangers: heavy use: obesity, academic performance, violence
– Benefits: with guidence can contribute to creativity, imagination, empathy, school readiness
Technology and play: reccomendations
– NAEYC guidelines: be selective, balance, active use, over 2, limit use
– american acadamy of pediatrics recommends: children 0-2 years no TV, children limit media use 1-2 hours
– what parents and caregivers can do related to new play technology
1. consider the appropriateness of particular platforms and software for individual children beyond ESRB ratings
2. be sure to balance childrens play, to ensure that more sedentary technology play does not replace healthy physical activity
3. be vigilant of the software and internet connections on a child’s play device: undesirered material may pop up
4. when children and adults share a technology device be sure that adult materials are blocked for children
5. monitor the suitability of games and websites for individuals plays interests and maturity levels
6. remember that new technology may broaden a childs social world, know both actual and virtual playmates
7. children may have access to friends technology devices: keep up with emerging technology and how your children have access to it
Benefits of outdoor play: age differences
– more influential than clasroom in developing peer culture
– wider variety of opportunities for sensory stimulation
– language on playgrounds more complex than indoors
– boys engage in more dramatic play outdoors
– girls and boys engage in gross motor skills
– infant / toddler: adult supervision is crucial, movement and sensorimotor play
– preschool: equipment areas, large grass areas, hard surfaces for bikes and wagons and outdoor classrooms, areas for dramatic play
– school age: hang out area, challenging physical activiites, games with rules (organized games) athletics, adapted preschool equipment
Outdoor play: types of playgrounds and histories of playgrounds
– types of playgrounds: traditional playgrounds (provide concrete steel jungles) creative playgrounds (constructed from scrounged materials like tries, scrap metal) adventure playgrounds, modern playgrounds
– history of playgrounds: kindergarden, nursery school, park, elementary school developed from outdoor gymnasium concept (physical excersise and activity then added play)
elkinds book: history of play
– children are now consumers with direct ads
– toys now routinely purchased year round not just bday and christmas
– decrease in warmth, increase in plastic
– less imaginiation more going from toy to toy need to spend time and make a story
– toys now increase brand loyalty and fashion, before encourages good behavior
power of play: theory of play
– play is needed to adapt world to ourselves for new learning
– love play and work originate from the same instincits and make learning effective
– play without love and work is simple entertainment
-Infancy and early childhood: play most central to adapting to reality (work) 2-6 yrs symbols and create own words – derived from play, practical adaptation (work) no clue difference between what comes from within self or without
– Elementary school years (6-12): work is primary, adapting to social demands, teachers can encourage or decrease learning, late elementary school trends are increase and parents are decreasing
– Adolescence: now love is dominant, big decrease in work and play, think future occupation and education, 12-15 years love is focus 16-19 equilibrium now create in social sence (band, dance, play)
– Adulthood: play is recreation, decrease in creativity, decrease in physical growth, the creating is love (needlepoint) for some work is money others work is love
power of play: reasons play changed
– Children now seen as competent no need for caregivers less control of info in the home (TV)
– skill toys used to teach mundane
– Education toys increase free time and decrease competiton foear in parents, fear of wasting time “just playing” mostly for pre-k because race, no
– More screen time and more pressure from paretns
power of play: misunderstandings of how children learn
– 1. Watch me approach: skilled teacher should teach because not imitate unknown actions ex: parents choose activites and distract child from play, must not interfere because organized, satisfaction, attention, computer fames for infants reflect this – missing play and love and interrupting says you have little value and so do your ideas
– 2. The little sponge theory: they don’t catch our views and ideas as quickly as we can observe, say since so much brain growth learning and thinking more, less abstraction and complexity, the world is new and they find interest in what we no longer do
– 3. The look harder theory: once understand concept externalize so don’t have to think about it every time ex: we speak louder when someone cant understand English, not know what supposed to be looking at, have own sense to learn but if push too hard get discouraged, figuring out whole world and we forget they come in knowing nothing and on computer screen cannot see object and not see what adults want them to
power of play: learning through play
– Tools of reason: syncretic thinking, all reach the age by genetics, syllogistic thinking 1 person can be 2 things
– Age of reason and childbearing: rules like grammar, forgetting please and thank you is immaturity not stubbornness, like hard to see teacher at supermaker, 1 dimensional story car
– Age reason and formal construction: when formal instruction no longer about childs regular curiosity just work and decrease play ad love