Physical Science Final Exam Study Guide

Boyle’s Law
The law stating that the volume of a fixed quantity of a confined gas is inversely proportional to its pressure wen its temperature is held constant is called ______ ___.
Charles’s Law
The law stating that the volume of a fixed quantity of a confined gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when its pressure is held constant is called ________ ___.
Joule
The man credited with showing a clear connection between mechanical energy and heat is _____.
temperature
Measured in degrees, the __________ of a substance is directly related to the average kinetic energy of its atoms and molecules.
viscosity
A fluid’s resistance to flow is called its
Fahrenheit
The scale that uses 32 degrees as its freezing point for water
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Thermometer
The instrument that measures temperature is called a
Celsius
The scale that uses 0 degrees as its freezing point for water.
Kelvin
The scale that uses absolute 0 as the coldest temperature possible is
heat
the flow of thermal energy form one place to another is called
conduction
when two objects with different temperatures touch, thermal energy moves form the hotter to the cooler object in the process called
Radiation
Electromagnetic energy moves in space through the process of
convection
when thermal energy is carried from one location to another by a fluid its called
insulators
Some materials rather tahn being good conductors seem to hold thermal energy at bay as
water
Which of the following is a good conductor of electricity
rubber
which of he following is a good insulator for electricity
static
Stationary electricity is also called
100
Lightning strikes on the earth about (#) times a day
Lightning rod
A device used to protect buildings from lightning is called
capacitors
modern charge storing devices are
electric current
electricity that involves continuously moving charges is called
battery
a _________ consists of one or more electromagnetic cells that supply elections released by a chemical reaction
direct current
Current that flows in one direction through a conductor is called
electric path
the path that the current flows is called
switch
we are able to open or close a circuit by opening or closing a gap in current path by using a
Resistor
a device that can change the voltage within portions of a circuit is called a
solar cells
photovoltaic devices are also called
generator
a _________ is basically one or more coils of wire rotated in a magnetic field by some form of prime mover such as a motor or turbine powered by steam, water, or wind.
ohms
resistence is measured in
series circuit
When loads are connected one after another on the same path it is called a
Kilowatt hours
Electrical energy is dispensed and billed in units called
parallel circuit
Loads connected in separate branches of the circuit are called
fuses
older homes with original wiring may use these as protective devices
Circuit breakers
Newer houses use these as protective devices
ground
The rounded third prong on a standard plug is the ______ device
crest
the highest point of a wave is
wave length
the length of a wave cycle is the
period
the time it takes for a system to complete one cycle is called its
waves
Periodic changes that transmit energy from one place to another are called
frequency
the rate at which cycles repeat is called the
Cycle
each repeated motion of a period is called a ______ and takes the same amount of time
tough
the lowest point of a wave is called the
rest position
a pendulum is at its ____ __________ when it hangs straight down
pulse
a single wave cycle or a very short burst of waves is called a
pendulum
a mass attached to an arm at a pivot point that swings under the influence of gravity is called a
inner ear
what part of the ear is the mos intricate and least understood part of the ear? It contains two fluid filled organs: the semi-circular canals and the cochlea
outer ear
what part of the ear helps us determine the direction of a sound’s source by blocking sounds coming from behind?
acoustics
a room/building’s effect on sound is called
sonar
_____ was used on boats of the world wars to detect enemy submarines
middle ear
what part of the ear consists of the eardrum and three bones called the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup?
the speed of sound
331.4 mi/sec
acoustic amplification
the process of making sound louder is called
sound
that which can be defected by our ears is known as
reverberations
multiple of echos of a sound formed when it refelcts off distant surfaces is called
loudness
The response of our ear to the intensity of a sound wave is called
stringed instruments
what type of instruments include violins, cells, guitars, and ukeleles?
decibels
loudness is measured in units called
larynx
the boxlike structure at the top of the trachea is called teh
ultrasonic
soundwaves that have frequencies above the range audible to humans are called
doppler
when either the sound maker or the sound listener moves relative to the other , the ______ effect goes into action
pitch
how high or low an audible tone sounds to the human ear
tuning fork
It has tines that vibrate which set up sound waves in air
diaphragm
the large flat muscle that forms the floor of the chest cavity
percussion
a drum is an example of a __________ instruments
vocal cords
Two flat pieces of mucous membrane tissue stretching across the upper portion of eh larynx are called
range
the human voice has amazing flexibility that we call
brass
what type of instrument includes the horns such as trumpet, french horn, trombone, and tuba
ultra sound
what is used in the medical field to produce a picture of a developing fetus
quality
we make judgements on whether a sound is pleasant or not based on it s
indivisible
the term atom comes form the greek word “atomos” which means
proton
the positively charged particle in the nucleus
electron
the negatively charged particle in the nucleus
neutron
the particle within the nucleus that has no charge is teh
atomic number
each kind of atom has a distinctive number of protons in its nucleus. this number is called the
isotope
electrons in the outer most energy level are known as the atoms
energy level
a region where an electron with certain amount of energy is most likely to be found is called an
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost energy level are known as the atom’s
radiation
the rays and particles emitted by unstable nuclei is nuclear
alpha beta gamma
there are three main kinds of “rays” of nuclear radiation they are
carbon 14
one way to attempt to determine the age of certain fossils is by using
Fission
the splitting of the atom’s nucleus is called nuclear
fusion
the process of bombarding small nuclei to form larger ones is called nuclear
the atomic number
the number on top of the element in the periodic table is called
neon
the element that is used in the lights on broadway is
gold,Au
What element is worth alot in its natural state (element, symbol)
oxygen
what is not a member of the noble gas family?
-neon
-oxygen
-helium
-hallium
K
Potassium (symbol)
More than 100
how many elements are there in the periodic table
hydrogen
which element really doesn’t belong in any of the “Families”?
Calcium
C is the symbol for
mercury
All metals except _______ are solids at room temp
all
Which of the following are radioactive?
-radium
-Plutonium
-Uranium
argon
which is not a metal? aluminum, argon, mercury, or tin?
tungsten
which is not a gas? tungsten, flourine, oxygen, radon
medium
the substance that sound moves through is called the
both
which instrument is considered a keyboard instrument? piano, organ, both, or neither
attracted
when two objects with opposite charges approach each other they are
dry and wet
there are two types of cells for batteries
ampere
electrical current is measured in a unit called the
metalloids
elements that have properties somewhere between a metal and a nonmetal are