Sequences of DNA used to infer how long it has been since primate species last shared a common ancestor. Because Mutations in DNA occur at a relatively constant rate, the amount of difference between two samples is proportional to the amount of time elapsed since their last common ancestor existed. This is often referred to as the “______” When parts of the fossil record are fairly complete and well dated, they can be used to calibrate this ____ by telling us how long ago two or more species on a tree diverged from one another and thus how long it takes for a certain number of mutations to occur. WIKI: is a technique in molecular evolution that uses fossil constraints and rates of molecular change to deduce the time in geologic history when two species or other taxa diverged. It is used to estimate the time of occurrence of events called speciation or radiation. The molecular data used for such calculations is usually nucleotide sequences for DNA or amino acid sequences for proteins. It is sometimes called a gene clock or evolutionary clock.
Was a British paleoanthropologist and archaeologist whose work was important in establishing human evolutionary development in Africa, particularly through his discoveries in the Olduvai Gorge.
In natural philosophy, he asserted Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution unswervingly and set about to test Darwin’s hypothesis that humans arose in Africa. Was also a devout Christian.
Was a Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer with a background in biology, zoology, botany, and geography. He became notable for his Kon-Tiki expedition in 1947, in which he sailed 8,000 km (5,000 mi) across the Pacific Ocean in a hand-built raft from South America to the Tuamotu Islands. The expedition was designed to demonstrate that ancient people could have made long sea voyages, creating contacts between apparently separate cultures.
Vincent Sarich and Alen Wilson
Wan American Professor Emeritus in anthropology at UC Berkeley. As a doctoral student, and along with his PhD supervisor he measured the strength of immunological cross-reactions of blood serum albumin between pairs of creatures, including humans and African apes (chimpanzees and gorillas). . By constructing a calibration curve of the I.D. of species’ pairs with known divergence times in the fossil record, the data could be used as a molecular clock to estimate the times of divergence of pairs with poorer or unknown fossil records.
In their seminal paper in 1967 in Science, they estimated the divergence time of humans and apes as four to five million years ago, at a time when standard interpretations of the fossil record gave this divergence as at least 10 to as much as 30 million years.
He is one of the leading proponents of the recent African origin hypothesis or “Out of Africa” theory, which hypothesizes that modern humans originated in Africa over 100,000 years ago and replaced, in some way, the world’s archaic humans, such as Homo floresiensis and Neanderthals, after migrating within and then out of Africa to the non-African world within the last 50,000 to 100,000 years. He always considered that some interbreeding between the different groups could have occurred, but thought this would have been trivial in the big picture.
Is an American paleoanthropologist. Along with Maurice Taieb and Yves Coppens, he is known for discovering the fossil of a female hominid australopithecine known as “Lucy” in the Afar Triangle region of Hadar, Ethiopia.
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a prominent paleoanthropologist and expert on Neandertal biology and human evolution. He researched the evolution of the species Homo sapiens and recent human diversity, focusing on the paleoanthropology and emergence of late archaic and early modern humans, and the subsequent evolution of anatomically modern humanity. Believed Neanderthals were brutal, but taken care of.
his best-known excavations were at the Neanderthal site at Shanidar Cave in Iraq.
Out of Africa Theory
hypothesizes that modern humans originated in Africa over 100,000 years ago and replaced, in some way, the world’s archaic humans, such as Homo floresiensis and Neanderthals, after migrating within and then out of Africa to the non-African world within the last 50,000 to 100,000 years.
The Multi-Regional Hypothesis
contends that after Homo erectus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World, regional populations slowly evolved into modern humans. This model contains the following components:
some level of gene flow between geographically separated populations prevented speciation, after the dispersal
all living humans derive from the species Homo erectus that left Africa nearly two million-years-ago
natural selection in regional populations, ever since their original dispersal, is responsible for the regional variants (sometimes called races) we see today
the emergence of Homo sapiens was not restricted to any one area, but was a phenomenon that occurred throughout the entire geographic range where humans lived
Out of Africa theory
asserts that modern humans evolved relatively recently in Africa, migrated into Eurasia and replaced all populations which had descended from Homo erectus. Critical to this model are the following tenets:
homo sapiens arose in Africa and migrated to other parts of the world to replace other hominid species, including homo erectus.
after Homo erectus migrated out of Africa the different populations became reproductively isolated, evolving independently, and in some cases like the Neanderthals, into separate species
Homo sapiens arose in one place, probably Africa (geographically this includes the Middle East)
Homo sapiens ultimately migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations, without interbreeding
modern human variation is a relatively recent phenomenon
Approaches/ Perspectives of Anthropology
• Scientific (at least systematic)
a scientific and systematic study of humanity. It is interested in humans in all places and at all times.
Subfields of Anthropology
4. • Physical/biological
: devote much of their life to going out and studying a particular group of people and living like those people.
work hand and hand with physical anthropologists to find land they may have been inhabited by humans. They look for human remains. Interested in many different periods. Interested in reconstructing what life what in the past while having absence from historical accounts or sources.
communicating using language.
Human biology within the framework of evolution. The study of humankind in particular
o Some are just interested in human anatomy. Just interested in physiology and osteology. Based upon what kinds of genes we have.
The scientific study of the measurements and proportions of the human body.
members of the evolutionary lineage that also includes our own species, Homo Sapiens.
the study of the structure and function of the skeleton and bony structures.
The 4 criteria for assessing or judging whether something is scholarly is 4 things
: all scholarship should make an effort to tell or say something new about a subject.
Mastery of subject
few of any great strives have every been taken by people who didn’t know what they were doing. The only way one can capitalize is to know enough about something in order to utilize it. With this in mind, science can go one forever.
the recovering or discovery of evidence and on top of that demonstrating that there is a relationship between the evidence and variables. Clear evidence of lack of scholarship would be intentionally misleading or offering incomplete evidence. Scholarship requires that the evidence be bonified, that the evidence bares a relationship to other evidence. Should you do this, you may be judged and not be considered very scholarly.
A is greater than b. B is greater than C. Thus A is greater than C.
research that’s primary topic are things that happened through time. Concerned with the way in which something, esp. language, has developed and evolved through time. 1. Concern with things that
2. Happen through time-perhaps mostly on the past
3. Analogy, inference: to reach a logical conclusion based upon the observation of facts and the application of reason.
4. History, Geology, Archaeology
used blood to look at differences between chimps and baboons
believed the earliest humans were heavily pigmented from sunlight and believed they lost it to make Vitaman D.
the hypothesis (based on study of mitochondrial DNA) that modern humans have a common female ancestor who lived in Africa around 200,000 years ago.
How do nuclear and mitochrondrial DNA difference with respect to inheritance?
Mitochondria DNA is inherited just from the female, while nuclear DNA is inherited from both parents.
Studies of Y Chromosomes can provide useful information about
The origins of man’s earliest ancestors. By using the Y Chromosome, which is passed down from a man’s father, scientists can use this to find out man’s common ancestors of these genetic lineages sometimes called Y Chromosome Adam.
Why do Physical Anthropologists study bipedalism
They study it because it is useful in determining what type of footprint they are dealing with. If they can determine that it is a _____they can also conclude that it is also an early hominins. Likewise it helps them figure out which creatures footprints were ____ and which are not.
an approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis (provisional explanation) is stated, and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data. a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Why is science self correcting?
Because science is problematic. Scientific conclusions are contingent upon the state of knowledge. Many processes in science are problematic. Science tends to be a self-correcting way of knowing about things since as humans we are prone to errors, and if a theory is incorrect, science has a way of proving that. It proves to be self-correcting since it does not judge a theory based on beliefs but based on experiment, evidence, and knowledge.
Assumptions of Science
Universe can be understood. Things are as they appear.
Assumptions of Science cont.
all science is perceived from a few basic assumptions as they are part of our cultural heritage. The number one assumption to emerge from the enlightenment was an idea that the universe and everything in the universe could be understood if you study it. There are explanations for why things happened. It’s reasonable that miracles can happen within deep scientific principles. You could take the scientific position that the reason that happened was because it was a miracle, but you would not assign a miracle to everything. In a sense the great formulator if this idea is usually traced back in somewhat a mythical fashion to Sir Issac Newton, who formulated a theory of gravity when an apple fell on a tree and hit on the head. Darwin does something similar in the 19th century when he asks the following question. What makes some species better than others? He could have said just nothing or shrugged his soldiers. Rather he said recent of common ancestry is explanations why some people are more similar than others. Thus there is a similarity but also differences. Things as they appear. It appears that some species are similar to some and dissimilar to others. There are times in which questions are asked in which while having an answer in their time seem like interesting questions but there is no wonder that they could not answer the question because there assumption was wrong. Why does the sun move through the sky every day?
The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology. It includes cultural, archaeological, linguistics, and physical or biological, anthropology.
concerned with the way in which something, esp. language, has developed and evolved through time.
concerned with something, esp. a language, as it exists at one point in time.
the study of non human primates
Extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain.
She sampled DNA of Woman from several generations searching for the ancestral Eve.
Discovered the Oldest footprints in volcanic ash.
Four Criteria for Scholarship and Science
Insight, Mastery of Subject, Evidence, Logic
Kinds of Science
Synchronic Studies, and Diachronic Studies
4 things under Synchronic
4 things under Diachronic
What does it mean to be Scientific
1. Science is Empirical (based on observation or experience)
a. Collection of Data- Induction and Deducation
b. Developing Hypotheses
c. Providing explanations (Proximate and Ultimate)
2. Science is Self Correcting and also Probabilistic
a. Conclusions in knowledge are contingent upon states of knowledge
b. many processes in science are probabilistic
c. There are exceptions to generalizations
3. Science is Parsimonious
a. The principle of parsimony/Occam’s Razor: is a principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in problem-solving. It states that among competing hypotheses, the hypothesis with the fewest assumptions should be selected.
b. This is a rule of thumb only
a. An investigator needs one in order to know what to expect upon beginning a project.
b. It is the source of questions that a researcher will investigate
c. It makes it possible to predict the possible results of a project
Data Generation in the Lab
Testing Hypotheses with statistics