Photoshop ACA Exam, from others

digital image
is a picture in electronic form
image-editing
An program that allows you to manipulate graphic images so that they can be posted on websites or reproduced by professional printers using full-color processes.
Pixels
Every image is made up of very small squared, which are called ______________.
flatten
Photoshop files can become quite large. After a file is complete, you might want to _________________ it, an irreversible process that combines all layers and reduce the file size.
logo
You can create ______________ in Photoshop. A ____________ is a distinctive image that you can create by combining symbols, shapes, colors, and text. ________ give graphic identity to organizations such as corporations, universites, and retail stores.
Types
Text, or a layer containing text. Each character is measured in points. In PostScript measurement, 1 inch is equivalent to 72 points. In traditional measurement, 1 inch is equivalent to 72.27 points.
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Splash Screen
A window that displays information about the software you are using.
Preeferences
Used to control the environment using your specifications.
Workspace
The entire window, form the Application bar at the top of the window, to the status bar at the bottom border of the program window. The area in the Dreamweaver program window that includes all of the menus, panels, buttons, inspectors, and panes that you use to create and maintain websites.
Tools Panel
A panel in Flash, Dreamweaver, and Photoshop separated into categories containing told and their options.
Options Bar
Displays the dettings for the active tool. The ____________ is located directly under the Application bar, but can be moved anywhere in the workspace for easier access.
Panel
A tabbed, floating or docked window that displays information on a particular topic or contains related commands. Used to view, organize, and modify objects. _________ contain named tabs, which can be separated and moved to another panel group. You can view a panel menu by clicking the Panel Options list arrow in its upper-right corner.
Dock
A collection of panels or panel groups.

a collection of panels, or buttons surrounded by a dark gray bar. The arrows in the dock are used to maximize and minimize the palettes or panels.

Drop-Zone
A blue outline area that indicates where a palette or panel can be docked.
Status Bar
The area located at the bottom of the program window (Win) or the image work area (mac) that displays information such as the file size of the active window and a description of the active tool. In Dreamweaver, bar that appears at the bottom of the Dreamweaver document window. The left end of the status bar displays the tag selector, which shows the HTML tags being used at the insertion point location. The right end displays the window size and estimated download time for the page displayed.
Rulers
On screen markers that help you precisely measure and position an abject. Rulers can be displayed using the View Menu.
Spring-loaded keyboard shortcuts
Which view allows the editing of server-side code and real-time preview of the page?
Live Code
Link the text Adobe to the file contact.html
using the tool that allows you to click-and-drag to create links
1click-and-drag to select
2click-and-drag from the Point-file tool in the Properties Panel to the file name contact.html to the files pannel
Title Bar
contains the name of the panel and allows panels to be moved, stacked, minimized and closed
Menu Bar
main bar and contains file, edit, insert, etc.
Files Panel
contains all files within a defined Dreamweaver site. (on right side)
Document Bar
appears above opened document and use to add a page title
Assets Panel
contains all assets such as color, images, and videos within a Dreamweaver site
What are three advantages of using Adobe Browser Lab for previewing and testing web pages?
1 Ability to preview web pages on multiple browsers on multiple
2 Ability to save testing money by reducing the need for dedicated testing hardware/software
3 Ability to preview web pages directly from Dreamweaver without installing
Local Site
where the pages and all assents are saved on the computer
Remote Folder
folder where you are uploading the contents of the site
Web Saver
where the contents of the sites are uploaded to be deployed on the website
Root folder
contains all the web pages and assets on the site
Shape
A vector object that keeps its crisp appearance when it is resized, edited, moved, reshaped or copied
Rasterized Shape
Converted into a bitmapped object that cannot be moved or copied
Path
One or more straight or curved line segments connected by anchor points, small square similar to fastening points
Open path
Such as a line has two distance endpoints, anchor points at each end of the open path
Closed path
One continuous path without endpoints
Path component
Consists of one or more anchor points joined by line segments
Clipping path
A type of path used to extract a photoshop object from within a layer, place it in another and retain its transparent background
Paths panel
Where each path is stored
Pen tool
Let’s you draw a path by placing anchor points along the edge of another image, or wherever you need them, to draw a specific shape
Freeform pen tool
Acts just like a traditional pen or pencil. Just draw it, and it automatically places both the anchor points and the line segments wherever necessary to achieve the shape you want
Path selection tool
Use to select the entire path
Direct selection tool
Used to select and manipulate individual anchor points and segments to reshape the path
Work path
When a path is first created, it is called a work path, until you name it because it becomes permanent then
Vector graphics
Made up of lines and curves defined by mathematical objects called vectors
Bounding box
When a transform command is selected, a bounding box is displayed around the object
Handles
A bounding box contains handles which let you drag them so that you can modify the selection
Reference point
Located in the center of the bounding box. This is the point around which the transform command takes place.
Optimizing
Finding the balance between image quality and image file size.
Resolution Dependent
The quality of the image may be affected by the resolution of the computer display. GIF, JPEG, and PNG are all resolution dependent.
Indexing
Reducing the file size by removing colors from the index when saving a file in the GIF or PNG file format.
Algorithm
A set of well-defined instructions used to perform a task.
Dithering
Lessens the appearance of random noise in your image that may occur when working with transparency by creating dots of color along the edge of the image.
Drawers
Categories in a panel in Adobe Bridge.
Pixel Aspect Ratio
The width to height ratio of a single pixel in a digital image.
Safe zones
Margins.
Explain why optimizing images for the web is important.
Optimizing images for the web is important because not all users access the internet with the same speed or device. You must find the right balance between the file size, which determine how fast the image can be downloaded, and the image’s quality.
Why is it important to preview your image when preparing it for the Web?
Because you need to be able to see what the image look like when it is up on the Web. You can also preview the file format, pixel dimension, file size, and optimization settings.
Why are PNG, GIF, and JPEG files resolution dependent?
The monitor resolution can vary.
Why is it important to modify the pixel aspect ratio of an image if you plan to use it in a video?
Different televisions have different pixel shape. Some are wider than others. If you make an image “normal” for a 4:3 monitor, but the television that the audience is going to view the video with that image is 5:6, the video will look much more stretched.
Explain pixel aspect ratio and how it differs from computer displays and televisions.
Pixel aspect ratio is the width to height ratio of a single pixel in a digital image. A computer display usually has a 1.0 pixel aspect ratio, making a square. A standard television will have a 0.9 pixel aspect ratio. While a widescreen television will have a 1.2 pixel aspect ratio. There are other pixel aspect ratio of computer monitors and televisions, but these are the standard ones.
Which file format is suggested for line art and logos?
GIF
Which file format supports full transparency without the need to add a matte or dither?
PNG-24
Which file format is suggested for photos?
JPEG
Which is not a reason why PNG is better than GIF?
Supports millions of colors.
In Adobe Bridge, what is the term used for the various sections in a panel?
Drawers
Blur
Blur
Softens hard edges or reduces detail in an image.
Brush
Brush
Apply foreground color to the image with a hard or soft edge.
Clone Stamp
Clone Stamp
Sample a selection and duplicate it in another location.
Crop
Crop
Cut away part of an image and/or decrease the canvas size.
Ellipitcal Marquee
Ellipitcal Marquee
Select an area as an oval.
Eraser
Erase selected layer pixels.
Gradient
Gradient
Fade colors together.
Healing Brush
Healing Brush
Matches samples pixels to a nearby area’s texture.
Lasso
Lasso
Select irregular areas.
Magic Wand
Magic Wand
Select like content.
Magnetic Lasso
Magnetic Lasso
Select areas whose edges contrast with an adjacent area.
Move
Move
Move selected pixels.
Paint Bucket
Paint Bucket
Fill a selection with the foreground color.
Patch
Patch
Blend texture, lighting, and samples pixel shading.
Polygonal Lasso
Polygonal Lasso
Select irregularly shaped areas with a series of straight lines.
Quick Select
Quick Select
Select image objects or areas based on automatic edge detection.
Rectangle Marquee
Rectangle Marquee
Select an area as a rectangle.
Red Eye
Red Eye
Remove red eye from photos.
Spot Healing Brush
Spot Healing Brush
Automatically samples pixels from around the retouched area.
Text
Text
Add a text layer.
smudge
the transfer and manipulation of pixels to an adjacent area of the canvas due to simulated abrasion or rubbing of a brush; tool icon is a finger pointing downward
dodge
a technique used to lighten specific areas of a photo
burn
a technique used to darken specific areas of a photo; tool icon is a hand making an O shape
levels
tool that can move and stretch the brightness, contrast, and tonal range of an image on a histogram
adjustment layer
contains modifications rather than image pixels; it affects whatever image layers lie underneath it
layer mask
allows selective editing to parts of an image rather than the whole thing; valuable in combining multiple photos or for making tonal corrections
blend modes
control how pixels in the image are affected by a painting or editing tool; some examples of modes are color dodge, multiply, darken, hue, overlay, and normal
gradient
creates a gradual blend between multiple colors; is grouped with the paint bucket tool in the Tools palette
color profile
a numerical model of a color space; examples are RGB and CMYK
Gaussian blur
a filter effect that gives images a softer feel and more natural look when used at minimum percentages; mathematical basis for many commands
anti-aliasing
used to blur the edge of a section; softens the color of the pixels instead of blurring them
channel
a previously saved selection
compositing
combining multiple images into a single image
droplet
a stand-alone action saved outside of Photoshop used to repeat certain actions using multiple images
edge halo
the part of the background that is difficult to remove; also called fringing or matting
feathering
blurring the edge of the selection
marching ants
the term used for an active selection
refine edge
a truer edge technology to improve selections
algorithm
a set of well-defined instructions used to perform a task
dithering
a method to lessen the appearance of random noise in your image that may occur when working with transparency by creating dots of color along the edge of the image
drawers
term used in Adobe Bridge for categories in a panel
indexing
the process of removing colors not being used in an images
optimizing
creating the balance between image quality and image file size
pixel aspect ratio
the width to height of a single pixel in a digital image
resolution dependent
the quality of the image may be affected by the resolution of the computer display
safe zones
the designated viewing area, or margin, designed to ensure that certain content is not missed when played on a television screen
comp
a prototype or design of the layout
copyright
a category of intellectual property providing protection to authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works; this protection is available to both published and unpublished works
copyrighted
attached to a work as soon as it is created in some form, a notice of copyright may be placed on all publicly distributed copies under the authority of the copyright owner
deliverables
in Flash and Photoshop, the items identified to show design concepts or progress of a project
derivative work
a work that is based on or derived from one or more existing works (and previously published)
design comp
created during the building stage, it is a sketch of the layout presented to the client either on paper or in a graphics-editing application
fair use doctrine
allows the copyrighted work to be reproduced or altered for a variety of reasons including news reporting, teaching, parody, and research
intellectual property
refers to creations of the mind and may include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, and trade secrets
mockup
synonym for comp or design comp
project scope
a way to verify you have met the job specifications fo a project and estimate how long it should take
publication
defined by the 1976 Copyright Act as the distribution of copies of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending
scope creep
refers to changes in the requirements of a project as the project is being constructed; a problem that can arise during development
target audience
individuals identified that will be using the specified content; for example, a website, rich media content, or design project
application frame
holds the workspace elements together and keeps them together when moved
blending mode
changes how pixels in the selected layer blend with pixels in same location in the layer below it
color gamut
the limitation of the range of colors that can be displayed
color space
the range of colors (color gamut) that a camera can capture, a scanner can scan, a printer can print, or a monitor can display
contact sheet
a collection of images printed together in a smaller scale, often used for proofing
context sensitive
options that change based on the tool that is selected in the Tools panel
destructive editing
modification made to an original image that you cannot remove or alter later
dock
a collection of panel groups
layer mask
a mask that is dependent on the resolution of the bitmap images
Live Workspaces
a series of buttons on the Application bar that display the preset Photoshop workspaces or custom workspaces you have created
nondestructive editing
an editing method in which the original image is not altered or degraded
rendering intent
the way colors are converted from one system to another
smart filter
a filter applied to Smart Objects to create a nondestructive filter effect
soft proofing
technique used to simulate on-screen what your document will look like when printed
vector mask
a mask that is independent of the resolution and is created using the Pen tool or a shape tool
aspect ratio
the relationship of an object’s height to its width
background
the area behind the subject
bitmap or raster image
an image represented by pixels in a grid
Camera Raw
file format containing unprocessed data
CMYK
cyan, magenta, yellow, black; used to create colors in print
cropping
removing the outside portion of an image to correct its focal point
document size
the print dimensions and resolution of an image
downsampled
decreased the number of pixels; image data is removed
dpi (dots per inch)
the resolution measurement on a printer
field of view
the area that makes up a picture
foreground
the area of the composition that often displays the subject of the composition
gamut
complete range of colors
high dynamic range (HDR)
images that allow a photographer to record a much larger range of tonal detail than can be captured in one photo
image composition
the arrangement of the visual elements of your image
interpolation
method used in Photoshop to resample an image using existing pixel colors to create new color values
line screen frequency, screen ruling, screen frequency
the number of printer dots; measured in lpi
lpi (lines per inch)
lines of cells per inch in a halftone screen
pixel
picture element; a single point in an image
readability
the feeling that is conveyed to the reader by making the typeface comfortable and easy to read
resolution
measured in ppi (pixels per inch); the amount of detail an image holds
RGB
red, green, blue; create the colors seen on a computer display, television screen, or movie in a theater
typography
the selections made to design the text and placement of words
upsampling
increasing the number of pixels per inch
vector
image created with mathematical calculations; can be enlarged without loss of quality
visual hierarchy
used in graphic design to emphasize important elements and organize content in a logical manner
resample
change the number of pixels in an image
nearest neighbor
most basic method of interpolation; duplicates the nearest pixel
bilinear
medium quality interpolation; pixels are added by averaging color values from the surrounding pixels
bicubic
better quality interpolation; a more complex method is used to determine the color of new pixels that are added based on a larger area of surrounding pixels
bicubic smoother
interpolation method that creates a smoother result when enlarging an image
bicubic sharper
interpolation method that enhances sharpening and is used to reduce the size of an image
Target Audience
People who will be using the content of your design project.
Intellectual
___________________ property refers to creations of the mind and may include copyrights, trademarks, patents, and trade secrets.
Copyright
A category of intellectual property. The exclusive, legal right of a person to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her own literary, musical, or artistic creations.
Derivative work
A work based on an existing work that has been previously published.
Created
Copyright attaches to a work as soon as it is _____________________.
Publication
Distribution of copies of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership is referred to as ______________.
Fair Use
Permits certain limited use of a copyright for educational, teaching, quoting, review, parody.
Project Scope
A way to verify you have met specifications of a project. How long a project should take.
Mockup
Same as a comp.
Comp
A prototype or design of the layout.
Deliverables
The items used to show design concepts or progress of a project.
Design Comp
Sketch of layout created during building stage. Presented to client on paper or Photoshop.
Scope Creep
Changes in requirements of projects during construction; a problem that can arise during development.
File Info
To add metadata to a Photoshop image: Click File >> _____________ _____________.
Meta Data
This information travels with a Photoshop file, wherever it may go.
Biological Clocks
cyclical nature of body function. Functions controlled from w/in the body are synchronized w/ environmental factors; same meaning as biorhythm
Circadian Rhythm
repetition of certain physiological phenomena w/in 24-hr cycle
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS)
extreme fatigue felt during the day. Signs of this include falling asleep at inappropriate times such as while eating, talking, driving.
Hypersomnolenc
disorder characterized by excessive amounts of sleepiness
Hypnotics
class of drug that causes insensibility to pain & induces sleep
Insomnia
condition characterized by chronic inability to sleep or remain asleep through the night
Narcolepsy
syndrome involving sudden sleep attacks that a person cannot inhibit. Uncontrolable desire to sleep may occur several times during a day
Nocturia
urination of the night; can be a symptom of renal disease or may occur in persons who drink excessive amounts of fluids before bedtime
NREM
sleep occurs during the first 4 stages of normal sleep
Parasomnias
category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal and unnatural movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep
REM sleep
stage of sleep which dreaming and rapid eye movement are prominent; important for mental restoration
Sedatives
medications that produce a calming effect by decreasing functional activity, diminishing irritability, and allaying excitement
Sleep
state marked by reduced consciousness, diminished activity of the skeletal muscles, and depressed metabolism
Sleep Apnea
cessation of breathing for a time during sleep
Sleep Deprivation
condition resulting from a decrease in the amount, quality, and concistency of sleep
Sleep Hygeine
habits and practices that are conducive to sleeping well on a regular basis
Adobe Bridge
A standalone application for opening and managing files that ships with all versions of Photoshop CS5.
Content Browser
The portion of the Bridge that contains thumbnail previews.
Favorites
Drag a folder that you use on a regular basis to this panel, and you’ll never have to burrow through folders and subfolders to find your pictures again.
New Workspace
A command that saves the size of thumbnails, the position and visibility of panels, and the size of the Bridge window itself.
Cache
By default centralized and sequestered – deep in the system level of your hard drive – this file stores transient information from the Bridge, such as sort order and high-resolution thumbnails.
Rotate clockwise/Rotate counterclockwise
A Bridge operation that stands portrait-style photographs upright and writes the results to metadata. You can perform the operation from the keyboard by pressing Ctrl and a bracket key [ ] .
Loupe function
Click inside the Preview panel to access this feature, which allows you to zoom an image’s detail from 100 to 800 percent.
Slide Show
Availabe exclusively inside the Bridge, this command lets you expand one or more images to fill the entire screen as well as zoom and navigate from the keyboard.
Metadata
Any information above and beyond the core image data, including the date the image was last saved, the copyright holder, and how the image was captured.
EXIF
A specific kind of metadata saved by most modern digitial cameras that records the time and date a photograph was captured as well as various camera settings.
File Info
A command that lets you examine and save the descriptions, credits, and keywords assigned to one image so that you can apply them to others.
Batch Rename
A command used to assign document names, sequence numbers, and more to multiple image files at a time.
Cropping
A means of cutting away the extraneous portions of an image to focus the viewer’s attention on the subject of the photo.
Whole-image transformations
Operations such as Image Size and the Rotate Canvas commands that affect an entire image, including any and all layers
Ruler tool
This tool lets you measure angles and distances in Photoshop, as well as gives you access to the Straighten button.
Straighten button
New to CS5, this tool lets you quickly confirm a line that you want to designate as the new vertical or horizontal basis of your image.
Canvas
The boundaries of an image, as measured independently of the contents of the image itself.
Rotate view
This tool lets you preview the proper angle for a crooked image before you crop it.
Origin point
The center of a rotation or another transformation.
Content-aware fill
A new feature in CS5 that fills in selections automatically based on what Photoshop understands about surrounding pixels.
Print resolution
The number of pixels that will print in a linear inch or millimeter of page space.
Downsampling
To change the physical dimensions of an image by reducing the number of pixels.
Bicubic Sharper
An interpolation setting that results in crisp edge transitions, perfect when the details in your image are impeccable and you want to preserve every nuance.
Aspect ratio
The relationship between the width and the height of an image.
Selection outline
A set of dotted lines that indicate the borders of a selected region, also known as “marching ants”.
Marquee
A set of selection tools that allow you to draw simple geometric shapes.
Polygonal lasso
Use this tool to select free-form, straight-sided areas in an image.
Move tool
Accessible by pressing Ctrl, this tool permits you to move selected pixels, even between images.
Magic wand
Click with this tool to select regions of color inside an image.
Tolerance
A setting in the options bar that determines how many colors the magic wand selects at a time, as measured in luminosity values.
Antialiasing
A slight softening effect applied most commonly to selection outlines to simulate smooth transitions.
Grow
This command expands a selection to include additional contiguous colors that fall inside the magic wand’s Tolerance range.
Magnetic lasso
This selection tool can actually sense the edge of an object and automatically trace it.
Snapshot
This feature of the History panel lets you bookmark a specific state in your work, allowing you to restore it later.
Quick mask
This viewing mode allows you to quickly see the mask created by a selection and assess the edges automatically.
Refine edge
An intricate command that lets you edit a selection using a series of slider bars and preview the results of those edits as you work.
Editing tools
A loose collection of features that modify the existing color or luminosity of a pixel without replacing its content.
Painting tools
Brush-based tools that allow you to paint lines and fill shapes with the foreground color.
Healing tools
A set of tools that permit you to clone elements from one portion or state of an image to another.
Dodge tool
This tool lightens portions of an image as you paint, which makes it great for bringing out naturally shaded areas such as eyes.
Burn tool
This tool darkens pixels as you paint over them.
Sponge tool
Decreases or increases the saturation of an image, depending on the Mode setting in the options bar.
History brush
This tool allows you to paint back information from a previous state saved in the History panel.
Snapshot
A special kind of state in the History panel that remains available well after twenty operations.
Source point
The spot from which the healing brush samples information when repairing a dlaw in an image.
Clone source
This panel lets you scale, rotate, and even flip the source image as you paint it onto the destination, as well as preview the source as a translucent overlay.
Filter
A Photoshop effect applied directly to an entire image or a selection.
Destructive edits
A modification to an image that permenantly changes the pixels to which it’s applied.
Layered composition
An image that is made up of composite pieces that can be manipulated independently.
Stacking order
The arrangement of layers in a composition, from front to back, which you can adjust by pressing Ctrl with the bracket keys [ ].
Merge down
Choose this command to combine the contents of the active layer with the layer below it.
Big layer
This phenomenon refers to the existence of extra information on layers that extend beyond the visible part of the document.
Layer mask
When working with this function, painting with black temporarily erases the pixels on a layer, painting with white makes the pixels visible again.
Layer group
Created by pressing Ctrl+G, this collection of layers appears as a folder icon in the Layers panel.
Layer effects
Effects like drop shadows and strokes that can be applied to specific parts of an image only.
Clipping mask
A means for cropping the contents of a group of layers to the boundaries of a layer beneath them.
Stop
Indicators along a gradient preview that designate the colors at either end.
Luminance blending
The name given to a pair of slider bars in the Layer Style dialog box that let you hide or reveal colors based on their luminosity levels.
Knockout
An option that uses the contents of the active layer to cut holes in the layers beneath it.
Layer comp
The state of a layered composition at a certain point in time, replete with visibility, vertical and horizontal positioning, blending options, and layer styles.
Hue and Saturation
The two ingredients in color: The first is the tint, from red to magenta, and the second is the purity, from gray to vivid.
Brightness
The lightness or darkness of a group of colors.
Contrast
The difference between light and dark colors.
Highlights, Shadows, and Midtones
The three brightness ranges that you can edit independently using the Color Balance adn Levels commands.
Color cast
When one color pervades an image to a degree that is unpleasant or unrealistic.
Color channel
An independent grayscale image that Photoshop colorizes and mixes with other such images to produce a full-color composite.
Auto Tone
A command that automaticallly corrects the shadows and highlights of each color channel independently.
Histogram
A bar graph representation of all brightness values and their distribution in an image.
Levels
The best tool for manually adjusting the brightness and increasing the contrast of an image on a color-by-color basis.
Gamma value
Expressed as an exponent, this value multiplies the brightness of an image to lighten or darken midtones.
Curves
The one command that lets you pinpoint a specific color in an image and make it lighter or darker; best suited to reducing contrast.
Shadows/Highlights
This command lets you darken highlights and lighten shadows, just what you need when correcting flash photos.
Filters
A varied set of Photoshop commands that apply effects to an entire image.
Smart object
A special variety of layer that wraps the original content of an image inside a protective container, allowing pixel modifications to be made without damaging or changing the original contents.
Focus
The clarity of the image formed by the lens element and captured by the camera, whether digital or film.
Sharpening
Removing softness in a photograph by increasing edge contrast.
Radius
The thickness of the effect applied by a filter, often expressed as a softly tapering halo.
Warp
A method of layer transformation that allows you to move points on a mesh to reshape and stretch an image.
Liquify
A filter with a massive dialog box that allows you to warp, bloat, pinch, stretch, and generally swirl around pixels.
Smart filter
Commands from the Filter menu or the Adjustments panel that can be applied nondestructively to a smart object.
High Pass
A filter that mimics the functionality of Unsharp Mask by retaining areas of high contrast and sending low-contrast areas to gray.
Median
A simple filter that averages the colors of neighboring pixels in sweeps defined by the radius value.
Luminance mask
A mask created by selecting just the lightest areas of an image.
Gradient map
An effect that applies a range of colors based on the lightest and darkest areas of an image.
Free Transform
A command that allows you to rotate, resizem and rescale one layer independently of the rest of a composition.
Convert to Shape
A command that allows you to turn text into a vector-based shape.
Clipping mask
A mask created by attaching one layer to another to limit the effects of the first layer to just the layer beneath.
Liquify filter
An independent environment in Photoshop where you can squish and stretch pixels.
Pucker
A tool in Liquify that you use to suck the edges of an area inward.
Bloat
A tool in Liquify that puffs out areas of an image.
Freeze mask
A mask applied to protect parts of an image that you want to remain unaffected by the Liquify tools.
Twirl clockwise tool
A tool in Liquify that allows you to spin an area around a center point.
Load mesh
A command that allows you to reinstate a previous Liquify modification.
Puppet warp
A tool that allows you to distort a subject by changing the relationship between set points.
Pins
Set points in the puppet warp that serve as fixed points and points of stretching.
Content-Aware Scale
This advanced compositing funtion is capable of stretching low-contrast areas of an image without affecting high-contrast areas.
Camera Raw
A Photoshop plug-in that allows for the development of unprocessed native image files.
Raw format
A camera’s native format for which no on-board camera processing has occurred.
Sidecar file
A file that contains the instructions for modifications made to a raw file.
White balance
Adjusting for the predominant color of neutral white, usually off as the result of an uncorrected light source.
Bit depth
The number of digits required to express a single pixel, which in turn determines the number of colors in an image.
Exposure
Measured in f-stops, this Camera Raw option corrects the brightness of highlights.
Gradient filter
A tool that lets you adjust one region of an image independently of another inside Camera Raw.
Panorama
A single image that represents a view wider than a traditional camera lens can capture.
Photomerge
Photoshop’s tool that allows you to align and blend multiple frames.
Mini Bridge
A new feature in CS5 that allows you to access the Bridge’s photo organizing features.
HDR (High Dynamic Range)
A photographic compilation that allows for the combination of luminance data from different exposure values.
Ghosting
The appearance of luminance aberrations, caused in HDR photos by an element moving or changing apperance between individual frames.
Alpha channel
Also known as a mask, this special channel selects white pixels and deselects black ones, allowing you to hide or reveal corresponding parts of your image.
Color range
This advancement on the magic wand tool allows you to select given colors in your image and turn them into a selection outline.
Fuzziness
Analogous to the magic wand’s Tolerance setting, this feature spreads a Color Range selection out to neighboring color values beyond those specifically chosen.
Smudge tool
This otherwise fairly useless tool is handy for finessing mask edges by smushing edge pixels in one direction or another.
Calculations
A Photoshop command that allows you to create masks based on a mathematical comparison of the luminance values in two of the color channels.
Paths
Outlines described by vectors that contain no pixel information by can be used to control the pixels within their boundaries.
Smooth point
An anchor point along a path that has two control handles to allow for creating a continuous, even arc.
Control handle
A lever-like device that allowed you to control the curve of a path through a smooth point.
Cusp point
A point along a path that joins two segments at a corner.
Straight segment
Part of a path that is unaffected by control handles and is thus a direct path between two points.
Refine mask
A new feature in Photoshop CS5 that allows you to fine-tune your mask by setting a prescribe radius for edge calculation.
Smart radius
A feature of the Refine Edge command that tells Photoshop to adjust the radius based on the smooth or jagged nature of your mask.
Raster art
Digital photographs and scanned artwork composed exclusively of colored pixels.
Vector-based objects
Mathematically defined text and shapes that can be scaled or otherwise transformed without any degradation in quality.
Formatting attributes
Font family, type style, size, leading, alignment, and a wealth of other options for modifying the appearance of live text.
Point text
A text layer that has no maximum column width and aligns to the point at which you clicked with the type tool.
Area text
A column of type created by dragging with the type tool, useful for setting long sentences or entire paragraphs.
Fractional character widths
The best means for calculating text spacing, which permits Photoshop to move a character by a fraction of a pixel.
Every-line composer
An option that spaces all lines of type in a selected layer by similar amounts to give the layer a more even, pleasing appearance.
Pair kerning
The adjusted amount of horizontal space between two neighboring characters of type.
Indent Sides By
This numerical value lets you adjust the sharpness of points in a star drawn with the polygon tool.
Series duplication
A succession of duplicated objects, scaled, rotated, and otherwise transformed in equal increments.
Text on a path
A special kind of text layer in which text is attached to a path outline to create a line of type that flows along a curve.
Warp Text
This dialog box bends and distorts live text to create wavy, bulging, and perspective effects.
Output
The act of preparing and rendering an image for mass reproduction, usually as a CMYK document.
Subtractive primaries
Cyan, magenta, and yellow, each of which absorbs light when printed on paper and mixes to form progressively darker colors.
Color separation
A printing process that outputs each of the CMYK color channels to independent plates so that they can be loaded with different inks.
Print
This command lets you scale an image on the page, determine the paper orientation, and adjust the color management settings before printing an image.
Photo-grade paper
A variety of glossy or matte-finished paper that holds lots of ink, allowing you to print extremely high-resolution images.
Commercial prepress
The output that occurs before a document is loaded onto a professional printing press for mass reproduction.
Color profile
A loadable file that describes a specific flavor of RGB or CMYK that is uniquely applicable to a display or print environment.
Color settings
The command that defines the RGB or CMYK color spaces employed by Photoshop.
Dot gain
The degree to which professionally output halftone dots grow when they are absorbed by a sheet of printed paper.
Gray component replacement
The most popular method for transferring dark pixels from the Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow channels to the Black channel, thus producing rich, volumetric shadows.
Output Preview
A new panel in the Bridge that permits you to see a multi-image PDF document or Web gallery before saving it.
Open in Full Screen Mode
An option that turns a PDF document into an all-consuming slide show the moment you open it in the Adobe Reader utility.
Audience
is the group of people your graphic design is going to be used to inform, persuade, educate or even entertain.
Balance
refers to distributing the weight of elements in a design.
Bitmap
an object made of pixels or dots that are sometimes referred to as “raster files” or “painted images.”
Body_type
is the printed type that makes up the text in a layout.
Clipart
artwork found in a book that could be clipped out and used in your publication. Today it is usually sold as electronic artwork files that can be placed into your publication.
CMYK
printing four colors, cyan, magenta, yellow, and black to create a full color image.
Color
is a powerful element in communicating symbolic meanings, emotions to attract the reader’s attention. It is the visual sensation produced in the brain when the eye views various wavelengths of light.
Color_scheme
a selection of colors you want to incorporate in your design to enhance its message.
Color_Triad
any three colors that are the same distance apart on a color wheel that form a triangle.
Column
is a space in a publication that is mathematically defined to be a certain height and width where graphics and text are placed.
Comprehensive_layout
is a full color layout that gives the customer a more detailed look at the finished product.
Contrast
used to keep the attention of the reader and to keep the reader’s interest moving from one element to another. (see emphasis)
Cropping
to delete unwanted parts of an image so that the result is more useful
Desktop_Publishing
using a computer and graphic design software to layout and design a publication.
Digital_Printing
involves the output of an electronic computer file from the computer to the printer.
Display type
is the type that is used to capture the reader’s attention and convey the main message.
Double
sided printing- refers to printing on both sides of the paper.
Electrostatic Printing
is a process that requires the use of static electricity to transfer the image from the plate to the substrate.
Emphasis
adds variation or interest to a design. (see contrast)
Final
a completed detail representation of the final product including all colors, images and text with proper margins and folds.
Flexography Printing
This form of relief printing that uses rubber plates.
Font
An assortment of one size and style of Type.
Formal balance
The placement of elements symmetrically so that the elements have equal weight on the page.
Graphic Communications
the act of communicating visually; the exchange of information in a visual form, using printed words, drawings, photographs or a combination of these.
Gravure Printing
This printing process uses an etched cylinder to transfer ink to a substrate.
Gutter
is the space placed between columns in a design to add breath or white space. Its width is usually two times the margin.
Halftone
it is an image that is comprised of dots.
Harmony
is when the elements work together to achieve a pleasing and flowing design.
Illustration
are the elements in a layout that include the ornamentation, photographs, and artwork.
Informal balance
is achieved when the value, size, and location of unequal elements on a page are changed.
Landscape
is a horizontal format on a computer screen, page or printed product.
Legal
an industry term that refers to a piece of substrate that is 11 inches by 14 inches.
Letter
an industry term that refers to a piece of substrate that is 8 _ x 11 inches in size, also referred to A size paper by the American National Standard Institute.
Letterpress
a form of printing in which ink is applied to the raised surface of the type. Then the type and substrate (paper) are pressed together leaving the image on the substrate.
Line
connects points to form a visual image.
Margin
imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Mass
the amount of space between or around objects.
Visual Communications
refers to any communication that does not involve speech. i.e. Writing, sign language, Morse code, body language.
Offset Lithography
a form of printing in which the image is transferred to a rubber blanket, and from the rubber blanket to paper.
Orientation
is the direction of the substrates width and height.
Page layout
is the placement of design items within the page.
Panel layout
is the placement of design items within the panel or column.
Pantone Matching System
a universal color matching system that is based on ink colors used in the printing industry, also known as PMS colors.
Photograph
Continuous tone image that could be either black and white or full color.
Portrait
Upright or vertical format on a computer screen, page or printed product.
Primary colors
theses are the basic colors that are combined to create all other colors as described in the theory of light. They are red, green and blue.
Printing
a process involving the use of specialized machines (printing presses) to transfer an image from an image carrier to a substrate, usually paper. Most often, printing involves making duplicates in large quantities.
Proportion
The relationship between each element’s size and shape.
Relief Printing
is a type of printing in which the type is raised above the surface of the carrier.
Rhythm
is visual movement and repetition that guides the reader.
Rough
layout- is a redrawn version of the thumbnail layout that closely resembles the final product.
Scaling
increasing or decreasing the size of a graphic without altering its proportions.
Screen Printing
a process in which ink is transferred through small openings in a screen that is created by a stencil. The ink only flows through the open image areas of the screen onto the substrate that is being printed.
Secondary colors
are produced by mixing pairs of primary colors. They are orange, green and violet.
Shape
Objects that have dimension (height and weight).created by a basic structure of lines. The three basic shapes are square, circle, and triangle.
Single
sided printing- refers to printing only on one side of a substrate.
Spot color
is a technique in which the dot size is varied to produce different shades. This creates the illusion of multiple color printing.
Tabloid
an industry term that refers to a piece of substrate that is 11 inches by 17 inches, also referred to B size paper by the American National Standard Institute.
Tertiary colors
are produced by mixing a primary and secondary colors. They are yellow-green, blue-green, red-orange, red-violet, yellow orange, and blue violet.
Texture
Providing surface variation by spacing and changing the direction of lines, which can create a sense of feeling visually.
Thumbnail
is a series of simple and rapidly drawn designs for a layout.
Unity
When all elements in a design are consistent and look as though they belong together.
Value
refers to the light or darkness of a color.
Vector images
are made up of lines and curves defined by mathematical objects. Vectors describe an image according to its geometric characteristics and can be filled with color. These images may be created with the use of a computer and may be changed in size without losing detail.
Visual Communications
refers to using visual images or graphic images to help convey an idea or thought.
Visual Design
refers to the application of proper methods to produce a product that is both artistic and functional. This technique is very important in order to communicate the message effectively.
White space
Area of a document that does not contain images or type. Also called negative apace.
Wysiwyg
acronym for “What you see is what you get” referring to the relationship of the printed piece versus the look on the electronic monitor of the computer
Copyright
A category of intellectual property providing protection to authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works; this protection is available to both published and unpublished works.
Copyrighted
attached to a work as soon as it is created in some form, a notice of copyright may be placed on all publicly distributed copies under the authority of the copyright owner
deliverables
Tangible or intangible products of work that must be provided to someone else.
comp
A prototype or design of the layout.
smudge
the transfer and manipulation of pixels to an adjacent area of the canvas due to simulated abrasion or rubbing of a brush; tool icon is a finger pointing downward
dodge
a technique used to lighten specific areas of a photo
burn
a technique used to darken specific areas of a photo; tool icon is a hand making an O shape
levels
tool that can move and stretch the brightness, contrast, and tonal range of an image on a histogram
adjustment layer
contains modifications rather than image pixels; it affects whatever image layers lie underneath it
layer mask
allows selective editing to parts of an image rather than the whole thing; valuable in combining multiple photos or for making tonal corrections
blend modes
control how pixels in the image are affected by a painting or editing tool; some examples of modes are color dodge, multiply, darken, hue, overlay, and normal
gradient
creates a gradual blend between multiple colors; is grouped with the paint bucket tool in the Tools palette
color profile
a numerical model of a color space; examples are RGB and CMYK
Gaussian blur
a filter effect that gives images a softer feel and more natural look when used at minimum percentages; mathematical basis for many commands
anti-aliasing
used to blur the edge of a section; softens the color of the pixels instead of blurring them
channel
a previously saved selection
compositing
combining multiple images into a single image
droplet
a stand-alone action saved outside of Photoshop used to repeat certain actions using multiple images
edge halo
the part of the background that is difficult to remove; also called fringing or matting
feathering
blurring the edge of the selection
marching ants
the term used for an active selection
refine edge
a truer edge technology to improve selections
algorithm
a set of well-defined instructions used to perform a task
dithering
a method to lessen the appearance of random noise in your image that may occur when working with transparency by creating dots of color along the edge of the image
drawers
term used in Adobe Bridge for categories in a panel
indexing
the process of removing colors not being used in an images
optimizing
creating the balance between image quality and image file size
pixel aspect ratio
the width to height of a single pixel in a digital image
resolution dependent
the quality of the image may be affected by the resolution of the computer display
safe zones
the designated viewing area, or margin, designed to ensure that certain content is not missed when played on a television screen
comp
a prototype or design of the layout
copyright
a category of intellectual property providing protection to authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works; this protection is available to both published and unpublished works
copyrighted
attached to a work as soon as it is created in some form, a notice of copyright may be placed on all publicly distributed copies under the authority of the copyright owner
deliverables
in Flash and Photoshop, the items identified to show design concepts or progress of a project
derivative work
a work that is based on or derived from one or more existing works (and previously published)
design comp
created during the building stage, it is a sketch of the layout presented to the client either on paper or in a graphics-editing application
fair use doctrine
allows the copyrighted work to be reproduced or altered for a variety of reasons including news reporting, teaching, parody, and research
intellectual property
refers to creations of the mind and may include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, and trade secrets
mockup
synonym for comp or design comp
project scope
a way to verify you have met the job specifications fo a project and estimate how long it should take
publication
defined by the 1976 Copyright Act as the distribution of copies of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending
scope creep
refers to changes in the requirements of a project as the project is being constructed; a problem that can arise during development
target audience
individuals identified that will be using the specified content; for example, a website, rich media content, or design project
application frame
holds the workspace elements together and keeps them together when moved
blending mode
changes how pixels in the selected layer blend with pixels in same location in the layer below it
color gamut
the limitation of the range of colors that can be displayed
color space
the range of colors (color gamut) that a camera can capture, a scanner can scan, a printer can print, or a monitor can display
contact sheet
a collection of images printed together in a smaller scale, often used for proofing
context sensitive
options that change based on the tool that is selected in the Tools panel
destructive editing
modification made to an original image that you cannot remove or alter later
dock
a collection of panel groups
layer mask
a mask that is dependent on the resolution of the bitmap images
Live Workspaces
a series of buttons on the Application bar that display the preset Photoshop workspaces or custom workspaces you have created
nondestructive editing
an editing method in which the original image is not altered or degraded
rendering intent
the way colors are converted from one system to another
smart filter
a filter applied to Smart Objects to create a nondestructive filter effect
soft proofing
technique used to simulate on-screen what your document will look like when printed
vector mask
a mask that is independent of the resolution and is created using the Pen tool or a shape tool
aspect ratio
the relationship of an object’s height to its width
background
the area behind the subject
bitmap or raster image
an image represented by pixels in a grid
Camera Raw
file format containing unprocessed data
CMYK
cyan, magenta, yellow, black; used to create colors in print
cropping
removing the outside portion of an image to correct its focal point
document size
the print dimensions and resolution of an image
downsampled
decreased the number of pixels; image data is removed
dpi (dots per inch)
the resolution measurement on a printer
field of view
the area that makes up a picture
foreground
the area of the composition that often displays the subject of the composition
gamut
complete range of colors
high dynamic range (HDR)
images that allow a photographer to record a much larger range of tonal detail than can be captured in one photo
image composition
the arrangement of the visual elements of your image
interpolation
method used in Photoshop to resample an image using existing pixel colors to create new color values
line screen frequency, screen ruling, screen frequency
the number of printer dots; measured in lpi
lpi (lines per inch)
lines of cells per inch in a halftone screen
pixel
picture element; a single point in an image
readability
the feeling that is conveyed to the reader by making the typeface comfortable and easy to read
resolution
measured in ppi (pixels per inch); the amount of detail an image holds
RGB
red, green, blue; create the colors seen on a computer display, television screen, or movie in a theater
typography
the selections made to design the text and placement of words
upsampling
increasing the number of pixels per inch
vector
image created with mathematical calculations; can be enlarged without loss of quality
visual hierarchy
used in graphic design to emphasize important elements and organize content in a logical manner
resample
change the number of pixels in an image
nearest neighbor
most basic method of interpolation; duplicates the nearest pixel
bilinear
medium quality interpolation; pixels are added by averaging color values from the surrounding pixels
bicubic
better quality interpolation; a more complex method is used to determine the color of new pixels that are added based on a larger area of surrounding pixels
bicubic smoother
interpolation method that creates a smoother result when enlarging an image
bicubic sharper
interpolation method that enhances sharpening and is used to reduce the size of an image
Color Gamut
A Range of colors that a color set displays
Soft Proof
Seeing what an image will look like when output by a different device
rendering Intent
Refers to the way colors are converted from one system to another
Color Space
A variant of a color model that has a specific range of colors
Mode, Bit Depth, Resolution, Pixel Aspect Ratio
The four things you need to select when saving a new preset for a new document.
Apple RGB, Dot Gain 20%, Color MatchRGB, sRGBIED61966-2.1
The four options for working space in the color settings dialot box.
PNG-128 Dithered
When saving for web and devices and you need a transparent background, this is the best option
Video use, video distribution
The two most important aspects to consider when making images for video.
Standard proceedures when globally adjusting color balance and tonal range using levels
1. Apply the unsharp mask filers
2. Before adjusting be sure that nothing is selected in the image
3. On the RGB levels histogram, drag the right slider left to the point where the lighest colors in the image begin
Symmetry and horizontal
Related to the design principle of balance
Vector Images
The best format for designing a logo – also vector images are made up of lines and curves
Bitmap Images
Images made of a map of pixels (when you render, you make it a bitmap image)
GIF, JPG, and PNG
Most common file types when saving for the web
Smart Objects
Converting an image to a smart object allows for non-destructive editing of the image. (creating smart objects allows you to add filters without changing the actual layer)
Fair Use
A docterine that allows limited use of copyrighted material without gaining permission (examples are for news reporting, teaching, critisim)
Public Domain
Intellectual property who’s rights are expired. Think really old stuff and there is no one who holds a copyright on it anymore – like Shakespear.
Derivative works
are based on preexisting works and are copyrightable with the addition of sufficient originality. However, the original owner holds the right to create derivative works.
Owners, Due Date, Estimate Hours
Three things that should always be decided in each step of the Project Plan
Smart Object, Adjustment Layers
Two ways to make non-destructive changes to the image
In Fixed Form
When something is copyrightable (Copyright is in place when something is in fixed form)
Unify Layout, Show Hierachy
Two ways to use color as a graphic design element
What three things have to be considered before you upload to the web
File Size, Dimensions, and File Optimization
digital zoom
zoom takes a portion of the image and enlarges it electronically; the image quality is reduced since digital zoom enlarges the same set of pixels without adding detail
Optical Zoom
zoom that physically increases the length of the lens, essentially creating a magnifying glass; produces a higher-quality image
RGB
The color mode that is used with monitors and shows colors by mixing reds, blues, and greens
CMYK
The color mode used by printers. Mixes cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.
Dodge Tool
Makes things lighter (a color correction tool)
Burn Tool
Makes things darker (a color correction tool)
Adjustment layers
Nondestructive method of adjusting colors
Levels Adjustment
A way to fix overexposure in an image
smudge
the transfer and manipulation of pixels to an adjacent area of the canvas due to simulated abrasion or rubbing of a brush; tool icon is a finger pointing downward
dodge
a technique used to lighten specific areas of a photo
burn
a technique used to darken specific areas of a photo; tool icon is a hand making an O shape
levels
tool that can move and stretch the brightness, contrast, and tonal range of an image on a histogram
adjustment layer
contains modifications rather than image pixels; it affects whatever image layers lie underneath it
layer mask
allows selective editing to parts of an image rather than the whole thing; valuable in combining multiple photos or for making tonal corrections
blend modes
control how pixels in the image are affected by a painting or editing tool; some examples of modes are color dodge, multiply, darken, hue, overlay, and normal
gradient
creates a gradual blend between multiple colors; is grouped with the paint bucket tool in the Tools palette
color profile
a numerical model of a color space; examples are RGB and CMYK
Gaussian blur
a filter effect that gives images a softer feel and more natural look when used at minimum percentages; mathematical basis for many commands
anti-aliasing
used to blur the edge of a section; softens the color of the pixels instead of blurring them
channel
a previously saved selection
compositing
combining multiple images into a single image
droplet
a stand-alone action saved outside of Photoshop used to repeat certain actions using multiple images
edge halo
the part of the background that is difficult to remove; also called fringing or matting
feathering
blurring the edge of the selection
marching ants
the term used for an active selection
refine edge
a truer edge technology to improve selections
algorithm
a set of well-defined instructions used to perform a task
dithering
a method to lessen the appearance of random noise in your image that may occur when working with transparency by creating dots of color along the edge of the image
drawers
term used in Adobe Bridge for categories in a panel
indexing
the process of removing colors not being used in an images
optimizing
creating the balance between image quality and image file size
pixel aspect ratio
the width to height of a single pixel in a digital image
resolution dependent
the quality of the image may be affected by the resolution of the computer display
safe zones
the designated viewing area, or margin, designed to ensure that certain content is not missed when played on a television screen
comp
a prototype or design of the layout
copyright
a category of intellectual property providing protection to authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works; this protection is available to both published and unpublished works
copyrighted
attached to a work as soon as it is created in some form, a notice of copyright may be placed on all publicly distributed copies under the authority of the copyright owner
deliverables
in Flash and Photoshop, the items identified to show design concepts or progress of a project
derivative work
a work that is based on or derived from one or more existing works (and previously published)
design comp
created during the building stage, it is a sketch of the layout presented to the client either on paper or in a graphics-editing application
fair use doctrine
allows the copyrighted work to be reproduced or altered for a variety of reasons including news reporting, teaching, parody, and research
intellectual property
refers to creations of the mind and may include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, and trade secrets
mockup
synonym for comp or design comp
project scope
a way to verify you have met the job specifications fo a project and estimate how long it should take
publication
defined by the 1976 Copyright Act as the distribution of copies of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending
scope creep
refers to changes in the requirements of a project as the project is being constructed; a problem that can arise during development
target audience
individuals identified that will be using the specified content; for example, a website, rich media content, or design project
application frame
holds the workspace elements together and keeps them together when moved
blending mode
changes how pixels in the selected layer blend with pixels in same location in the layer below it
color gamut
the limitation of the range of colors that can be displayed
color space
the range of colors (color gamut) that a camera can capture, a scanner can scan, a printer can print, or a monitor can display
contact sheet
a collection of images printed together in a smaller scale, often used for proofing
context sensitive
options that change based on the tool that is selected in the Tools panel
destructive editing
modification made to an original image that you cannot remove or alter later
dock
a collection of panel groups
layer mask
a mask that is dependent on the resolution of the bitmap images
Live Workspaces
a series of buttons on the Application bar that display the preset Photoshop workspaces or custom workspaces you have created
nondestructive editing
an editing method in which the original image is not altered or degraded
rendering intent
the way colors are converted from one system to another
smart filter
a filter applied to Smart Objects to create a nondestructive filter effect
soft proofing
technique used to simulate on-screen what your document will look like when printed
vector mask
a mask that is independent of the resolution and is created using the Pen tool or a shape tool
aspect ratio
the relationship of an object’s height to its width
background
the area behind the subject
bitmap or raster image
an image represented by pixels in a grid
Camera Raw
file format containing unprocessed data
CMYK
cyan, magenta, yellow, black; used to create colors in print
cropping
removing the outside portion of an image to correct its focal point
document size
the print dimensions and resolution of an image
downsampled
decreased the number of pixels; image data is removed
dpi (dots per inch)
the resolution measurement on a printer
field of view
the area that makes up a picture
foreground
the area of the composition that often displays the subject of the composition
gamut
complete range of colors
high dynamic range (HDR)
images that allow a photographer to record a much larger range of tonal detail than can be captured in one photo
image composition
the arrangement of the visual elements of your image
interpolation
method used in Photoshop to resample an image using existing pixel colors to create new color values
line screen frequency, screen ruling, screen frequency
the number of printer dots; measured in lpi
lpi (lines per inch)
lines of cells per inch in a halftone screen
pixel
picture element; a single point in an image
readability
the feeling that is conveyed to the reader by making the typeface comfortable and easy to read
resolution
measured in ppi (pixels per inch); the amount of detail an image holds
RGB
red, green, blue; create the colors seen on a computer display, television screen, or movie in a theater
typography
the selections made to design the text and placement of words
upsampling
increasing the number of pixels per inch
vector
image created with mathematical calculations; can be enlarged without loss of quality
visual hierarchy
used in graphic design to emphasize important elements and organize content in a logical manner
resample
change the number of pixels in an image
nearest neighbor
most basic method of interpolation; duplicates the nearest pixel
bilinear
medium quality interpolation; pixels are added by averaging color values from the surrounding pixels
bicubic
better quality interpolation; a more complex method is used to determine the color of new pixels that are added based on a larger area of surrounding pixels
bicubic smoother
interpolation method that creates a smoother result when enlarging an image
bicubic sharper
interpolation method that enhances sharpening and is used to reduce the size of an image
application frame
holds the workspace elements together and keeps them together when moved
blending mode
changes how pixels in the selected layer blend with pixels in same location in the layer below it
color gamut
the limitation of the range of colors that can be displayed
color space
the range of colors (color gamut) that a camera can capture, a scanner can scan, a printer can print, or a monitor can display
contact sheet
a collection of images printed together in a smaller scale, often used for proofing
context sensitive
options that change based on the tool that is selected in the Tools panel
destructive editing
modification made to an original image that you cannot remove or alter later
dock
a collection of panel groups
layer mask
a mask that is dependent on the resolution of the bitmap images
Live Workspaces
a series of buttons on the Application bar that display the preset Photoshop workspaces or custom workspaces you have created
nondestructive editing
an editing method in which the original image is not altered or degraded
rendering intent
the way colors are converted from one system to another
smart filter
a filter applied to Smart Objects to create a nondestructive filter effect
soft proofing
technique used to simulate on-screen what your document will look like when printed
vector mask
a mask that is independent of the resolution and is created using the Pen tool or a shape tool
Selection tools
Lasso, quick selection, magic wand
Retouching tools
Clone stamp, healing brush, patch
Alt/Option
To sample a new background color with the eyedropper tool, hold this while clicking the image
Delete/Backspace
To remove the last segment when drawing a selection with the magnetic lasso, press this:
Shift
To make Guides snap to Ruler increments, which key would you hold down while dragging the Guide?
Direct Selection Tool
To select individual parts of a shape, which tool would you use?
Alt
To easily select all anchor points on a path with the Direct Selection Tool, you would click on an anchor point while holding:
Shape layer
When using the Shape tool, if you select the first option on the Options bar (looks ilke a box), you would create a new:
Clone stamp
This tool can be used to paint one part of an image over another part of any open document that uses the same color mode.
Healing brush
This tool corrects imperfections by letting them disappear into the surrounding image and matches texture, lighting, transparency, and shading of pixels.
Yes
Does this tool have a blending mode option? Paint Bucket
Spacebar
To temporarily switch to the Hand Tool and move the image, hold down:
isolates
A selection _______ an area of pixels in an image so you can edit that area without affecting the rest.
Magnetic lasso
With this tool, the selection border snaps to edges of defined areas of an image.
Quick selection
This tool lets you quickly paint over an area of an image to make selections.
Lasso
This tool allows you to draw freehand selections.
Marquee
This tool allows you to select in certain shapes, such as oval or rectangle.
256 values of gray
A channel can contain:
Shift
To make a perfect circle with the elliptical marquee, hold this while drawing:
Shift
To move a selection while drawing it, hold:
Alt
To subtract from an active selection, hold this wil using a selection tool:
Quick mask mode
On the button of the toolbar, the button that is a rectangle with a white circle inside is used to activate:
Not selected
By default, the red area in quickmask mode indicates the area of the image that is:
Subtracts from
By default, painting with a black brush in quickmask mode ____ the selection.
Type
A layer with a white box and a T in it represents what kind of layer:
Applies adjustment
If you create a Hue/Saturation adjustment layer and paint in white, what effect will the white have on the underlying layer?
Flat
A file with just one background layer is referred to as a ____ file.
Hides all other layers
Alt-clicking on the eye icon next to a layer:
Shift
To disable a layer mask without deleting it click while holding:
Control
To temporarily disable snapping while dragging an object, you have to hold which key?
Content aware scale
Which command helps you scale an image with respect to its content?
Merge layers
To reduce the selected layers into one layer, which command would you use?
Layer effects
Gradient overlay, pattern overlay, inner glow, and satin are examples of:
Blending modes
Screen, color, hard light, multiply, hue, and darken are examples of:
Create new layer with content
Dragging content from another document into the current image will:
Vibrance
To increase the saturation of the colors in an image that are less saturation, while not oversaturating colors that are already very saturation, you can use which adjustment?
Black
If you invert a white area, which color do you get?
Gray
To adjust the brightness of midtones in a levels adjustment, drag which colored slider?
Many
If a histogram has much black on the left, the image contains ____ dark areas.
Black
Moving the blackpoint slider in the Levels adjustment to the right makes all the colors to the left of it:
Brighter
To make an image appear sharper, the Unsharp Mask command makes the edge of the bright side:
White
What color is represented at the far right side of the histogram?
Soft proofing
Changing on-screen colors to mimic the colors of actual printing.
Rendering intent
The way colors are converted from one system to another–from Photoshop to your printer.
Pencil
Tool that paints the current foreground color and creates a hard edged line
Brush
Tool that paints the current foreground color and can create soft strokes of color.
Pattern stamp
Tool paints whatever you have curently selected in the Pattern picker.
Airbrush
With this paintbrush setting, paint builds up as you hold down the mouse button.
Bitmap
Images made up of individual pixels, which do not scale well.
Vector
Images constructed from mathematical formulas, which can be scaled up without quality loss.
Direct selection
To adjust a shape’s path, click Path Selection and select this tool.
Anti-aliasing
Produces smooth-edged type by partially filling edge pixels to the edges of the type blend into the background.
20
By default, the History palette keeps track of the last ___ commands.
Snapshot
You can use this feature in the History palette to capture the image as it appears at any point in time.
Alt
To use the Clone Stamp, hold this button while selecting the area to be cloned.
Click
To use the redeye tool, located under the spot healing brush, activate the tool and ____ on the redeye.
8
All filters will work with ___-bit images.
Liquify
With this filter, you can push, pull, reflect, pucker, or bloat any area of an image.
Layer Comp
This is a snapshot of current layer visibility, position, and appearance; designers often create multiple compositions of a design layout to show clients.
Scripts
Use this feature to export layer comps to create a PDF presentation showing multiple versions.
Invert
This command reverses the colors in an image; brightness values are converted to their opposites.
Replace color
This function lets you change hue/saturation of certain colors; you adjust the fuzziness to select more or less of the color.
Feathering
Softening a selection’s edges by making a boundary between the selection and the pixels behind it.
White space
This “negative space” is the space between elements in a composition
70
Copyright term for works created by individuals is the life of the author plus ___ years after death.
Automate
To create a contact sheet in CS3, click File> _________.
8
RGB images have ___ bits of information per channel, and an image bit depth of 24.
Photoshop PSD
To maintain all layers and filters in an editable way in Photoshop, save in this format.
GIF
Indexed 8-bit color images would in this format.
Smart object
Converting an object to this will allow you to alter, transform, and warp your photo, without ruining the original information.
Styles
This palette will allow you to create a new or pick a preset of layer effects.
Canvas size
To create more white space around an image to add more, you should enlarge:
Auto Color
To automatically adjust the color balance to an image, click Image>Adjustment>
GIF
Ideal image format for optimizing areas of solid color and lines, like illustrations, logos, cartoons, line art, and text.
Matte
This setting affects the edges of a transparent GIF. If set to None, the edges of the graphic will appear jagged when the GIF is placed on a Web page.
Histogram
This shows a bar graph with 255 different shades from pitch black to pure white, and how much of the photo has of each particular shade
Clipping
On a histogram, this means that the color value of a pixel has either been pushed to pure black or pure white (all the way left or right); when this happens, that part of the image contains no detail.
What are camera raw files, and what is the advantage of using them?
They are grayscale images containing unprocessed “raw” data captured by the camera sensor. The advantage is they let the photographer — rather than the camera — interpret the image data and make adjustments and conversions. Because the camera doesn’t do any image processing when you shoot a camera raw photo, you can do it yourself using Adobe Camera Raw.
What can use Camera Raw for?
You can use Camera Raw to process the file with greater control over white balance, exposure, contrast, color saturation, sharpening and noise reduction. The same control cannot be had if the file has been output from the digital camera as a JPEG. Additionally, you can output the processed image in 16-bits/channel. Because the original raw file is not modified, you can also create multiple unique copies of the processed image by using the Open Copy command (press Alt/Opt to change Open Image to Open Copy).
When you edit a raw file in Camera Raw is the raw file modified? What does this mean?
No. Therefore, it can be opened in another raw processor without fear of rejection, and modifications applied in Camera Raw saved without fear of corruption.
Unlike proprietary raw processors, Camera Raw can what?
It can process raw files from a variety of camera vendors.
In Camera Raw, what does the Targeted Adjustment tool do?
You can use this tool to adjust tonal and color values intuitively by clicking on an area of the image and then dragging the pointer. To access the tool, click the fifth icon from the left in the toolbar. It looks like a bullseye with a crosshair above it.
How do you open images in Camera Raw?
You can open Camera Raw from either Photoshop or Bridge. Select images then go to File > Open in Camera Raw
Camera Raw can open an edit a camera raw file, but can it save an image in the camera raw format?
No.
For the best results with Camera Raw, plan your workflow to move how?
From left to right and top to bottom.
In Camera Raw, what does the workflow options link below the preview window display?
the image’s color space, bit depth, size and resolution.
What is white balance?
White balance reflects the lighting conditions under which it was captured. A digital camera records the white balance at the time of exposure; this is the value that initially appears in the Camera Raw dialog box image preview.
What two components does white balance comprise?
-The first is temperature, which is measured in kelvins and determines the “coolness” or “warmness” of an image.
-The second is tint, which compensates for magenta or green color casts in the image.
What is the first modification you should make in Camera Raw?
If you want to adjust the white balance of an image, make that the first thing you do in Camera Raw.
What does the white balance tool in Camera Raw look like and where is it located?
It looks like an eyedropper and is located at the top of the Camera Raw dialog.
How do you set an accurate white balance with the white balance tool in Camera Raw?
By clicking on a color that should be white or gray.
Other than the white balance tool how else can you adjust WB in Camera Raw?
By selecting one of the WB presets from the drop down menu in the Basics panel.
In Camera Raw, what adjustments does the Targeted Adjustment tool support?
Hue, saturation, luminance, parametric curve, and grayscale mix.
In Camera Raw how do you use the Targeted Adjustment tool?
Click ont he tool icon and hold down the mouse button, and then select an option from the popup menu. Click in the image on a target area and then drag left or down to decrease values underneath the pointer, or up or right to increase values.
What does the Adjustment Brush tool in Camera Raw allow you to do?
It allows you to apply non-destructive localized corrections to exposure, brightness, contrast, saturation, clarity, sharpness and color.
What does the Adjustment Brush tool look in Camera Raw look like?
It looks like a regular paint brush.
How can you quickly resize the Adjustment Brush tool in Camera Raw?
Right-click (Windows, Hold down Ctrl (Mac OS) and then drag pointer left to decrease and right to increase; add Shift to alter the feather size: Shift-right-click (Windows); Ctrl+Shift (Mac).
How do you partially erase an adjustment applied with the Adjustment Brush tool in Camera Raw?
Make sure the appropriate pin is selected, select Erase in the Adjustment Brush tool options, or hold down Alt/Opt, and then paint over the unwanted adjustment.
How do you toggle the visibility of a mask overlay for the Adjustment Brush tool in Camera Raw?
Press Y or position pointer over a pin, or deselect/select the Show Mask checkbox.
How do you toggle the visibility of the pin icon for the Adjustment Brush tool in Camera Raw?
To toggle the visibility of the pin icon for the Adjustment Brush tool in Camera Raw, press V.
How do you completely remove an adjustment made by the Adjustment Brush tool in Camera Raw?
Select a pin and then press Delete.
What is the Graduated Filter tool in Camera Raw?
It mimics traditional graduated neutral density and graduated color filter effects, or combinations of the two. You can use it, for example, to decrease/increase exposure gradually in one region of the image without seeming to affect other regions.
How do you apply the Graduated Filter tool in Camera Raw?
Select the tool from the toolbar. It looks like a grey rectangle overlapping a grey circle. Set options in the Graduated Filter tool options, click-drag in the image (hold down Shift to constrain effect). Once applied you can either refine it or apply a new filter effect.
What is a graduated neutral density filter in photography?
A graduated neutral density filter, also known as a graduated ND filter, split neutral density filter, or just a graduated filter, is an optical filter that has a variable light transmission. Typically half of the filter is of neutral density which transitions, either abruptly or gradually, into the other half which is clear. It is used to bring an overly-bright part of a scene into the dynamic range of film or sensor. For example, it can be used to darken a bright sky so that both the sky and subject can be properly exposed.
What is the Synchronize command in Camera Raw?
It allows you to select which settings you wish to apply to multiple selected files in the filmstrip. Alternatively multiple files can be selected before settings are applied.
If you want to process your raw images extensively in Photoshop, what can you do to avoid degrading the image unnecessarily in Camera Raw? How do you do this?
turn off sharpening in Camera Raw. You can do this in the Camera Raw preferences by electing to apply sharpening to preview images only. You can then use the sharpening filters in Photoshop as the last step in your editing workflow.
What can you use the Detail control in the Detail tab in Camera Raw for?
You can use the Detail control to either suppress or express the halos around edge detail. Use a low value to reduce halos (apply high halo suppression), or a high value to accentuate halos (apply low halo suppression).
What does the detail tab in Camera Raw look like?
Two overlapping triangles.
What does the Masking control in the Detail tab in Camera Raw do?
It applies an edge mask. When the Masking value is set to zero, sharpening is applied to all areas of the image (no masking). As the value is increased, the sharpening is restricted more and more to the areas near the strongest edges (increased masking).
What is Chromatic Abberation? How can the effect be minimized in Camera Raw?
Chromatic Abberation results when the camera lens fails to focus different wavelengths of light onto the exact same focal plane. The end result is the image is made up of slightly different sizes in each channel, causing visible fringing. This complementary color fringing can be minimized using the controls found under the Lens Corrections tab in the Camera Raw dialog.
What does the Lens Corrections tab in the Camera Raw dialog look like?
It kind of looks like a camera lens.
How can you correct an image with unwanted dark corners (a byproduct of lens distortion) in Camera Raw?
By using the Lens Vignetting controls in the Lens Corrections tab in Camera Raw.
In Camera Raw what are the Amount and Midpoint controls used for (found under Lens Vignetting int he Lens Correction tab)?
They are used to compensate for the dark outer edges that can appear with some lenses and focal length combinations. The Amount slider lightens the outer edges when it is increased and darkens them when decreased. The Midpoint control applies the adjustment to a larger region when it is decreased and confines it to the outer edges when increased.
What are the image settings you can specify in the Workflow Options dialog in Camera Raw?
-Space: the color space profile
-Depth: the bit depth
-Size: a preset image dimension
-Resolution: the image resolution
-Sharpening: preset sharpening for screen or print

*You can also elect to open all images as Smart Objects by default (instead of individually). These settings apply only to the processed image.

Where are the Default Image settings set in Camera Raw, and what can they be applied to?
The settings are set in the Default Image Settings area of the Camera Raw preferences. They can apply to a specific camera model, a specific camera serial number, or a specific ISO setting.
When using Camera Raw, if the items in the Basic tab in the White Balance pop-up menu do not provide satisfactory results, what can you do?
You can use the Temperature slider to make the image cooler or warmer. If the image exhibits a green or magenta tint after being white-balanced, you can use the Tint slider to compensate for any bias.
What does Camera Raw overlay the preview with when you turn shadow clippings or highlight clippings on with the buttons located above the histogram?
CR overlays the preview with a blue color to indicate shadow clipping and a red color to indicate highlight clipping when you turn the corresponding options on with the buttons located above the histogram.
While adjusting the Exposure, Recovery or Black slider in Camera Raw dialog what can you do to view only the clipped pixels, sans preview? What do the various colors in the modified preview correspond to?
Hold down Alt/Opt. BIack indicates all three RGB channels are clipped in the shadows, while white indicates all three RGB color channels are clipped in the highlights. Clipping in one or two channels is indicated either by the primary colors or a mixture of primary and secondary colors.
What may it mean if you notice clipping while working on files in the Camera Raw dialog?
It may mean that the gamut of the color space you are working in is too small to contain all the colors. Choose a larger color space than the current one, do your adjustments in it and then convert to a smaller color space in Photoshop if required. Note: If ProPhoto RGB is chosen, the 16-Bits/Channel should also be chosen to avoid possible posterization.
If you would like to work in a color space other than the four available in Workflow Options in Camera Raw what is the recommended workflow?
The recommended workflow in this case is to export in ProPhoto RGB and 16-Bits/Channel. It has the widest color gamut out of all the available color spaces and, therefore, can accommodate the colors without clipping. Once in Photoshop, you can convert to the working color space of your choice.
What can you use the Retouch tool in Camera Raw for?
To heal or to clone non-destructively.
In Camera Raw, after working on one image how can you apply the healing/cloning to other selected images?
By pressing the Synchronize button.
How do you access healing/cloning in Camera Raw?
By selecting the spot removal tool/retouching tool (paintbrush with dots around it)
How do “heal” and “clone” work in Camera Raw?
Heal Matches the texture, lighting, and shading of the sampled area to the selected area.

Clone Applies the sampled area of the image to the selected area.

a) How do you expand/contract the “dumbbells” for the heal/clone tool in Camera Raw? b) How can you reposition the pointers?
a) By hovering over the outlines with the Retouch tool and dragging when the pointer turns into a double-headed arrow.
b) By hovering inside the dumbbells and dragging to a new position.
Once you have used the controls under the Basic tab in Camera Raw to adjust an image, how can you fine-tune the tonal range?
You can use either the Parametric curve or the Point curve to fine-tune the tonal range. The sliders located under the graph in the Parametric tab determine the range of the Highlights, Lights, Darks and Shadows sliders.
Where can Parametric Curve and Point Curve in Camera Raw be found?
Under the Tone Curve Panel, which looks like a graph with a line through it.
How can you fine-tune the color of an image in Camera Raw?
By using the Hue, Saturation and Luminance controls, nested under the HSL/Grayscale tab in Camera Raw (looks like a wide zipper). For example you can use the Reds and Oranges sliders in combination with Saturation to modify a portrait taken outdoors without affecting the sky or foliage that may be present in the background.
What does the Vibrance control in Camera Raw do?
It lets you increase saturation without clipping colors that approach full saturation. It does this by applying a non-linear increase in saturation, so that the less saturated colors are affected more than the highly saturated colors. It also prevents skin tones from becoming over-saturated.
What does the Clarity control in Camera Raw do?
It adds depth to an image by increasing local contrast, weighted more heavily in the midtones. It gives the image an added punch but should be used sparingly as too high a setting can introduce undesirable halos. To view the effect, magnify the preview by 100% or greater.
After converting an image to Grayscale in Camera Raw, what can you use the Split Toning feature for?
To apply a color throughout the image, or a hue to the highlights and/or the shadows. You can also use Split Toning to create special effects, such as a cross-processed look obtained by deliberately processing photographic film in a chemical solution intended for a different type of film. Note: if you apply Split Toning after converting to Grayscale, the image remains in RGB.
Where can you find Split Toning controls in Camera Raw?
Under the Split Toning panel which looks like a white rectangle over a black rectangle.
What is the Fill Light control in the Basic tab of Camera Raw for?
It can be used to recover detail in the shadows without unduly affecting the highlights or causing posterization.
If one or two channels in your image are clipped in Camera Raw, how can you reconstruct the details?
You can use the Recovery control in the Basic tab. Hold down Alt/Opt as you drag the Recovery slider to see where highlights are clipped.
How can you adjust individual colors in Camera Raw?
By using the HSL/Grayscale tab. The controls in the HSL tabs (Hue, Saturation, and Luminance) provide targeted control.
What does the Open Image(s) button in the Camera Raw dialog do?
It saves the current settings of single, or multiple-selected files to a database or a sidecar XMP file (depending on how preferences are set) and opens the image(s) in Photoshop for further editing.
How do you export an image from CR to Photoshop without modifying the saved settings?
Press Alt/Opt and then click the Open Copy button, which it turns into.
What does the Save Image button in CR do?
Use it to save images without opening them in Photoshop. In the Save Image dialog, you can batch rename files and choose between the JPEG, Photoshop, TIFF and DNG (Digital Negative) file formats. You can also Alt-click, Opt-click the Save Image button to bypass the Save Options dialog. If you do, Camera Raw defaults to the last remembered settings.
What does the Done button in CR do?
It closes the CR dialog and stores the current settings in the CR database file or in a sidecar XMP file, or in a DNG file, depending on how CR preferences are setup and whether or not the open file(s) reside on a read only disk.
How do you import files directly into Bridge from a camera or a card reader?
You connect the device to your computer and then choose File > Get Photos from Camera, or click the Get Photos from Camera icon in the toolbar, choose options and then click Get Photos.
What does the Photo Downloader command in Bridge let you apply?
Shot date, today’s date, rename files, convert to DNG, delete original files, save copies, and apply metadata using a basic or custom template.
Where can the Photo Downloader dialog be found?
File > Get Photos from Camera
When importing camera files via the Photo Downloader dialog in CR, what can you do with metadata?
You can add basic metadata (Creator and Copyright only), or apply a custom metadata template that you created before you launched Photo Downloader and include all the IPTC Core values. Note: the apply metadata options are only available once you click the Advanced Dialog button.
Once you have saved the current image settings as a preset in Camera Raw, where do they appear?
They appear as an item in the Presets tab in CR (looks like three sliders) and in the Develop Settings submenus in the Edit and the context menus in Bridge.
Once you have applied custom settings to a raw file in CR how do you apply the same settings to other similar files without opening them in CR?
Use copy and paste commands located in the Edit > Develop Settings submenu (also available from the context menu) in Bridge, or use the keyboard shortcuts Ctrl+Alt+C/Cmd+Opt+C to copy and then Ctrl+Alt+V/Cmd+Opt+V to paste. When the Paste Camera Raw Settings dialog opens, choose the setting(s) you want to apply and then click OK.
In Bridge how do you add keywords to single or multiple selected files?
You can use the Keywords panel, the Metadata panel, or the File Info dialog to add keywords to single or multiple selected files. In the Keywords panel, use a hierarchy (keyword catalog) to apply keywords. In the Metadata panel, open the IPTC Core category, click in the Keywords text box and type. In the File Info dialog, type or paste in the Keywords text box in the IPTC or Description tab and click OK.
What will the Keywords panel in Bridge allow you to do?
It will let you add new keywords, new sub-keywords, edit existing keywords, make temporary keywords (Other Keywords) persistent, and organize existing keywords into sets by dragging and dropping.
How can you use the Keywords panel to assign keywords from a commercial keyword catalog (AKA a hierarchy)?
To import a keyword catalog, choose Import from the Keywords panel menu.
When adding keywords using a text box in the Metadata panel or the File Info dialog, how can you separate keywords and phrases?
Use a semi-colon or a comma to separate them.
In Bridge, in the Keywords panel, how do you automatically add the parent keywords when adding a sub keyword?
Shift-click sub keyword.
In Bridge how do you have parent keywords apply automatically when you click a sub keyword?
Select Automatically Apply Parent Keywords in Keywords preferences.
What happens when files are locked in Bridge?
Keywords and metadata cannot be added or removed.
How do you unlock a file in Bridge?
Right-click/Ctrl-cick on its thumbnail in the Contents panel and then choose Unlock Item from the context menu.
Once you have created a metadata template in Bridge, how can you replace the existing metadata or append it?
By using the Append Metadata or Replace Metadata commands from the Tools menu, or from the Metadata panel menu.
When you use the Create Metadata Template command in Bridge to create a new metadata template, what happens if you check a property in the dialog and leave the text box blank?
When you apply the template it will clear the corresponding property.
What can you base a new metadata template in Bridge on?
You can base it either on the metadata contained in the selected file, or append/replace the existing metadata by selecting a metadata template from the dialog menu and then modify the metadata before saving the template. Alternatively, to start with a blank metadata template, deselect all files before you open the Create Metadata Template dialog.
How do you filter files by rating in the current folder in Bridge?
Window > Path, click the star icon and choose Show 5 Stars from the pop-up menu. You can also press Ctrl+Alt+5/Cmd+Opt+5, or open the Rations criteria in the Filter panel and then click on the five star icon.
How do you find all files marked as Reject in the current folder and subfolders in Bridge and hide all others at the same time?
a)
1) View > Show Items from Subfolders
2) View > Show Reject Files
3) Window > Path Bar
4) click the star icon in the Path Bar
5) Choose Show Rejected Items Only from the pop-up menu

or b)
1) View > Show Items from Subfolders
2) View > Show Reject Files
3) Open the Ratings criteria in the Folders panel
4. Select Reject

How do you find all files rated three stars and higher in the current folder in Bridge?
Shift-click three stars under the Ratings criteria in the Filter panel, or press Ctrl+Alt+3/Cmd+Opt+3
How do you inverse media selection criteria in Bridge?
Alt-click/Opt-click the criteria under File Type in the Filter panel. For example, if you have selected “JPEG file” and would like to see all other file types and hide all JPEGs at the same time, Alt-click/Opt-click “JPEG file.”