Phonology Test 1

A branch of linguistics that pertains to the study of speech sounds and sound patterns.
A branch of linguistics, pertains to the description of the system and patterns of phonemes including the set of sounds used by a language, acceptable combination of these sounds to form words, and allophonic variations typically used in language.
Characterized by multiple errors in articulation of speech sounds, resulting in mild to severe unintelligibility.
Phonological disorder
The movement of anatomic structures to produce speech sounds. the totality of motor processes involved in the planning and execution of speech
Three things for articulation mechanism to function adequately
speech structures, cavaties, and air flow
Emphasized problems resulting from motor problem impacting articulators; treatment focused on “speech correction”
articulation disorders
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Emphasizes problem resulting from delays in the maturation for the underlying phonological system; treatment focuses on building and re-organizing children’s phonological representations
phonological (disorders)
Minimal sound element or segment that has the linguistic function of distinguishing units of meaning
A variant of a phoneme
Use of symbols to represent the phonemes in an utterance
Broad transcriptions
Detailed diacritic marks to specify the allophones of the phonemes in an utterance.
Narrow transcription
Includes the formation or articulation of sounds and the knowledge of the uses and combinations of these sounds.
Stresses the function and organization of phonemes within a given language system
Composed of the speech sounds that are produced, heard, and perceived
Overt speech (level of phonology)
The formulation of sound sequences based on knowledge of the phonologic system of our language
Covert speech (level of phonology)
Rules for combination of phonology
Vary by language, positions of occurrence, before or after a vowel in a syllable, initial, medial or final postion of a word, in a cluster or only as a singleton
Rules for allophonic variations
Vary by language to some extent, are stops aspirated? can vowels be nasalized?
4 ways to describe articulation errors (disordered)
_____ can stand alone as syllables
If the vowel changes, the meaning changes
Vowel deviation
The vowel changes, but the meaning does not change
Vowel Variation
Happens only to clusters. When 2 sounds are blended together to get one sound, and a consonantal feature is carried over.
A phonemic diphthong changes the ____ (if changed)
A nonphonemic diphthong doesn’t _____ the meaning
3 descriptions of phonological disorders
Distinctive features, phonological processes, and phonological rules
A close transcription or narrow transcription that is more accurate and used with defective speech
Phonetic transcription
Articulation transcription with just symbol usage and less detail (more broad)
Phonemic transcription
A formal expression of a regularity that occurs in the phonology of a language or of an individual speaker
Phonological rule
A systematic sound change that affects classes of sounds or sound sequences and results in a simplification of production. Must affect more than one sound from a given class. Sound change must occur at least 40% of the time (suggested)
Phonology Process
“$” is a boundry of a ____
“#” is a boundry of a ____
Describes the child’s production without reference to the adult model; Is a self-contained system. Typically done with severe kids
Independent analysis
Independent analysis must include the following:
1. An inventory of phones classified by word position and articulatory features
2. An inventory of syllables and word shapes produced
3. Sequential constraints (a reason for being unable to do sound) on the occurrence of phones
Compares the child’s productions to the adult form. Patterns and systematic differences are described in terms of sound segments, features, rules, or phonological processes. Example is an articulation test.
Relational analysis
The natural way to break words into component parts. A unit of organization for a sequence of sounds. Considered the phonological “building blocks” of words.
Syllables can be divided into an ____, _____, and _____.
Onset, Nucleus, Rhyme
Initial consonant or cluster that precedes the nucleus. Possible in some words to not exist
The rest of the syllable, consisting of nucleus and any consonants that follow
Rhyme is divided into the ____ and _____
Nucleus(peak) and coda
Consonants that serve as syllabic peaks are called
English rules are that a syllable can have 1-? segments in an onset and 1-? segments in a coda
Open or unchecked syallbes do not contain codas, true or false?
Syllables that do have codas are called closed or checked, true or false?
All children use phonological processes as they learn to talk, true or false?
The use of phonological information, especially the sound structure of one’s oral language, in processing written language and oral language
Phonological processing
A level that is one step removed from the actual acoustic signal, where speech is represented by strings of phones or basic sounds of a language
Phonetic level
Phonological processes are categorized as
syllable structure processes, substitution processes, assimilatory processes
Syllables structure processes
1. syllable deletion
2. reduplication
3. epenthesis
4. final-consonant deletion
5. initial-consonant deletion
6. cluster deletion
7. cluster substitution
Substitution processes (place and manner)
1. stopping
2. stridency deletion
3. fronting
4. depalatalization
5. palatalization
6. affrication
7. deaffrication
8. backing
9. alveolarization
10. labialization
11. gliding
12. vowelization
Assimilation processes
Can be progressive or regressive
1. labial assim
2. alveolar assim
3. velar assim
4. nasal assim
5. prevocalic voicing
6. postvocalic devoicing
7. meathesis
8. coalescence
How do phonological remediation and traditional artic therapy differ?
goals, acceptance of misproductions, and reinforcement
What is a phonotactic phonological rule?
Rules that govern the sequencing patterns of english
Created to determine how single sound segments could be represented by phonetic differences. Any property that separates one sound segment from a group. It is distinctive if it serves to distinguish one phoneme from another. Uses binary system to distinguish in inventory. Based on place and manner
Distinctive features
2 facets of every utterance
an audible sequence of speech sounds and their specific meaning conveyed through this sequence
Generative Phonologies are used to…
1. describe phonological patterns in natural languages
2. formulate the rules that account for these systems
3. identify universal principles that apply to phonological systems
Nonlinear phonologies were introduced to…
1. account for the influence of stress
2. describe tones and stress features in levels of representation
3. dealing with prosodic variables
Divides phonological features into parallel tiers of quasi-independent sequences. The theory to account for TONE phenomena in languages in which segmental features interact with varying tones. Features extend through a segment according to this concept.
Autosegmental theory
Two levels of sound presentation:
Phonetic level with sounds as central units, and phonemic level represented by phonemes
An outgrowth of distinctive feature theory representing a substantial departure from previous phonological theories. Assumes two levels of sound representation (phonological and phonetic). Developed by Chomsky. Represents the applications of principles of generative grammar to phonology. Originally developed to analyze the phonological systems of languages
Generative phonology
Five features that are able to establish and distinguish between phonemes: major class features, cavity features, manner of articulation features, source features, and prosodic features
Generative phonology
Major class features
Sonorant (open vocal tract), consonantal, and vocalic
Cavity features
Coronal, anterior, distributed, nasal, lateral, high, low, back, round
Manner features
Continuant, delayed release, tense
Source features
Heightened subglottal pressure, voiced, strident
A group of phonological theories understanding segments as governed by more complex linguistic dimensions. A hierarchy of factors is hypothesized to affect segmental units. A dynamic system of features, ranked one above the other.
Nonlinear phonologies
Extended a hierarchical-based analysis to STRESS. A theoretical construct that extends hierarchical analysis procedures to stress and syllable boundaries.
Metrical Phonology
Characteristics of speech that involve larger units, such as syllables, words, phrases, or sentences.
Include stress, intonation, loudness, pitch level, juncture, and speaking rate
The degree of effort, prominence, or importance given to some part of an utterance. Primarily carried by the (tense) vowel segment within a syllable
Combination of intonation, pausing, and other suprasegmentals to mark special distinctions in speech or to express certain grammatical divisions
Juncture – “vocal punctuation”
“Open” vocal tract configuration promoting voicing. American English vowels, glides, nasals, and liquids.
Sounds prodcued with a high degree of oral obstruction, such as stops,fricatives, affricates, liquids,and nasals
Sounds produced with the apical/predorsal portion of the tongue. Marks several consonants (t,d,s,z,n,l)
Sounds produced in the frontal region of the oral cavity with the alveolarridge beingthe posterior border; that is, labial, dental, and alveolar consonants
Vowels and consonants produced with a retracted body of the tongue; that is, back vowels and velar and pharyngeal consonants
“Incessant” sounds produced without hindering theairstream by any blockages within theoral cavity. Vowels, fricatives, glides, and liquids are continuant; stops nasals and affricates are not continuant
A feature of american English voiced and voiceless fricatives and affricates. However, the interdental fricatives are not stridents