PHI2010 Quizzes 9,10,11,12,13

Which view about truth is common to all pragmatists
The truth is relative to place, time, and purpose
What does philosophical analysis attempt to to
Reduce complex, philosophical puzzling proposition into simpler less puzzling one
What determines the meaning of a proposition, according to the logical positivists
The possible observations that would verify it
According to logical atomism, what does the world ultimately consist of
Atomic facts
Which best expresses phenomenalism as a metaphysical metaphysical theory
Physical objects just are sense-data
According to the espitemological foundationlist, when is a belief knowledge
When it logically follows from other beliefs that cannot be doubted
Antirepresentationlists like Richard Rorty always deny this claim
True beliefs somehow picture or mirror reality
Which view maintains that mental words like hope, belief, or desire do not refer to things at all, whether physical or nonphysical
Which view maintains that mental states just are states of the brain and central nervous system
Which view maintain that although mental states require a physical system to exist they are not reducible to states of any particular physical system
Which of the following is an ontological issue
Whether selves exist
John Dewey was primarily interested in abstract metaphysical issues
The logical positivists rejected metaphysical and moral claims as meaningless nonsense
Bertrand Russell argued that the world consists of many independent atomic facts rather than a single all-encompassing Hegelian Oneness
Phenomenalists believe that there are no physical objects just sense data
The perceived failure of phenomenalism led philosophers like Richard Rorty to adopt a foundationlist view of knowledge
According to W. V. O. Quine physical objects are theoretical posits not constructs out of sense data
Rorty adopts a non realist nonrepresentationalist conception of truth as that which meets the current standards of rationality of a particular group of speakers
Dualism is a physicalist viewpoint in the philosophy of mind
Behaviorists like Gilbert Ryle believe that mental state talk can always be translated into precise sets of behaviors or behavioral dispositions
Identity theorists and functionalists agree that each particular mental state of a person is identical with a specific state of that person’s brain or central nervous
According to ontological realism, ontological investigation can disclose objective truth
What is evil, according to Socrates
Ignorance of the good
How is goodness apprehended, according to Plato
By reason
The just or well-ordered soul manifests which virtue, according to Plato
In what does human happiness consist, according to Aristotle
All of the above
Which desires did epicureans say you should occasionally satisfy
Those that are natural but not necessary
Which piece of advice would be more likely to come from a stoic
Become self-reliant and accept your fate in like with serenity and calm indifference
Where does moral evil come from, according to St. Augustine
Misdirected love
What are people naturally like, according to Thomas Hobbes
They are fundamentally selfish
What is morality ultimately based on, according to Immanuel Kant
According to John Stuart Mill, why should we seek to raise the general happiness rather than just our own
By its very nature morality must assume the perspective of an impartial spectator
For Nietzsche, who or what is the source of ethical truth
The superman
Socrates believed that non-virtuous conduct is usually the result of willing evil
Plato held that the ultimate source of reality and goodness lies beyond the physical, natural world
Aristotle thought that they key to happiness is having a soul that is well-ordered
Epicureans and stoics agreed that the good life is the pleasant life
St. Augustine believed that the existence of the devil is the best explanation of why there is evil in a world created by a totally good God
St. Hildegard believed that mystical experience was a source of knowledge as certain as reason
St. Thomas Aquinas held that there were two sets of virtues, one set directing us to happiness on earth and the other directing us to eternal happiness
Thomas Hobbes thought that peace requires justice which, given human nature, requires compulsion under the threat of force
David Hume believed that moral judgments are based on reasoning from the observed facts of a situation
Unlike the utilitarians,who based morality on consequences, Kant held that morality is categorical and thus must be based solely on reason
What is the form of the ideal state, according to Plato
It is an aristocracy ruled by an elite group of intellectually superior individuals
What is the form of the ideal state for Aristotle
Another trick question! Aristotle didn’t think there is any single from that the ideal state must take
What is not true of the natural law, for St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas
When there is a conflict between it and human law, human law takes precedence
What is not true of the contract that gives rises to the state, according to Thomas Hobbes
It gives citizens a rights to revolt if the state acts unjustly towards them
Which best describes Locke’s governmental contract
The people delegate or entrust their natural rights to a divided government, retaining the right to revolt if the government violates its trust
What is true, moral freedom,according to the later Rousseau
Obedience to the general will
In which of the following was the power of the Supreme Court declare laws unconstitutional established
Marbury v. Madison
Which did Harriet Taylor support
The toleration of nonconformist thought and lifestyles
John Stuart Mill believed that
One should seek general happiness
Karl Marx viewed history as the struggle between two classes. What are they?
A dominant class that owns and controls the means of production and a subordinate class that doesn’t
Plato and Aristotle were both fans of democracy and basic human equality
For Plato the state is a living organism whose well-being must be sought by its subjects
Aristotle held that a state could be good or bad regardless of the form of its government
Only Christians can attain knowledge of the natural law, according to both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Hobbes defined justice as the keeping of agreements and said it can only exist if there is a state powerful enough to force people to do it
John Locke held that the right to property did not exist prior to the existence of the state
Even in his early writings, Jean-Jacques Rousseau maintained that true freedom requires the existence of the state
Classic liberals believe in toleration of nonconformity and as much personal liberty as possible
Pragmatism is also known as British pragmatism
Karl Marx thought that the ideal society was a classless one without any exploitation or alienation
In terms of what did G. E. Moore define goodness
Tricky! He claimed that it can’t be defined
What do moral judgments do, according to the emotivists
Express emotion and encourage others to feel the same way
What is not true of John Rawls’s original position
It leads to an entitlement view of justice
What is Rawls’s position on the just distribution of income and wealth in a society
It should be equal unless an unequal distribution would benefit everyone
Why does Robert Nozick believe that any state that goes beyond the minimal state is unjust
Such a state necessarily involves redistributive taxation that violates persons’ natural entitlement rights
What is a thick moral argument, for Michael Walzer
Moral argument that takes into account the actual, particular details of the association or culture involved
Which of the following is the political philosophy based on respect for established institutions and traditions
The attempt to understand the sources and criteria of moral value judgments is known as
Meta ethics
Which of the following is not one of the three main philosophical causes looked at when studying ecological crises
Democratic socialism
What is the name of the influential publication by John Rawls
A theory of justice
G. E. Moore thought that goodness is a simple, nonnatural, and undefinable property
Meta ethnic is the attempt to understand the source, criteria, meaning, verification, or validation of moral value judgments
The emotivists thought that moral judgments are genuine propositions with a clear, factual meaning
John Rawls argued that rational, self-interested people choosing from behind a veil of ignorance would agree that there should be no inequalities in liberty or wealth and income in the just society
Robert Nozick is a libertarian who thinks that only a state limited to the functions of a night-watchman is morally justifiable
According to Alasdair MacIntyre, morality should focus more on the question of which character traits promote human flourishing rather than on questions about which principles of right conduct are the correct ones
Making and defending moral judgments is known as meta ethnic
According to Rawls the most important good is respecting others
Classical liberalism argued that the government should not interfere in economic affairs
Herbert Marcuse argued that the reason the Marxist revolution didn’t happen in modern industrial societies is because capitalism doesn’t really lead to the exploitation and alienation of workers that Marx said it did
Ayn Rand embraced a community based ethics, in which the neediest were cared for by the strongest
What did Anselm believe about proving God’s existence
You could do it using just the concept of God os the greatest being conceivable
At. Thomas Aquinas’s first three ways are all versions of which part of argument
How did mystical experience compare with reason as a source of knowledge about God, according to Julian of Norwich
It is as valid a source of knowledge as reason is
Given his epistemological standards, what characteristic must all of Descartes arguments for God posses
They must yield conclusions that are absolutely certain
According to Leibniz, what is the sufficient reason for the changing of the seasons
Given his epistemological standards, what characteristic would Hume insist that any argument for God possess
It must be based on sensory experience
Why didn’t Immanuel Kant think that existence is a property or characteristic of a thing
A characteristic always adds something to the concept of a thing, but existence does not do this
What kind of an argument did Kant use to justify the rationality of belief in God
What is truth, for Soren Kierkegaard
How you live if it is with passionate commitment
What would Mary Daly say about the image of God the father
It perpetuates the polarization human qualities built into the traditional sexual stereotypes
Which of the following is not a proponent of intelligent design
Richard Dawkins
Unlike philosophy, theology makes no philosophical assumptions about God
St. Anselm believed that the denial of God’s existence leads to a self- contradiction on the part of the atheist
St. Thomas Aquinas used each of the four kinds of argument for God except for the ontological argument which he rejected
Julian of Norwich thought that mystical revelations were just as valid as knowledge derived from reason
Descartes maintained that his idea of God was derived from sense impressions
According to Baron Von Leibniz’s principle of sufficient reason something might happen even if there is no sufficient reason for it to happen
David Hume analyzed the argument from designs as a defective and weak analogy
Immanuel Kant believed that existence was a property a thing either did or didn’t possess
William James thought it was okay to will to believe in God in spite of the fact that there is no conclusive evidence for his existence
According to Mary Daly, traditional theism serves the purpose of patriarchal social arrangements
For Alvin Plantinga, theists have a right to believe in God since it is a basic belief