First pass happens in what?
Metabolism: It goes from the portal vein into the liver to become metabolized.
the axon Recycles chemicals to make neurotransmitters
(The Limbic System)
The Limbic System
(Very high in)
Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serotonin
highest thought processes
-panic disorders, OCD, PTSD, and phobias
-find and treat the cause of the anxiety before escorting to meds
-use meds only when it interferes with life
-antidepressants and benzodiazepines
benzodiazepines (Longterm Treatment)
-intensifies the inhibitory effect of GABA
-GABA decreases anxiety (Warm Blanket)
-specific meds differ in onset and duration
-long term treatment of anxiety; short time treatment of insomnia or alcohol withdrawal
-safer than barbiturates
-no respiratory depression
IV can have rapid effects on the CNS and respirations
-adverse effects; drowsiness, sedation, lethargy, ataxia
-less addiction potential than barbiturates
GABA (Gamma amino buteric acid)
decreases anxiety (Charlie Brown’s blanket)
-alprazoLAM (Xanax), clonazePAM (Klonopin)
-diazePAM (Valium), lorazePAM (Ativan)
is used to reverse CNS depressants effects- Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist.
Hypnotics- Zolpidem (Ambien)
-affect serotonin levels
-schedule IV controlled substances
-caution with risk of suicide, respiratory impairment, or other CNS depressants
-rapid onset (7-27 minutes)
-adverse effects are minimal:Sedation (Fall risk) depression
-rebound insomnia an issue
-similar to ambient
-more daytime sedation
-probable affects D2 dopamine receptors in the brain
-less CNS depression or muscle relaxation
-adverse effects-dizziness, HA, and drowsiness
-dependence and withdrawal less of a concern
-may take several weeks to take effect
Nursing Considerations for Anxiolytics
-caution with older adults at risk for falls
-asess for increased depression, suicidal tendencies
-PT to avoid alcohol and other CNS depressants
-Avoid abrupt discontinuation- rebound anxiety/sleeplessness
-currently used primarily as anti-seizure meds
-used for treatment of acute manic reactions
-greater risk of addiction and dependance
-possible paradoxical excitement; Stevens-Johnson syndrome
-Amobarbital (amytal sodium); phenobarbital (luminal), secobarbital (seconal)
pt goes from little crazy to very crazy. (Think LSD out of nowhere).
-more common with psychiatric meds
-rash that becomes more and more involved can go from epidermis to dermis
-will end in result with almost third degree burns
-needs to be treated in a burn center
-assessment of risk for suicide
-increased risk of depression improves
-also increased risk for homicide
(Could be very flat like Eeyore)
(could be BFF one minute and hating you the next)
Antidepressant- Therapeutic Class
-tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)
– selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
-Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)
-delayed effect of antidepressant
-risk for falls
-avoid abrupt discontinuation of therapy; profound depression, seizures, or withdrawal
(monoamine oxidase inhibitors)
breaks down inhibitors and results in more neurotransmitter
(Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
Inhibits serotonin reuptake and leaves more serotonin in the synapse (Calming positive effect)
-inhibit reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin leaving more available in the CNS
-obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
(second resort for medication)
(Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
-blocks the reuptake of serotonin leaving more in the CNS
SAFEST of the antidepressants
-less sympathomimetic and anticholinergic effects
-risk of serotonin syndrome if used with MAOIs
-Mental status changes
(first medication resort)
-inhibits monoamine oxidose, an enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in the CNS leading to higher levels of these neurotransmitters
-SIDE EFFECTS: orthostatic hypotension, HA, weight gain, and insomnia
-interacting with other drugs and foods containing tyramine can cause hypertensive crisis
-low safety margin (Last Resort Drug)
Foods to avoid with MAOIs
anything containing tyramine (Hypertensive crisis)
think two bi-poles
-atypical antipsychotics- may be used for acute mania
-ClozAPINE (clozaril)-risk for agranulocytosis
-very low white blood cells
-lack of ability to fight off infection
anti-manic Lithium (eskalith)
-may be used for anti seizures or antidepressants
-narrow therapeutic index
-0.6-1.5mEq/L is a therapeutic level
-lithium toxicity with sodium loss Pt teaching!
-evaluate renal, thyroid, heart function before therapy
-lithim level low-S&S depression and/or mania
-condition characterized by delusions, hallucinations, illusions, disorganized behavior, and paranoia.
-Acute or Chronic
-difficult to treat as pt does not recognize their illness
-many undesirable side effects with the medications
-goal is to reduce psychotic symptoms to a level that allows for social relationships, and ability to care for themselves
-relapse rate: 60-80%
Can elderly demented patients take antipsychotics?
NO! Will more than likely cause a heart attack
-dopamine receptor blockers
-anti-cholinergic side effects and alpha-adrenergic blocking effects
-extrapyramidal side effects
-hypotension, dysrhythmias (prolonged QT)
-CHF (congestive heart failure)
-risk of diabetes mellitus and bone marrow suppression
-risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS)
-benztropine (Cogentin) to treat the dystonia
-Beta-adrenergic blockers and benzodiazepines are sometimes used to reduce akathisia.
-block dopamine and serotonin receptors
-fewer EPS effects
-possible risk of CVS and mortality
-not a cure, only controls symptoms
-never stop taking medications without consulting physician
-need to be tapered off
-observe for anticholinergic effects (PT may not tell you)
-anticholinergic side effects; excessive CNS stimulation
-Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta)
-metabolic disorders (fluid and electrolyte imbalance)
-neoplastic disease (Cancer)
simple or complex
(Maybe just an arm has a seizure)
-absense (petit mal) (Staring off into space)
-GABA potentiate (primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain)
-prevents abnormal or repetitive firing
-stabliizes neuronal membranes to control movement of electrolytes
-may not eliminate seizures altogether
-risk of falls due to dizziness
-periodic drug levels and symptoms review
-alcohol might increase adverse effects of anti seizure drugs
-avoid abrupt discontinuation
-phenytoin (Dilantin)- oldest and most common anti seizure
ALL SEIZURES EXCEPT ABSENCE
-low abuse potential and CNS depression
-narrow range of therapeutic and toxic dose-monitor blood levels
-dysarrhythmias (Bradycardia, ventricular fibrillation) hypotension, hyperglycemia, CNS-drowsiness, dizziness, agranulocytosis
-mix with saline only, only MaCI in IV line. irritating to vein
-use birth control
-CNS depression (Sedation)
-Bone-Marrow suppression with agranulocytosis
-mix with saline only. Only give in IV line flushed with NaCI
-Irritating to Vein
-intensify effect of GABA
-low margin of safety
-high potential for dependence and withdrawal
-cause profound CNS depression
-phenobarbital (solfoton, luminol)- inexpensive, long acting, and few adverse side effects
-used in all seizure types except absence
-drug of choice for neonates
-possible tissue necrosis at injection site
used in absence or myoclonic seizures
(Caffeine and nicotine may decrease the effectiveness of benzodiazepines)
-suppress the abnormal brain activity of absence seizures
-CNS and GI depression, bone marrow suppression with pancytopenia, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
not enough of any blood cells
-always take anti seizure meds
-do not switch brands
-take at the same time every day with food
-monitor blood tests as ordered
-do not drink alcohol
-do not stop taking abruptly
Drugs for Partial Seizures
-degenerative disorder of the CNS caused by death of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine.
-lack of dopamine and overactivity of acetylcholine
-muscle rigidity or weakness
-difficulty chewing, swallowing, and speaking
-postural instability, shuffling gait-easily lose balance, fall risk!
-carbidopa combined with levodopa (Sinemet) helps levodopa cross the blood brain barrier before transforming to dopamine
-may take up to 6 months for therapeutic effects
-adverse effects0 tachycardia, hypertension, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, constipation, urinary retention
-associated with development of melanoma
-avoid vitamin B6
-Abrupt withdrawal can produce acute parkinsonism
The CNS consists of
the spinal chord and the brain, it is protected by bone and meninges
Goal of Drug Therapy for Mental Health
-depress or decrease CNS
-regulate amounts of CNS Neurotransmitters
-stimulate or block autonomic receptors
-treat psychiatric disorders
Drugs for Sleep disorders
-treat epilepsy in emergency situations
-relax muscle spasms
-help with moderate sedation
-they enhance GABA
-tolerance develops within weeks
-can cause paranoia, panic attacks, muscle twitching, and hallucinations
Benzo Signs of Toxicity
(Older Adults)-watch for paradoxical excitement
TAKE ON EMPTY STOMACH
CNS Depressants for muscle spasms
-centrally acting muscle relaxants
-peripherally acting muscle relaxants
Centrally acting Relaxants (Uses)
-Spinal Chord Injury
Centrally Acting Relaxants
-no physical dependance
Peripherally Acting muscle relaxants (Uses)
-relax muscle spasms r/t
-spinal chord injury
Prevent and treat hyperthermia (Side Effect of general Anesthesia
Peripherally Acting Muscle Relaxants
-prototype drug-dantrolene (Dantrium)
-inhibit release of calcium
AED’s (Anti Epileptic Drugs)
-Grand-Mal (Tonic Clonic Seizure)
-decrease neuronal activity of seizure producing cells in brain
-by inhibiting influx of sodium through sodium channels
A patient is beginning to take Mirapex for Parkinson’s Disease, which should be monitored?
creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
What should you monitor a patient for that is taking donepezil (Aricept) for Alzheimer’s
A patient is newly diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease- what should they tell them about how levodopa/carbidopa (Sinermet) will help with her symptoms?
IT will increase the amount of dopamine that can get to the brain through the blood brain barrier
A newly diagnosed patient is taking Valproic Acid (Depakote) for seizures. What should the healthcare provider tall the pt to look out for
An alert that pt is having adverse side effects to Beta-B1 Betaseron is?
If a pt is taking a memantine (Namenda) for alzheimer’s they should notify the doctor
taking any over-the-counter antacid
When taking modafinil (Provigil) healthcare provider should include for patient to:
Take in the morning
A patient is taking baclofen (Lioresal) which should they understand?
They should not drive until the effects of the drug are known
A patient is beginning to take valproic acid (Depakote) which should they be advise to monitor for
PT is taking temazepam (Restoril) What should the healthcare professional include?
-Avoid alcohol and other depressants
-take 30 minutes before bedtime
-taper the drug to decrease effects from withdrawal
PT is beginning to take zolpidem (Ambien) what should they know Ambien can cause?
patients taking adderall should be monitored for…
What’s the antidote for fentanyl (Sublimaze)
When taking Avonex pt should…
premedicate with tylenol
When taking Sumatriptan (Imitrex) advise patient to be cautious if having…
A health care professional is talking to a patient and her family
about how methylphenidate (Ritalin) will help manage attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Which of the following therapeutic effects should they expect?
Because of the potential for adverse effects, which of the following should a health care professional recommend for patients who begin taking carbamazepine (Tegretol)?
begin taking at a low dosage
An anesthetist is about to administer lidocaine (Xylocaine) as part of the protocol for spinal anesthesia for a patient who is undergoing a surgical procedure. The health care professional should be aware that the patient could develop which of the following potentially serious effect?
A health care professional should include which of the following instructions when talking with a patient about taking levodopa/carbidopa (Sinemet) to treat Parkinson’s disease?
change positions to prevent orthostatic hypotension
When reviewing the adverse effects of drug therapy with a patient, a health care professional should explain orthostatic hypotension is a common adverse reaction of which of the following drugs?
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin amitriptyline therapy to treat major depression. The health care professional should include which of the following instructions when talking with the patient about taking the drug?
-change position slowly
-do not quit taking abruptly
-take at bedtime to prevent daytime drowsiness
-Increase fiber and fluid intake
A healthcare professional is caring for a patient who is taking lithium carbonate (Lithobid) to treat bipolar disorder. Which of the following diagnostic
test should the health care professional recommend periodically for the patient?
Thyroid function test
A health care professional should question the use of alprazolam (Xanax) for a patient who
drinks two or more glasses of wine each night
A health care professional is obtaining a patient drug history when he finds that the patient is taking lithium carbonate (Lithobid) for bipolar disorder. Which of the following findings in the patients drug history should alert the health care professional to monitor him for lithium toxicity?
Furosemide (Lasix) for hypertension
A health care professional should monitor and older adult patient who is taking alprazolam (Xanax) for which of the following adverse effects?
A health care professional is talking to a patient who is taking lithium carbonate (Lithobid). Which of the following instructions should be included to reduce the risk of lithium toxicity?
Avoid taking NSAIDS
Which of the following instructions should a health care professional include when advising a patient about instilling pilocarpine (Isopto Carpine) for managing open-angle glaucoma?
-do not touch the tip of the dropper
-apply pressure nasolacrimal duct for 1 minute after
-Remove contact lenses prior to inserting drops
A patient is admitted to the emergency department with spasms of his face and back. He has recently begun taking chlorpromazine to treat schizophrenia. Which of the following adverse reactions should the health care professional suspect?
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is taking venlafaxine to treat major depression. The health care professional should recognize that which of the following drugs can cause serotonin syndrome when patient take it concurrently with venlafaxine
A health care professional is caring for a patient who has been taking alprazolam (Xanax) for an extended period of time to treat anxiety. The health care professional should recognize that stopping alprazolam therapy suddenly can resulting which of the following?
Soon after beginning fluxetine (Prozac), a patient is admitted to the emergency department with agitation and confusion. The health care professional should suspect which of the following?
A health care professional is caring for a young adult patient who is taking fluuxetine (Prozac) to treat depression. The health care professional should tell the patient and the patients family to report which of the following?
While taking with a patient about taking chlorpromazine, which of the following instructions should the health care professional include?
wear sunscreen when exposed to light
When talking to a patient about buspirone, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions?
allow 2 to 4 weeks to notice effects
A health care professional should advise a patient who is taking phenelzine (Nardil) to avoid tyamine-enriched foods because of an increased risk for which of the following adverse reactions?
When reviewing the indications for various antidepressants, a health care professional should understand that bupropion hydrochloride (Wellbutrin) is an appropriate choice for patients who have which of the following?
-seasonal affective disorder
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin using betaxolol (Betoptic) eye drops to treat open-angle glaucoma. The health care professional should advise the patient to expect which of the following reactions?
During and immediately following IV administration of chlorpromazine to a patient who has schizoaffective disorder, the health care professional should monitor which of the following?
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking echothiophate (Phospholine Iodid) to treat glaucoma. The health care professional should monitor the patient for the development of which of the following adverse effects?
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking lithium carbonate (Lithobid) to treat bipolar disorder. The health care professional should caution the patient to watch for which of the following indications of litium toxicity?
When caring for a patient who is taking risperidone (Risperdal) for schizophrenia, the health care professional should monitor for which of the following adverse effects of the drug?
A health care professional should question the use of timolol (Timoptic) for a patient who has which of the following disorders?
A health care professional should expect which of the following adverse effects for a patient who is taking betaxolol (Betoptic) eye drops to treat glaucoma?
A health care professional is collecting data from a patient who is taking bupropion hydroooride (Wellbutrin) to treat depression. The health care professional notes that the patient has a recent history of a head injury. She should recognize that the drug is inappropriate for the patient because of the increase risk for which of the following?