Pharmacology Test 1: Broward College Nursing

Blood Vessels Receptor(s)
Alpha1 Beta2 constriction/dilation
Cardiac Muscle Receptor(s)
Beta1 Increased contractility
Atrioventricular Node Receptor(s)
Beta1 Increased heart rate
Sinoatrial Node Receptor(s)
Beta 1 Increased Heart Rate
Pancreas Receptor(s)
Beat1 decreased insulin release
Liver Receptor(s)
Beta2 Glycogenolysis
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Kidney Receptor(s)
Beta2 Increased Renin Secretion
Gastrointestinal Muscle Receptor(s)
Beta2 Decreased Motility
Gastrointestinal Sphincters Receptor(s)
Alpha1 Constriction
Genitourinary Bladder Sphincter Receptor(s)
Alpha1 Constriction
Penis Receptor(s)
Alpha1 Ejaculation
Uterus Receptor(s)
Alpha1/Beta2 Contraction & Relaxation
Bronchial Muscles Receptor(s)
Beta2 Dilation
What are the 5 Rights?
Right dose, right drug, right time, right route, right patient
What breaks down Epinepherine & Norepinepherine?
MAO & COMT
What is the typical dose of an albuterol inhaler
Inhale 1 -2 puffs po q 4-6 h
What receptors does Epinepherine Stimulate?
Alpha1, Beta1, & Beta2
What receptors does Dobutamine stimulate?
Beta1 and 2
What receptors do Phenylepherine stimulate?
Alpha1
What receptors does Isoproterenol stimulate
Beta1 & Beta 2
Dose for Epinepherine?
0.02mcg/kg/min
Dose for Norepinepherine?
0.02-0.5mcg/kg/min
Dose for Phenylepherine
0.25/kg/min
What drug(s) can be used for both High BP and Benign Prostate Hypoplasia (BPH)
Cardura 1-16mg d/ Hytrin/Terazosin 1-20mg per day
Alpha1 Adrenergic Receptors
located on the postsynaptic effector cells
Alpha2 Adrenergic Receptors
Located on the postsynaptic nerve terminals and also control the release of neurotransmitters
Catecholamines
substances that can produce a sympathetic response. Found naturally in the body Adrenaline. Synthetically: Epinepherine, Norepinepherine, Dopamine.
Positive Inotropic Effect
Increase force of Contraction
Positive Chronotropic Effect
Increase Heart Rate
Positive Dromotropic effect
Increased Conduction through the AV node
Vasoactive Sympathomimetics (Pressors & Inotropes)
Used to support the heart during cardiac failure or shock. Various Alpha & Beta receptors affected. INTENSE monitoring, weight based calculations MUST BE DILUTED.
Epinepherine
MAO stimulates alpha1 and beta1 & @ receptors
Anaphylaxis 0.3mg, IM, SQ Q 2 min. Cardiac arrest = 1mg IV q 3-5 min until return to spontaneous circulation. Hypotension/ Shock = 0.02mcg/kg/ min
Dobutamine
MAO stimulates Beta 1 adrenergic. Increase contractility & H.R. with little effect on Beta2. Indicated for short term cardiac decompensation.
Phenylepherine
Alpa2 only. MOA direct alpha 1 stimulator (weak beta effects) Treatment of hypotension vascular failure in shock, vasoconstrictor in analgesia, & decongestant.
Norepinepherine
Heart rate & vasoconstriction. MAO stimulates Beta1 & Alpha 1. Treatment for shock. Potent vasoconstrictor, can evascerate skin.
Adrenergic Blocking Agents
Bind to adrenergic receptors, but inhibit or block stimulation of the SNS. Lyse Epinepherine & NE. Named by which Alpha1 &2, or Beta1 & 2 causing vasodilation reducing peripheral vascular resistance.
What is the antidote for extravasation of vaospressors?
Phentolamine Dose: infiltrate area with small amount of solution diluting 5-10mg of 0.9% (do not exceed 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg
2 important Beta Blockers (Hint: all end in olol)
Carvedilol (3.125 -50mg) & Labetalol (Trandate) 100-400 mg BID
Two Types of Cholinergic Agent Receptors
Muscarinic & Nicotinic
Cholinergic Agents mimic the affects of ?
Acetylcholine
Where are Muscarinic receptors located? Are they considered good or bad? At what dose?
Located postsynaptically on smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands of the parasympathetic fibers. Good at low doses bc it slows down activity of smooth muscles.
Where are Nicotinic Receptors located. What dose are they good or bad?
Located on the ganglia of both the PSNS and SNS. Bad & undesirable effects when stimulated.
Bethanechol
Used after bladder sugery. Increases tone, motility and bladder and GI tract. Relaxes sphincter on in bladder & GI tract.
Name a Cholinergic Indirect-Acting Agent
Aricept or Donepezil used to treat mild Alzheimer’s. Helps to increase memory
Name 2 Naturally Cholinergic Blocking Agents
Atropine & Belladonna
Name 3 Synthetic/ Semisynthetic Cholinergic Blocking Agents
Benzotropine, Ipratropium, & Tolterodine
Cholinergic Drug Effects (Hint Sludged)
Salivation, Lacrimation, Urinary Incontinence, Diarrhea, Gastroinestinal Cramps, Emesis, Decreased H.R.
Cholinergic MAO
Inhibits the enzyme cholinesterase which breaks down ACH. PSNS is at rest in the digestive system.
What is the antidote for Atropine?
Physostigmine