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Ph Scale

The pH Scale is a scale made to show how acidic or alkaline a substance is. The pH of something is measured with pH paper which can vary from wide range paper, which covers all ph’s, but is not as accurate at some others. There are pH papers that get very specific that can have a range such as 2 or 3 and get much more precise.

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The neutral on the scale is 7. Anything that is below 7 is considered acidic and anything above 7 is considered alkaline. Acidic substances contain more H+ than OH-.

H+ stands for a positively charged hydrogen ion and OH- stands means a negatively charged hydroxide ion. This means something with the pH level of 4 is more acidic than something with the pH level of 9. When an acidic substance is out into another substance the original substance turns more and more acidic. The acids will begin to break down the proteins. The opposite happens with an Alkaline substance. The Alkaline has a negative charge so when placed into a substance it pushes the substance away and then quickly blends in.

The proteins do not get broken down, they all mix together and become paler. The reason why pH is important in biology is because the pH of a cells interior helps regulate the cell’s chemical reactions. The cells in the human body need to regulate the chemical reactions in order to grow and to survive. For example, urine has the pH level of 6, which is slightly acidic, and blood has the pH level of about 7. 4 which is slightly alkaline. When the pH of blood changes it is often caused from a failed kidney function.

Humans are not the only thing with pH in them however. All living animals have pH inside of them, however our blood pH’s and theirs can vary greatly. Animals such as crabs and clams have a acidic blood pH. Others like dogs have a blood that has a pH level that is alkaline. Conclusion: After observing the effects of an Alkaline and acidic substance on a neutral substance I am able to conclude that the pH level changes. When an Alkaline substance is added to a neutral substance the pH level rises due to the amounts of OH-.

Eventually the pH level did even out. When the alkaline substance is added it also causes the substance to loose color. The Acidic substance has quite the opposite effect. When added to the milk the milks pH level dropped and became acidic. The milk became a grayish color and began to chunk up. Eventually the milks pH level did level off and the milk became more like a liquid again. With this being said when an acidic or alkaline substance is added to something, they not only change the pH level, but also they change the appearance.