The fact that Americans are, on average, 2 inches taller than a hundred years ago demonstrates that
the environment can contribute to highly heritable traits
The proportion of phenotypic variation in a group of individuals due to genetic variance is called
If the heritability of sociability is .30, the environment is responsible for
70 percent of phenotypic variation.
Which of the following statements about heritability is NOT true?
Heritability can be applied to an individual
The use of selective breeding in animals can be used to study
. the heritability of behaviors.
_____ refers to observed differences among individuals.
Phenotypic variance
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_____ refers to individual differences in the collection of genes of each person.
Genotypic variance
Recent findings from behavioral genetics and brain research point to the possibility that sexual
orientation may
be heritable in both women and men.
Research on brain differences between homosexual and heterosexual men has found some evidence that homosexual men have
substantially smaller medial preoptic regions of the hypothalamus than heterosexual men.
According to recent research (e.g., the Bailey et al. study discussed in the text as support for Bem’s 1995 theory), it appears that
childhood gender nonconformity may be the inherited component of adult sexual orientation.
_____ refers to the unique things that happen to one sibling and not another.
Nonshared environment
Nonshared family environment is best expressed as those aspects of the family environment that
are uniquely experienced by an individual family member
The number of books in a child’s home is an example of
shared environment.
One problem with attempting to study the effects of nonshared family environment is that
there are myriad environmental variables that affect personality, but each may have only a small effect.
An advantage of the physiological approach to personality is that physiology
can be measured mechanically and reliably.
Most physiological psychologists would agree that
physiology is one cause of personality
According to Eysenck, _____ is related to low physiological arousal.
According to Eysenck, introverts avoid social situations because
they are likely to become over aroused in social situations.
According to Eysenck, extraverts seek out social situations and stimulation as they
A. need the arousal of social situations.
Eysenck’s revised theory of extraversion suggests that introverts and extraverts differ in
their arousal response.
The following were all findings of Russell Geen’s study of introverts and extraverts EXCEPT
extraverts performed better when they chose their own level of arousal.
Which name is most associated with the reinforcement sensitivity theory?
C. Gray
According to Gray, _____ is responsive to cues for incentives, rewards, and approach behavior.
the behavioral activation system
According to Gray, _____ is responsive to cues for punishment, frustration, and uncertainty resulting in a personality dimension assessing anxiety
the behavioral inhibition system
Gray thought that _____ was responsible for avoidance behavior.
the behavioral inhibition system
In Gray’s model of personality, individuals with a reactive behavioral inhibition system are very sensitive to
punishment or frustration.
According to Gray, a person who scores high on extraversion and somewhat high on the neuroticism dimensions in Eysenck’s model will also score high on
According to Gray, a person who scores high on introversion and somewhat high on the neuroticism dimensions in Eysenck’s model will also score high on
In Gray’s theory of personality, anxiety and impulsivity are related to
reinforcement and punishment.
According to Gray’s theory, people in jails probably
have strong behavioral activation systems
Zuckerman found that people _____ found sensory deprivation particularly unpleasant.
who were sensation seekers
There is a _____ correlation between scores for Zuckerman’s sensation seeking scale and Eysenck’s trait of extraversion.
moderately strong
According to Zuckerman, _____ have _____ levels of monoamine oxidase.
sensation seekers; low
Which of the following traits is most related to biological rhythms?
A person with a circadian rhythm that is longer than 24 hours will score higher on _____ scales.
. eveningness
The trait of morningness-eveningness
remains stable over time.
A study discussed in the text showed that roommates who scored similarly on the trait of _____ liked each other more than roommates who were mismatched on this trait.
Drinking caffeinated coffee in the morning will provide a greater performance boost to this group than if they drink coffee in the evening
People scoring high on eveningness
Disruptions in sleep-wake cycles due to long airline flights that pass through many time zones are best tolerated by
Evening types, regardless of the direction of the flight.
People who have higher levels of activation in the _____ hemisphere of the brain tend to have more
left; positive emotions
If a person responds to an amusing film with more positive emotions than average, that person is likely to
have more activation in the left hemisphere.
Increased activation of the right hemisphere of the brain has been found to be related to increased levels of _____ in both monkeys and 6-month-old children.
A person who has greater right than left hemispheric activation would likely score high on a measure of
BIS or behavioral inhibition system.
_____ refers to the idea that more adaptive variants of a organism replace less adaptive variants of a organism over time.
Natural selection
The process called natural selection is sometimes also called survival selection as individuals must overcome the
hostile forces of nature
Sheila is going out to a baby shower with her girlfriends. Even though there will not be any men around she goes out of her way to make herself as attractive as she possibly can. This is an example of competition based on ______ selection
Donald competes to make more money than the rest of his male friends. When he picks the most attractive woman as his spouse, this is an example of _____ selection.
Shauna knows that men appreciate a woman with very attractive legs. She works out frequently to keep her body in shape and before she goes out for the evening puts on a dress and pair of shoes that accentuate her attractive legs. Shauna is reacting to the _____ pressure exerted by men on women
intersexual selection
A peacock’s elaborate plumage is probably the result of _____ selection
Biff works out for hours on end since he knows that women like muscular guys. He is reacting to the ______ selection pressure exerted by human females on males.
_____ occur(s) when members of one sex choose mates based on their preferences for particular characteristics in the opposite sex.
Intersexual selection
Men and women value _____ equally in potential mates, but men place more value on _____.
a good personality; physical
Buss and his colleagues have found that women place more importance on earning potential in potential mates than men do
in the majority of the 37 cultures that were studied.
According to evolutionary theory, a man would be most upset by his female mate’s _____.
sexual infidelity
Buss and his colleagues found that when men imagined that their partner’s were committing sexual infidelity
their heart rates and skin conductance levels increased.
Evolutionary theorists speculate that the mechanism of altruism may have developed to increase
inclusive fitness.
According to the inclusive fitness theory, the probability that you will help people depends most on
how genetically related they are to you.
José spends most of his time thinking about Sheila, the love of his life. This had led to José neglecting his course work. From a Freudian perspective José’s neglect of his school work most likely is due to
his fixed amount of psychic energy
According to Freud, the amount of psychic energy in a person
always remains constant
If a person is fixated at a particular stage, he or she
has less psychic energy for other activities
All of these are goals of projective techniques EXCEPT to
unleash pent up psychic energy.
The _____ is the part of the mind about which the conscious mind has no awareness.
According to Freud, the _____ mind is the part of the mind that contains thoughts and feelings of which you are currently aware.
According to Freud, the _____ mind is the part of the mind that contains all the information that you are not currently thinking about, but could easily bring to mind
You are answering this question. Therefore, Freud would say the information is in the _____ mind.)
I ask you to recall your mother’s maiden name. This information resides in the _____ mind, according to Freud.
According to Freud, the _____ mind is the part of the mind that contains unacceptable information that can only be brought into awareness with great effort.
Freudian slips are
a result of the motivated unconscious.
As unconscious thoughts, feelings, and urges can take on a life of their own, Freud called this part of the mind the _____ unconscious.
Which of the following would most likely be an indicator of the id operating on an individual’s behavior?
David has to have it, and have it right now.
If the id cannot find the external object to satisfy its desires, it will
create a fantasy object to replace the object.
The most primitive part of the mind is the
Which part of the mind operates on the pleasure principle?
32. Which part of personality redirects energy from potentially problematic and unacceptable outlets into more appropriate outlets?
The ego operates
on the reality principle
Which part of the mind engages in secondary process thinking?
The _____ is concerned with making a person do what is morally right.
Which of the following parts of the mind is bound by reality?
Which of the following statements about the id, ego, and superego is true?
The id, ego, and superego are always interacting.
According to Freud, _____ is unpleasant and indicates that the control of the ego is threatened.
A person who has a well-balanced mind, one that is free from anxiety, will typically have a
strong ego.
According to Freud, anxiety is typically the result of the control of the _____ being threatened.
Which of the following is NOT a type of anxiety described by Freud?
You are walking down the street and encounter a large, angry dog that growls and bares its teeth at you. You are experiencing _____ anxiety
Yang is lost in a major city and will likely be late for an important job interview. He is most likely experiencing _____ anxiety.
A conflict between the superego and the ego is experienced as _____ anxiety
Jessica tries to be the perfect business woman. She works extraordinarily long hours, is extremely conscientious, and tries to be a good role model to her employees. However, no matter how many kudos she earns, raises she receives, and professional awards she earns Jessica feels _____ anxiety about her performance and is constantly worried about getting fired
Mark is a deacon at his church, but feels guilty that he is setting a bad example for the congregation by enjoying an occasional beer. He is suffering from _____ anxiety.
A conflict between the id and the ego results in _____ anxiety.
Anxiety that is experienced in response to an external threat was called _____ anxiety by Freud.
The _____ is responsible for balancing the demands of reality and the other parts of the mind.
The ego uses _____ to deal with anxiety.
defense mechanism
Daydreaming can be an expression of
Recent empirical studies of repression have defined repressors as _____ in anxiety and _____ in defensiveness.
high, high
Recent studies of repression have shown that repressors report _____ levels of subjective anxiety and _____ levels of physiological arousal when exposed to sexual or aggressive phrases.
Recent studies of repression have been _____ Freud’s ideas.
generally consistent with
According to Freud, if a child does not fully resolve a conflict in the oral stage, that child will become
fixated at the oral stage
The term _____ refers to getting stuck in a given stage of development.
The main conflict during the _____ stage is excessive pleasure versus dependency
According to Freud, a child who is fixated at the biting part of the oral stage will be _____ as an adult.
In which stage does a child discover that he has, or she does not have, a penis?
According to Freud, children first begin to direct sexual desire outward during the _____ stage?
According to Freud, the main reason little boys give up on their sexual desire for their mother is
castration anxiety
is the process in which boys imitate and take on the values of their father.
The _____ stage is unique in that it is not accompanied by a specific conflict.
According to Freud, if a child does not fully resolve a conflict in the oral stage, that child will become
fixated at the oral stage
Horney thought that the penis was
a symbol of social power
The distinction between “sex” and “gender” can be traced back to
Karen Horney believed that
social influence was a more important factor then biological processes
Erikson is credited with starting
ego psychology
Freud and Erikson mostly disagreed that
personality development continues throughout life.
According to Erikson, each stage of development
could result in fixation and arrested development.
Erikson believed that each stage of development was marked by a _____ conflict.
According to Erikson, the first developmental stage is
trust versus mistrust
If infants do not receive the love and care they need, Erikson would predict that they will
be suspicious and mistrust others throughout their lives.
A good outcome of the _____ stage is that a child feels a sense of mastery and control.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
According to Erikson, overprotective parents can contribute to a child’s sense of
Three-year-old Christian follows his father around with his toy tools while his father is making some home repairs and mimics his father’s tool use. Christian is accomplishing tasks associated with Erikson’s _____ stage of development.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
A poor outcome of the _____ stage can lead to lack of ambition and failure to pursue goals
initiative versus guilt
A child successfully completing Erikson’s stage of industry versus inferiority would
compare their success and failure to that of children their own age.
Erikson used the word “industry” to describe
the feeling that one can achieve what he or she wants.
Erikson’s fifth stage is identity versus
. role confusion.
Joshua has chosen to return to his home town after graduating from college and join the family business. He is a very talented musician and his friends are encouraging him to join a band. Joshua shrugs off their suggestions and says going home is the right thing to do. From Erik Erikson’s perspective, Joshua most likely is experiencing
identity foreclosure.
Sheri is taking off a year after college to travel throughout Europe. Erikson would believe she is experiencing _____ in the development of her identity.
During the _____ stage people are concerned with whether or not they have created something they really care about in life.
generativity versus stagnation
Erikson’s last developmental stage is
integrity versus despair
Object relations theory stresses the importance of _____ in determining adult relationships.
childhood relationships
According to the object relations theory, children _____ the mother in an unconscious
In the object relations theory, the objects are
mental representations of people
The first social attachments an infant develops become ______ for all meaningful relationships in the future in object relations theory.
The strange situation procedure assesses
attachment style.
What is the “tyranny of the should
a. The litany of things we should’ve done differently and which we torment ourselves
3 ways of neurotic search for glory
-need for perfection
-neurotic ambition
-drive toward a vindictive triumph (most destructive of the three)
Neurotic search for glory
the drive toward actualizing the ideal self
1. How is adult personality formed, according to object relations theorists?
a. If things are going well with mom, the infant internalizes a caring, nurturant, trustworthy mother object, which forms the basis for how the child comes to view others
b. It’s the early childhood experience with the caregiver, especially attachment to the primary caregiver, that determines adult personality
What are the four types of attachment according to Ainsworth’s Strange Situations Test
a. Secure attachment
b. Insecure-avoidant
c. Insecure-resistant
d. Disorganized attachment style
Despised self
results when basic anxiety and hostility towards parents turn inward self
Ideal self
created in the attempt to restructure the despised self. “Tyranny of the should”
Real Self
the inner core of personality that we perceive about ourselves, including our potential for self-realization
a. Goal of psychoanalysis:
i. Not to help someone achieve his or her ideal self but to accept the real self
1. What is “striving for superiority?”
a. The desire for competence and mastery over one’s environment
the masculine protest
a. The way in which a person strives for competence and independence rather than being merely an outgrowth of his or her parents; a way to overcome perceived inferiority.
Inferiority complex
arises when people feel overwhelmed with a sense of helplessness or powerlessness that leaves them feeling inferior. Normal feelings of incompetence become exaggerated, and people feels hopeless that goals can be achieved
four functions of the mind
-sensing (i)
-thinking (r)
-feeling (r)
-intuiting (i)
group of emotionally charged feelings, thoughts, and ideas that are related to a particular theme
a. The universal and prototypical images, objects, and types of people or experiences that our ancestors have encountered through the generations and have gained importance due to the significant role they play in day to day living