Distinctive pattern of behavior, mannerisms, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterize an individual over time and across different situations
What is personality?
Who dominated the domain of personality in the 20th century?
Psychodynamic approach in that personality is primarily formed by early childhood experiences and shaped by unconscious processes
What did Freud say about personality?
Id, Ego, Superego. Slowly at the end of development
List the three components of personality that Freud argued exists. When do they emerge?
Id, present at birth, operates under “pleasure principle” in which we seek immediate gratification. Our body needs/wants, desires and impulses (especially sexual and aggressive drives). You want a donut, so you hit that person who has a donut
What is Id? Give an example
Referee between Id and Superego to meet demands of society, hold back impulses until appropriate, operates under “reality principle” in which there is a delay to immediately gratify in order to function in the world. You shouldn’t hit someone to get the donut.
What is ego? Give an example
Represents morality and parental authority, delivers feeling of pride/satisfaction OR guilt/shame (rules and morals of society). Society says hitting is against the law
What is superego? What is an example?
entirely unconscious, partially unconscious and conscious, partially unconscious and conscious
How conscious is: Id, Ego, Superego
Birth, after birth (early formative experiences), later years near phallic stage
When do Id, Ego and Superego develop?
Defense mechanisms, unconscious coping mechanisms (used by ego) to reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses (id)
What are the methods through which Ego blocks Id called? Define it.
Repression – put threatening idea/emotion into the unconscious (repress it)
Projection – uncomfortable idea/emotion that you acknowledge in someone else but not yourself (she is jealous but I am not)
Rationalization – providing illogical reasoning for some emotion (dropped PYSC class cause too hot in classroom but it is actually cause you failed first exam)
Displacement – direct emotions towards source that isn’t initiating the emotions (throw phone across room even though you mad at something besides the phone)
Sublimation – channel energy into something positive, socially significant or culturally significant (work out when stressed out)
Reaction Formation – transforming something that produces anxiety into the complete opposite (women getting abused by partner says her partner is best ever)
Regression – person develops to earlier stage of development (adult with parents going through depression starts to wet bed again, suck thumb etc)
Denial – refusal to admit anything unpleasant is happening (alcoholic denies he has a problem)
Identification – we unconsciously take on characteristics of those who seem more able to cope from the problem (child who is getting bullied then bullies other people)
What are the 9 defense mechanisms?
True/False: Defense mechanisms are never helpful
Our defense mechanisms become the _____ of our personality
They are distinct early life stages where sexual energy takes on different forms as child matures.
Oral (0 – 18 months) explore world through mouth
Anal ( age 2 – 3) potty training
Phallic Stage (age 3 – 5) unconscious wish to get rid of same-sex parent so you can be with opposite sex-parent
Latency not much going on in sexual world, Freud said this is just intellectual stage (we know this isn’t necessarily true)
Genital Stage all about penis and vaginal and develop sense of responsibility and form intimate relationships
Define and describe Freud’s psychosexual stages.
If the child does not resolve a conflict in the pyschosexual stages
When can a child be fixated?
Clinical skills come into question, difficult to do research to confirm or disconfirm his theories, he drew universal principles from a few atypical patients (hard to generlize) and he did not observe children but rather relied on patients memories
Why has Freud been recently discredited (4)?
Predicts how people will do at work, get along with others, succeed as leaders. Low reliability.
What is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator? What is a caveat with the results?
E/I = Extroverted act first, think later. Introverts think first, act later
S/N = Sensing live for now (want concrete facts). iNtuitive live for the future (can get fuzzy details for plan)
T/F = Thinking is using logical reasoning and rational. Feeling is basing actions on how people perceive or think about certain action
J/P = Judging like schedules and plans. Perceiving don’t like deadlines and don’t like plans and work last minute
Describe the results for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Projective techniques like Rorscach Inkblot Test and Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
What are three ways to measure personality?
Well-researched clinical questionnaire to assess personality and psychological problems (567 questions)
What is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?
True/False: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory has validity scales
Standard of series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of individuals’ personality (psychodynamic). Rorschach Inblot Test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
What are projective techniques? What are the two types?
Give ambiguous inkblot and if they give common answer, then all is good. If they give really off answer (something most people wouldn’t see) then you know something is off
Describe the Rorschach Inkblot Test.
Low because results can depend on who is administering the test
Do the Ink Blot tests have a high or low reliability and why?
Give a picture and ask them to make up a story about that picture which helps reveal the way they see the social world
Describe the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The TAT has clearer pictures
What is the difference between the pictures for the Rorschach Inkblot test and the Thematic Apperception Test?
Need to do multiple pictures and there is a story associated with each one
Why do Thematic Apperception Tests take a while?
Relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way
What are traits?
Reaction formation, rejection(?) , denial, displacement
Which defense mechanisms are thought to actually happen?
What makes traits unstable? What age are they most stable at?
Openness to experience/Resistance to new experiences
What are the Big Five traits for the five-factor model?
correlation between traits in monozygotic and dizygotic twins
In behavioral genetics, personality psychologists investigate _____
Genes and environment
What two things affect personality?
They had the same mannerisms, behavior and personality to an extent. We don’t know if heredity or environment played a stronger role but it is probably both
What happened when Levey and Newman, identical twins, were raised apart? What can be said about this?
True/False: The environment affects your behavior
People act ____ in _____ situations
Parents and peers
What two groups of people affect your personality?
Lot of kids had “secret” lives in which the kids parents did not know about it
What did Cornell Study of personality show?
Usually, if your peer group cares about academic success, you do too
How does academic success depend on peer group?
False (it may be that certain personalities are drawn to that peer group rather than that peer group influencing its members)
True/False: Certain peer groups always cause personalities
Self is regarded as autonomous, individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relation with others, US and Western Europe
What is individualist cultures ad where are these normally found?
Self is regarded as embedded in relationships, harmony with one’s groups is prized above individual goals and wishes, Japan/China/Korea
What is collectivist cultures and where are these normally found?
in order to maintain harmony, you must change yourself, 10-15%
In Japan, 90 – 99% of people believe _______ but only ______ in America change their self based on the situation
Agression is ______
Out of the 11 countries, children in America least likely to be altruistic (help/support or give unselfish advice). In the other 10 countries, kids are encouraged to participate in the family, chores at home and contributed to the wellbeing of the family so that may be why those kids are more altruistic
What did the study of altruism show for children in America? Why might that be the case?
Different cultures accept different forms of aggression
How is culture and aggression related?
Look at positive, optimistic view of human nature that highlights people’s inherent goodness and their potential for personal growth and resilience. Freud
Define humanistic psychologists . What psychologist did this directly go against?
There is a hierarchy of needs: (starting from the bottom) physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization
What did Abraham Maslow say?
Which of the pillars in the hierarchy of needs is personality most associated with?
Unconditional positive regard is what someone needs in order to thrive. He also said that you can adjust someone’s behavior (discipline) without withdrawing love.
What did Carl Rogers say?
Individuals free to live his or her life but must negotiate issue of meaning of life and reality of death
What do existentialist psychologists emphasize?
It is determined by how one behaves while struggling with meaning of life and reality of death
What is the existential approach to personality?