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Patriarchal Societies: the Historical Evidence

Joelle Davis John Duran John Hicks Morgan Plasse Travis Rogers Eric Thomason PATRIARCHAL SOCIETIES: THE HISTORICAL EVIDENCE AND CONTEMPORARY DIRECTION “Feminism is the radical notion that women are human beings.” ? Cheris Kramarae INTRODUCTION Since the first records of complex civilizations, male dominance in human culture has molded itself into global societies and has forced women into lives of subordination and inequality.Historically, men have stood as the primary political figures and leaders, while women have been inclined to take on supportive and more household-oriented roles.

This same structure of societies and governments has made its way into nearly every inhabited geographic area, and where has attached itself since the first immigration periods (? ).

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So from what root did this idealism mysteriously stem? Scientific research points that in times far preceding the birth of complex societies, Neanderthals wandered the Earth in a much different fashion. Evidence derived from fossils and uncovered leftovers seem (noun/verb disagreement: “Evidence … seems”) to encourage the thought that people lived much more of an egalitarian lifestyle 30,000 years ago.

Women, quite possibly, may have helped to hunt as well as nurse children, while men at times may have stayed behind to harvest crops. Though males were the primary hunters, the flexibility that may have been cast on gender roles is polar opposite to what would develop as humans became more advanced. There is a lot of argument and confusion on the topic of patriarchal origins, and what may have happened between this time of suspected weak gender roles and the time of male dominance. Whether or not the answer will ever be clear, its (usage: its or it’s) important to understand how long it has taken for our orld to considered (infinitive) women to be equal. In our nation itself, there was a time in which when an 18 year old boy with no political experience and little to no real world knowledge could stand next to a wise, middle aged, female professional and cast a vote, while she could not. This did not come to an end until 1920, approximately 3,600 years after the creation of the first set of societal laws in Babylonian times. As we will discuss, patriarchal systems of family and societal life led from early Mesopotamia to all regions of the world over thousands of years.

Though present today in almost every nation, the extent of patriarchal influences have diminished (noun/verb) over time and the freedom and rights of women have become more evident. THE ORIGINS OF PATRIARCHAL SOCIETIES The first evidence of patriarchal societies lies as far back in time as the emergence of man’s first complex societies around 3,000 BC. Cities in the West Asian land of Mesopotamia, such as Ur and Uruk of the Sumer region, existed as what are considered the oldest settlements, and were built with the first sophisticated infrastructures and governing domains.

The first concepts of patriarchies developed in these cities, and became tightly woven into the structure of future cultures. One of the first sets of law to govern the people of Mesopotamia was written during the era of Babylonia, which began around 2000 BC. Famously known as Hammurabi’s code, the stone-scribed document listed policies and regulations for its people to abide by. These heavily included the rights of women, which were undeniably much more constricted than those of men. The women of Mesopotamia had certain rights, which included the right to buy and sell goods, own property, and work outside of the house.

However, the power of men to exist above and over them made these rights appear to be measly and minuscule. Husbands were able to sell their wives into slavery and legally commit adultery and have multiple wives. If women were to cheat on their husbands, they could be ordered to death as their punishment. Politically, men were the primary (if not, only) figures influencing all decisions made, including the development and direction of the city-states. Judging by the example given in Hammurabi’s Code (if a proper noun here, then why not in the few sentences preceding this one? , it is needless to say that that (? ) males controlled the cities of Mesopotamia, and thus, the world’s earlier settlements. The ideas and concepts of patriarchies would grow from this age and wrap around the foundations of nearly every society for millenniums to come. Please acknowledge all ideas you have borrowed from secondary sources and have paraphrased and/or summarized with parenthetical citations. PATRIARCHY IN GREECE Some of (? ) most complex societies in our early history came about from between 650 BC – 100 AD along the Mediterranean sea.

At the start of this time, Greek society was blooming into one of the most unprecedented cultural beauties, rich with visual, art, drama, mythology, and dramatic literature. In 510 BC, Athens became the site of the first democratic government, paving the way for citizen-oriented governments to come. In this democracy, all men over the age of 18 were granted the right to vote on political issues, which is something that was extremely new in those times. The rights of the common male may have been leaning towards equality, but women still faced subordination to men.

In fact, the lack of rights to women across Greek land were solidified (noun/verb) by law. This varied throughout the country, more extreme or less emphasized among different city-states. For instance, in Sparta women were highly respected and able to speak for themselves, yet the land was still run primarily by the male-run military. Athenian women, however, had few rights and were typically confined to their homes. Their husbands were in total control as heads of households, and lead the direction of family’s daily lives.

Thus, it is clearly evident that democratic Greece was still heavily influenced by patriarchal philosophies. The word “patriarch” refers to the male leader of a family and comes from the Greek word “patriarches. ”(The Free Resource) End punctuation follows the parenthetical citation. Ancient Greece was an agricultural society in its founding. Societies that are agricultural are typically patriarchal in the context that the male in the family, whether it is father, husband, or brother, made (shift in verb tense) the key cultural, religious, and financial decisions within the family and community sector (The Free Resource).

Ancient Greece followed for the most part in that same context. The system of patriarchy was developed in Greece in roughly the 4th and 5th century B. C. E. Shortly following its establishment, women’s rights and privileges were on the rapid decline. Greek women were not allowed to participate in politics. “According to legend, the goddess Athena won by just one female vote, the right to name the city Athens. Because of this initiative by a woman, as a punishment, all future generations of women would not be allowed to participate in politics “(The Free Resource).

These kinds of legends and religious beliefs further suppressed and in societal terms it appeared to be justified. Some of the information in this paragraph is redundant. Consider combining this paragraph with the one preceding it. Although woman for (? ) inferior in terms of politics, they were vital and powerful in relation to artisan families and influence behind her husband. “Socrates spent so much time teaching in the marketplace because of his wife Xantippe’s sharp tongue when he was at home. ” (Guisepi, Robert) If you are using MLA style, then delete the comma and first name.

A woman with a strong personality behind a man that was firmly rooted in a political forum, such as the Senate, could have large political influence but very much in an indirect format. But in law and culture, women were held inferior. Even the activities of free women were daily put into question and were not respected highly in societal terms. “The raping of a free woman, though a crime, was a lesser offense than seducing her, since seduction meant winning her affections away from her duties. ” (Guisepi, Robert) Even infant females were regarded in a substandard way.

Families that were over burdened with children would often resort to infanticide and discard the female infants. The woman’s father usually arranged marriages. Divorce was legal for men but woman had to go to court and were frequently unsuccessful. Adultery was common with men but woman could be divorced or severely punished if caught (Guisepi, Robert). What is the controlling idea in this paragraph? The only Greek society that was vaguely different was Sparta. Education was also extended to girls. Both sexes exercised naked.

Women however (comma error) could not compete by the Olympic rules, while Spartan men were very successful (Cartledge, Paul). When their husbands were at war or out of the home, women assumed control and made the necessary choice that her husband would have made. Women could negotiate with their husbands to bring their lovers into the home so they could be monitored (Cartledge, Paul). The way Sparta is portrayed in movies, as being very equal, is rather false. Spartan society exhibited many of the same classic patriarchal beliefs as the rest of Greece did.

Does this sentence contradict the topic sentence? PATRIARCHY IN CHINA Patriarchal structures of society have been prominent in Chinese culture since around 1000 BC. Texts dating back 200 BC refer to men being masters of the outside world with women being masters of the home. Immediate families existed (? ) not only focused on parents and offspring, but grandparents, living relatives, and even the spirits of descendants. The senior males of these families demanded respect from all subordinates, including their wives.

Women were legally subordinate to men and were usually frowned upon at birth due to the fact that they would one day just become an asset of another family after years of being raised. A common phrase from that time which stayed with China until the end of the imperial period was, “the three subordinations and the four virtues” being, “a woman was to be subordinate to her father in youth, her husband in maturity, and her son in old age. (Natalie Bennett)” Punctuate with commas to setoff appositives—for example, “A common phrase from that time, which stayed with China until the end of the imperial period, was …. Also, is “imperial period” a proper noun? While generally thought of as a more western term, patriarchy has also historically been a heavy influence in Asia, particularly within China (Should we move this to the start of this subtopic? Yes! Organization. ). Men in China have historically held political power, being ruled by an emperor until 1912. The title of emperor was passed from father to son in each dynasty with the empress holding very limited power. On top of this the emperor and many other upper class men had multiple wives as a symbol of their wealth while women could not have more than on (? husband. The average women were generally considered failures if they grew up without finding a husband or work as a slave; most people in China considered a woman’s job to be a subservient wife (BBC). To make matters worse, during the Song dynasty, around 1000 AD, the custom of foot binding quickly spread among high class families, eventually spreading all across China. Foot binding entails wrapping a young girls (possessive) feet painfully tight which prevents further growth; leading to “beautiful feet and causing their movements more feminine and dainty” (Nancy Miles) but also causing lifelong disability.

Up to 50% of women during the nineteenth century had bound feet; for upper class women it was upward of 95%. Even after it was banned in 1912 many families continued to do it in fear that they may hurt their daughter’s (plural and possessive) chances for good marriage (Louisa Lim). This practice of foot binding even further limited the power of women in Chinese society and in turn helped fuel the patriarchy during the empire. Punctuate with a semi-colon to link independent clauses without a coordinating conjunction; to connect independent clauses separated by a conjunctive adverb; and in a series with internal punctuation.

With a transitional signal, you can combine these two paragraphs. There is the more contemporary issue of the country’s one-child policy, leading to many forced sex-selective abortions (awkward). Most parents in China value a male child over a female child, believing sons have more social and economic value so when forced to choose to keep a child they more often keep males. This had (? ) lead to a huge skew in the gender ratios; for every 100 females there are 119 males (Graeme Russle).

Post-imperial China has, thankfully, seen (don’t split the verb) large improvements for women’s rights. Women have made a strong push into the economic (? ) and job market, holding the highest percentages of women employed in Asia (BBC). Although the patriarchy in China has been constantly getting smaller in the 20th and 21st century effects of it are still everywhere and change comes slowly, with people fighting for every inch they can get. PATRIARCHY IN INDIA In other parts of Asia, societies dug the foundations of patriarchies far deeper than preceding civilizations.

Between 1000 BC and 300 BC, the Vedic empire of East India flourished in rich culture and strong religious elements. However, the extremely strict and conservative laws of the land were particularly harsh on female citizens. The villages, which were administered by men, saw that women were kept from religious and social activities. Political councils were governed primarily by the head of households which were always men, and if all males of the important families died, the family was thus excluded from political activity.

Families were led by the oldest male, who also claimed ownership of all family possessions. Women were often wed through arranged marriages right before puberty (to promote virginity at marriage), and were unable to remarry even if their husband (plural) passed away. In rare situations, women would perform sati, a practice in which women would cremate themselves live on their husbands (possessive and plural) funeral pyre. According to the Vedic people, the manners in which the rights of women were regulated so severely were thought to be for their own good.

The idea was that if they “performed [them] with grace and devotion, they might expect a better status in their next incarnation” (74, Judge and Langdon I don’t believe any style formats parenthetical citations in this way). In comparison to its existence in Mesopotamian societies, the concepts of patriarchal societies in India became more influential in daily life than ever witnessed before and would remain even into the modern day. One way to combine this paragraph with the one below is to revise the topic sentence. For example, Patriarchy in India is represented in the caste system and has its roots in the Hindu religion.

Since then and still to this day, the representation of patriarchy in India is the caste system. The caste system is defined as, (delete the comma) “an elaborately stratified social hierarchy distinguishing India’s social structure from any other nation” (1). A person is born into their his/her caste, will shun those from another caste, and never move up in the system in their lifetime. As you go down the hierarchy of the caste system, a person’s “pureness” diminishes. Women suffered from the bias outlook that women were polluted simply because of the body functions unique to women.

Avoid second person pronouns. This view of women automatically placed them below the men of their caste (1). Aside from the caste system, Patriarchy also has roots in the Hindu religion, which is the dominant religion in India. It is believed that aspects of the female principle must be neutralized by the male principle (3). If the female principle is not neutralized, it will result in a violent and destructive behavior. Also, women are believed to have a far greater and uncontrollable sexual appetite than men. It was feared that women would istract men from their religious duties, so men would have to control women in order to control their lust (3). This belief was viewed as justification for male dominance over women. Both the caste system and Hinduism laid the groundwork allowing Patriarchy to flourish in Indian culture. In modern Indian culture, women are gaining more independence from the traditional systems that allowed Patriarchy to function. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on January 26th, 1950, assured its people “justice, equality, and liberty” (4).

In section III, under Article 15, it explicitly lists that “The state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them” (4) Although, before modern laws were written to establish equality, women had a low status in Indian society. After getting married, the Bride’s (capitalization) family was expected to pay large amounts of money to the Groom’s family and was then expected to live with the Groom’s family. Basically, the Bride would have to buy into the family. PATRIARCHY IN THE MIDDLE EAST

In the present day Middle East, governing laws have primarily been focused around Islamic religion since its foundations. This legal code, known as Shari’Ah, is based on moral and spiritual ideals, and “prescribes the pathway to paradise” (Judge and Langdon, 274). The Shari’Ah was completed between 7-9 CE and is still implemented in the legal systems of some Middle Eastern countries today. Combine these two paragraphs. Some of the concepts included in the Shari’ah clearly state the gender roles of men and women in early Islamic society, usually putting women in a place of subordination that is justified as being for their own protection. Men are required to treat their women with honor and respect. The insistence that women be veiled in public and spend much of their lives sequestered in their homes [… ] are designed in part to promote honor and respect for women” (Judge and Langdon, 274). Additionally, men were (shift in tense) allowed to practice polygamy, as long as he “treats them equally in terms of financial support, sexual intercourse, household duties, and respect” (Judge and Langon, 275). What resulted from this mentality and the strict constitutional view of the Shari’ah, in other words that it cannot be changed (? , was a modernizing society with old fashioned laws. As time passed, women’s rights in the middle east that were originally written for women’s protection began to gradually put women in a position of pure inequality. An issue of debate to this day concerns the status of women in the Middle East. There is an extensive notion that the region and its people are traditional, change is unhurried and is not welcome. In accounts and popular Western perceptions, the status of women is assumed to be universally low, which may be, in all probability, due to the centrality of Islam in the lives of the people and the rules of the earth.

Many writings have focused on Middle Eastern women as victims of inflexible laws, oppressive regimes, and fundamentalist engagements. Other writings tend to move too far in an opposing trend, and in overcompensation for the negative portrayal of Middle Eastern women. They try to dispute that Islam elevates women, or that Middle Eastern women actually carry “vast control”, or “restrained influence”, at least in their households. It is methodologically incomplete to tender “Islam” as the illustrative variable in strength and change.

The status of women in the Middle East cannot be understood by substitute to Quran explanation, as well as not be possible for those Middle Eastern women are all persecuted, or that they are simple submissive observers of the dealings around them. The longstanding constraints on women’s mobility and freedom of action have been eroded by the process of development and growth. You’ll need to decide whether the Middle East is a proper noun or not, and be consistent. Please acknowledge your sources. This topic sentence suggests you are no longer discussing patriarchy in India.

Patriarchal society is a social formation which has traditionally existed in varying forms throughout the world, women being dominated by the male society. In classic patriarchy, the senior man has say-so over everyone else in the family, including younger men, and women are focus to distinct forms of control and subordination. The goal of patriarchy roots in the household, which is also commonly linked with the reproduction of the peasantry in agrarian societies (Kandiyoti 1988). A fragment is a grammatically incomplete sentence, possessing either a subject or a predicate.

Making a sentence grammatically complete means it must have a subject and predicate. The subordination of women in kinship-ordered or political societies is related to the reproduction of the family assembly or of the peasantry as well as to the sexual division of labor. There is a disposition to male dominance inherent in the relation between the peasant household, landlords, position, and in the imitation of ordered groups, wherein women are exchanged and men are the translators in what Gayle Rubin has called “the traffic in women” (Rubin 1975 use the same style throughout this paper).

In a patriarchal context, women are assimilated into concepts of property. Forcing an unwanted marriage or mother to the unwanted child forced by society and religion to become obedient towards all men not just their husbands. PATRIARCHY IN THE UNITED STATES Use the tab key to indent all paragraphs. Long before the birth of the United States, ideas of patriarchies were carried westward with the migrations of the Amerinds (? ). This is assumed by researchers because gender roles were present in the first indigenous inhabitants of the West, even as far as Central and South America.

Men dominated the political systems of tribes and settlements, while women raised crops and nurtured children at home. This way of assigning designated activities for both men and women was not unlike the gender roles on the opposite side of the planet. Therefore, some studies suggest that when humans migrated to what is now the Americas around 8000-5000 BC, societies were already structured to have males as lead figures while women carried out supportive roles. The standard was set for the duration of the Native Americans’ rule over the North, Central, and South America, and continued until they were dominated by European settlers.

A tree with deep roots stood strong and proved very difficult to uproot. It changed over the years since then in various ways and women would eventually gain more power in society, but nonetheless it still existed when the United States became a nation. See my comment above regarding acknowledging sources. European societies based themselves upon the practices of patriarchy, so it is no surprise the first immigrants from Europe took this societal system with them.

When the settlers inhabited the newly established colonies, they brought their traditional attitudes concerning the roles women should possess and their status in society with them (Sage 1). “Puritans organized their family around the unquestioned principle of patriarchy (Vandergriff 1). ” “Their religion taught that family roles were part of a continuous chain of hierarchical and delegated authority descending from God (1). ” The parenthetical citation follows the quotation mark. The role of each family member was important to the success of the family.

Although the wife was subordinate, she could participate in public life through her husband (Sage 1). If the husband became injured she had to assume his role. This even applied to casting his vote in an election if need be (1). “Without a strong and productive wife a family would struggle to survive (1). ” The father was always in charge in early New England. He had the right to intervene in the lives of his children, control their behavior, and even select their spouse (Vandergriff 1). Marriage was referred to as a contract between two unequal beings.

The husband occupied the support role in which it was his responsibility to provide for the family and the wife was expected to be a servant to the husband. The wife was subordinate in the hierarchy of society but before God both men and women were considered equal (Vandergriff 1). Before marriage single women could represent themselves in court, carry out business, and even own property. Once married, however, women could only engage in business with the consent of her husband their husbands. It was believed that after marriage the legal identity of the woman became part of her husband (1).

If a woman engaged in business while she was married her personal property, profits, and real estate belonged to her husband. Even if he could not be trusted with it and was not responsible, she could do nothing about it (1). Be aware of redundancies and consider how you might revise and combine this paragraph with the one above. Women were considered to be weaker than men physically, emotionally, and mentally. They were often referred to as “weaker vessels”. Women lacked the ability to legally vote and could not hold public office in colonial society (Sage 1).

Although women had limited rights, many were still able to carry out business and do tasks not generally associated with the traditional roles of women. Labor was limited in the colonies so many women held jobs as midwives, teachers, printers and even doctors (1). In this aspect, the colonial period exhibited a degree of egalitarianism (Vandergriff 1). “Although women in colonial America could by no means be considered to have been held “equal” to men, they were as a rule probably as well off as women anywhere in the world, and in general probably even better off (Sage 1). ” Nothing in this paragraph supports the topic sentence.

During the nineteenth and the twentieth century (plural), many aspects concerning the roles of women, their rights, and their impact on society changed dramatically. In the nineteenth century women began to get out of the house and go to work in great numbers, with The majority worked in the textile industry and garment shops They often worked working many hours and in terrible atmospheres (an example of sentence combining). It was not until around 1910 that states began to pass laws limiting working hours and making working conditions more tolerable (“Women’s History in America” 1).

Many jobs began to require education in order to practice the profession. This tended to limit a woman’s ability to enter careers that were considered professional. This was fairly common in the medical field. The American Medical Association was started in 1846, but and women were not permitted to join this association or men’s medical colleges, so they attended female schools (1). From 1890 to 1980 the percentage of total female doctors who were women went (diction) from five percent to seventeen percent. Women improved their statuses in other professions such as law and engineering as well (1).

The teaching profession was a huge field of employment for women. More than twice as many women were teachers of elementary and high school compared to men in 1980. However, two out of every three teachers of higher education were male. Even in the present day, most working women find employment in clerical, retail, and service jobs (1). Combine simple sentences. A woman’s education seemed to always be secondary to a man’s. Towards the end of the 19th century the number of women attending secondary schools increased greatly due to the rise in female colleges and women being permitted to enroll in colleges with men.

One-fifth of college students were women in 1870; by 1900 the proportion of women to men in college had grown to one-third (“Women’s History in America” 1). “Women obtained 19 percent of all undergraduate college degrees around the beginning of the 20th century. By 1984 the figure had sharply increased to 49 percent. Women also increased their numbers in graduate study. By the mid-1980s women were earning 49 percent of all master’s degrees and about 33 percent of all doctoral degrees. In 1985 about 53 percent of all college students were women (1). Numerous laws were passed in the 1900’s to benefit women and to increase equality between the sexes. In 1920, women gained the right to vote by the nineteenth amendment (proper noun) (Imbornoni 1). Women now possessed the ability to participate in elections and influence the decisions of society. Women became part of the government during this time as well. Several women served in the House of Representatives and the Senate, starting in 1917 (“Women’s History in America” 1). The Food and Drug Administration approved birth control pills in 1960 (Imbornoni 1).

Women now possessed more control over pregnancy. They could now choose to put off having children, while still remaining sexually active. “The Equal Pay Act of 1963 required equal wages for men and women doing equal work (“Women’s History in America” 1). ” “Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1970 were paid about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs; in 1988, about 32 percent less. Professional women did not get the important assignments and promotions given to their male colleagues (1). ” Laws could not completely halt the discrimination of women.

Men have always been regarded and treated better than women in the United States. This is partly due to the long standing patriarchal beliefs and practices of our country. “The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against women by any company with 25 or more employees (1). ” In 1967, executive order 11375 made discrimination based on gender illegal (Imbornoni 1). Women now could share the same opportunities for employment as white males. The Supreme Court upheld a decision stating sex-specific help wanted ads in newspapers were illegal in 1973 (1).

By 1985, every state had adopted a law allowing couples to divorce by mutual consent. California was the first state to ratify the law in 1969. (1). Women could now end marriages they no longer wished to be a part of. Roe vs. Wade (1973) gave women the right to a legal abortion and overturned previous anti-abortion laws (1). Women could now end a pregnancy on their own behalf without legal recourse. The twentieth century provided women with many rights, increased their equality in society, and moved the country farther from its traditional patriarchal beliefs.

Without the great strides made in these few decades, women would still occupy the same inferior place in society as they did during the previous centuries. See my suggestion above regarding sentence combining. Patriarchy continues to be part of the United States in the present day. Almost everyone participates in patriarchy whether they wish to or not. The practice has been ingrained into so many aspects of our society; it has basically become a part of the individual. Our society contains traits of being dominated by males, male centered, and male identified. These males are frequently obsessed with power and control.

Many males go along with patriarchy because it directly benefits them. Abolishing patriarchy would threaten their power and control (Smith 1). People in power, men in this case, want to keep it this way. Historically speaking, powerful positions tend to be regarded as a man’s job. Therefore, as a society we tend to expect our doctors, lawyers, government officials, CEOs, and spiritual leaders to be men as well (1). Society has in the past, and somewhat to this day, associated being a male as a quality for high level positions, and therefore has confused the position with the person in the position (1).

Many make assumptions of men being more qualified than women without actually knowing the qualifications of the individual because of this practice. Maleness and masculinity are often used as a basis for comparison in society, and anything not male or masculine is considered less or abnormal. This is clearly evident according to Smith, “We see the evidence of this characteristic every day in fields like medicine and law where a male lawyer, judge or doctor is just called a lawyer, judge, or doctor, but a female holding the same position is a ‘woman lawyer’, a ‘woman judge’, a ‘woman doctor’.

This is because the assumption is that someone in that position should be male. That is the ‘normal’ way of things. When someone who is not male is in one of those positions, we feel the need to identify it as ‘other’ (1). ” Women still receive less pay than a man for the same job. In 2009, President Obama signed the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act, which allows victims (mostly women) of pay discrimination to file a complaint within 180 days of their last paycheck. The law was named after a Goodyear employee who was paid fifteen to forty percent less than her male counterparts (Imbornoni 1).

Our society is remarkably male centered. Men are associated with power so it is normal and expected of them to be in the political spotlight. Because of this association, it is hardly noticed that the news, in general, focuses on men and stories pertaining to them (Smith 1). Men are on the covers of magazines, in the news, and their stories are on television. Stories and ads are directly influenced by the gaze of men (1). Smith hits the nail on the head when he says, Block quotes of four lines or more by tabbing twice and deleting quotation marks—e. g. In women’s magazines, we see ads that feature women who are nearly naked, advertising bras or the clothes they are almost wearing. This is not because women like to look at other women but because women are being taught that they have to look a certain way in order for men to like them. Even the articles in women’s magazine are male centered as the focus on such topics as ‘ways to please him’ and ‘how to know if your man is cheating’. The male gaze, and thus male centeredness, is something that we cannot get away from. (1) As time has pressed on, women now enjoy much more freedom and potential in society presently than ever before.

Women now hold many high level jobs, run companies, and are eligible to pursue careers in any field. Patriarchy has diminished greatly over the years but is still evident. It will continue to exist in America if society continues to be male centered. Men will surely hold on to their privilege and power however they can. Patriarchy in society is essentially a power struggle between the sexes. Women gaining power equates to men losing their previous level of power in society. Perhaps one day our society will be completely egalitarian. A woman has never been elected president.

Maybe society needs a woman in the highest achievable position in order to reduce the influence of patriarchy. No other event or position could influence the changing of tradition and upset the power men hold in society as much as a woman being the commander and chief. CONCLUSION For thousands of years, we have lived in “a man’s world”. Since human civilizations emerged, men have been in charge, ruled the lands, and determined the paths of people to come. So many generations have lived by this belief in pure, conscious or subconscious patriarchal means, and now times are changing.

Today, women are enjoying a higher level of freedom, and are stepping up to positions unheard of for women to hold a century ago. Many nations have female presidents, and women all over the world are universally striving for equality. However, change cannot occur overnight. In around a century, we have witnessed a miraculous progression of universal women’s rights coming into existence, a surge of females into a broad, professional workforce, and governmental influences being carried out by female politicians. The more aware women are of patriarchal influences in society, the more can be done to advance universal equality.

Equality is essential to rid the world of the belief that a woman cannot do a man’s job or is less qualified because of her gender. You’ve done an excellent job researching this topic. You have a good thesis and support. If you decide to revise this paper and resubmit as the final paper, then consider the following: paragraph combining; consistent use of MLA style throughout, including parenthetical citations and the Works Cited page; and proofread carefully, as there are serious errors in this paper—for example, noun/verb disagreements and fragments. Grade: B-

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