A General information: Job Evaluation principles SECTION B Job Evaluation procedure and system application Job Evaluation system overview Job Evaluation procedure SECTION C Job Evaluation System Rules Job Evaluation Terminology SECTION D Skill level Factor points and assessment Page 12 Page 15 Page 7 Page 8 Page 5 Page 5 Page 6 Page 3 Page 4 Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 2 SECTION A A. GENERAL INFORMATION WHAT IS JOB EVALUATION? Job evaluation is the rating of jobs according to a specifically planned procedure in order to determine the relative worth of each job.AIMS OF JOB EVALUATION The Primary Aim To determine the “intrinsic” worth of jobs, based on systematic assessment of the degree of complexity of job content and requirement, and to do this independently of any pre-conceived standards of remuneration and without regard to the qualities and performance of the actual personnel who perform the jobs.
Secondary Aims • To relate jobs to each other in terms of their intrinsic worth, and hence to determine relative complexities of different jobs and a rational job structure within an organisation. To provide a rational basis for equitable remuneration (pay and benefits) within an organisation, so that defensible rates of remuneration may be assigned to both jobs themselves and to the individuals who perform the jobs. The main elements of Job Evaluation are Organisational Structure A diagrammatic representation of jobs in the organisation indicating the line of authority/ control to enable an understanding of the workflow and, reporting relationships, that exists within functional areas.Job Analysis A detailed observational and/ or questionnaire based study of a job using specific criterions to determine the role boundaries or key performance areas of positions. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 3 Job Description A document describing the job purpose, duties, the job specifications, authority of the post and any physical or special conditions attached to the post. B. JOB EVALUATION PRINCIPLES The following principles are applicable to Job Evaluation. • • Always examine the job itself, and NOT the person doing it. Assume proper and competent performance of the job, in accordance with normal standards of the job. • • • Evaluate the job “as is” not with regard to ideals or future projections.Reject any job description which is unclear. Evaluate from a consensus of opinion, not from the estimation of one person alone. Before an evaluation takes place, normal expectations and standards for the job must have been recognised and accepted by the job incumbent (s), the immediate superior and by management. This is done by signing the job description. Note: Job titles: Job titles are no indication of the complexity of a specific job as it is only a basic indication of its functional classification. Job content: Job Content eflects the different tasks performed in the job as expected by the organisation from the job incumbent in order to achieve the organisational objectives. Skill requirements: Individuals perform differently in relation to job specifications. Therefore, individuals can be assessed at different levels of merit. This is outside the scope of job evaluation. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 4 SECTION B A. JOB EVALUATION PROCEDURE AND SYSTEM APPLICATION TASK (TUNED ASSESSMENT OF SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE) was originally developed in the early 1980’s and remains one of the most widely used evaluation systems in Southern Africa.It is currently the used for the evaluation of all jobs in the Sugar industry. B. TASK JOB EVALUATION SYSTEM OVERVIEW The T A S K Job Evaluation system has two dimensions to its application. The ‘SKILL LEVEL’ enables the job to be positioned on the structure and is assessed on specific characteristics which broadly describe applications, principles, knowledge associated with specific functional levels. There are five skill levels: • • • • • BASIC SKILL LEVEL DISCRETIONARY SKILL LEVEL SPECIALISED SKILL LEVEL TACTICAL SKILL LEVEL STRATEGIC SKILL LEVEL All jobs, once positioned into a specific skill level are evaluated using four factors Complexity: measures the different levels of difficulty in a job. • Knowledge: measures the amount of know-how required in the job. • Influence: refers to the interaction/ communication involved that results in changes to the way things are done. • Pressure: refers to stressors inherent in the job. Each of the four factors are scored on a rating scale. The sum of the scores of the four factors gives a total score which translates into a T A S K grade. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 5 There are twenty six grades in the T A S K system, 26 being the highest and 1 being the lowest.SKILL LEVEL BASIC DISCRETIONARY SPECIALISED TACTICAL STRATEGIC BAND DEFINITION Guided outcomes Procedural Judgements Diagnostic, analytical, interpretative procedures Strategy implementation Strategic leadership and vision GRADE 1-3 4-8 9-13 14-18 19-26 C. JOB EVALUATION PROCEDURE 1. Number each job description for ease of reference. 2. Place jobs within the different skill level, applying the skill level guidelines, depending on the content as recorded in the job description. 3. Assess the job using the factors, assigning a value from the factor weighting in accordance with the applicability of the job design to the factor definitions. . Add up the total number of points and convert to a T A S K grade using the conversion table. 5. Record the reasoning for the selection of the skill level and weightings allocated to each of the four factors. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 6 SECTION C A. JOB EVALUATION SYSTEM RULES The following rules are applicable when using the system to evaluate jobs. 1. All guidelines in the box must be applicable in order to score within that box. 2. Scores within the box must relate to the degree of applicability of the guidelines to the work content. 3.The points should relate to low, moderate or high degrees of applicability for the factors Complexity and Knowledge. 4. For Influence and Pressure, the points should relate to a partial or a full fit. 5. Always establish that information considered in the grading of a job relates to what is really required by the job. Guard against allowing the evaluation to be influenced by what the job incumbent may be able to do. 6. When deciding the skill level or factor points the highest work content should be considered, provided it forms a clear part of the job. 7.The points allocated for Complexity and Knowledge will generally correlate and should normally be within two points of each other. 8. A person who supervises another is graded at least one grade higher than the subordinate because of the supervisory aspects of the work. Other work is graded on its own merits, (See explanation of a supervisor in the terminology section). 9. A supervisory position always scores higher under Complexity than a subordinate position. A superior in the same discipline scores more under Knowledge than a subordinate. 10. A borderline score is one where the points are between grades within a particular skill level.The borderline score must be reviewed and if the score remains on the borderline the lower grade will apply, however, the higher grade may apply when making comparisons with other jobs within the organisational structure. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 7 B. GENERAL TERMINOLOGY EXPLANATION Factor definitions FACTOR DEFINITION This is a measurement of the different levels of difficulty required to be performed in the job. Typical indicators are COMPLEXITY the nature and type of guideline available, the extent of interaction involved in problem solving sequences, the courses of action or alternative solutions available.The amount of know how required in a job to allow an incumbent to cope competently with the work involved. This may be acquired through education and/ or training/ experience. Typical indicators include the duration of the KNOWLEDGE training/ experience required and or qualifications deemed to essential, demonstrated abilities from simple comprehension to interpretative application skills and, the straightforward identification of a problem through comparison against established measures or in depth investigative application to determine the applicability of solutions.The extent of influence is measured by the effects or INFLUANCE changes that occurs through the provision of information or advice and/ or exercising persuasion to accept courses of action. This refers to the stressors that are inherent in the job and PRESSURE can be either mental, physical or both. Typical measures are the nature of the workflow, interruptions from normal activities, uncertainty in outcomes. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 8 System terminology explanation SKILL LEVEL TERMINOLGY EXPLANATION Condition of been active. Most basic sequence of work elements. The skills are acquired through watching EXAMPLELifts; tightens; loosens; picks; packs; cuts ACTIVITY demonstrations and repetition results in improvement. Outcomes are known and any deviation can be immediately BASIC recognised. A OPERATION sequence of ACTIVITIES that produces a prescribed end result. To each activity there is a logical start and finish with a relationship to the next activity. Counting and packing; sorting; delivering; filing Preparing and A sequence of OPERATION which results in an integrated required end result. The operation will follow in a DISCRETIONARY ROUTINE logical order and it is essential that each step is performed to enable the next step. ompleting correspondence; recordkeeping; receiving, recording and communicating; setting, operating and adjusting. Interpreting requirements, An arrangement of relationship with an input, throughput and output phase. SPECIALISED SYSTEM Routines are interrelated within each phase and across the phases and, produces a desired end result. setting, operating, troubleshooting and problem solving, adjusting and checking/ evaluating an outcome. Human Resources Management, Engineering; Operations Management; Financial Management Advanced knowledge in a distinct area of study.Understanding the complete theory, techniques and practices which TACTICAL DISCIPLINE requires innovative applications and interpretation and determination of future impact/ consequences. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 9 SKILL LEVEL TERMINOLGY EXPLANATION A distinct part of an organisational structure which comprises of a single discipline or multiple discipline striving towards major outcomes. the accomplishment of EXAMPLE Operations; Technical; Research and Development; Quality Control FUNCTION objectives and plans and contributing to functional/ organisational Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 10 SECTION DA. SKILL LEVEL GUIDELINES SKILL LEVEL ONE: BASIC SKILL LEVEL This skill level is that which is developed with a limited amount of training. The learning period is short and usually consists of following instructions or watching demonstrations of the work to be done. Competence is attained through repetition of the work during the initial training period rather than through further experience. Characteristics 1. Very little training. 2. Decides on the speed of operation. 3. Taught exactly what to do. 4. Direct instructions communication involves simple words. 5. Equipment or tools are specified. 6.Supervision is normally close or readily available. 7. Jobs can be performed without the knowledge of other jobs. 8. Deviations from instructions not permitted. 9. How the activities/ operations are to be performed has been decided upon. Confirmation guidelines knowledge which provides the ability to follow on the job instructions and/ or training. At the lowest level instructions are given for the activities or operations to be done. Immediate guidance is more remote at the higher level. The complexities are at such a level that the activities or operations can be taught very quickly and are easily learned.Courses of action are prescribed with no deviation permitted. Simple demonstration of the activity or operation is sufficient to enable the undertaking and completion of requirements. Results are immediately visible or known within a very short time period. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 11 SKILL LEVEL TWO: DISCRETIONARY SKILL LEVEL At this level there is a certain amount of discretion or judgement involved. It therefore follows that additional training/ experience and practice is needed following the initial training period.The skills are acquired through a learning period and developed by constant application and correction until operations become routine. Characteristics 1. Not everything can be taught during the training period. Additional experience is required. 2. Judgement or discretion is required in choosing the most appropriate courses of action from prescribed alternatives. 3. Decides how the routines/ operations are to be performed. 4. Discretion as to which tools/ equipment to use. 5. Decides on the correct action by selecting from a number of preset courses of action. 6. Knowledge of routine(s). 7.Formulae and limits are given or prescribed. Confirmation guidelines Additional training and experience beyond the initial training period is required to carry out a job competently at this skill level. Competency comes only after exposure to a series of new situations which builds confidence in the know – how required in the job. Complexities are those found in routines where alternative courses of action needs to assessed for applicability to a given situation. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 12 SKILL LEVEL THREE: SPECIALISED SKILL LEVEL This level of skill is usually reached after years of experience and/ or training.This level is such that routines which have been learned can be used or varied to achieve the desired end result. A full understanding of the system within which this skill level operates is essential in order to determine what is required in differing circumstances. Ability to recognise cause and effect is necessary. Characteristics 1. Works within established rules, regulations, policies and practices. 2. Decides how best to achieve required end results. 3. Concerned with routines that are established within a system. 4. Sums up the requirement of a situation and decides which routine (procedure/ technique) to use. . Devises or introduces new routines within a system. 6. Concerned with how established organisational and departmental rules will apply. 7. Supervised in terms of end results, not routines or operations. 8. Must understand the interrelationships of routines within the system and the implications of change. Confirmation guidelines knowledge required is of a specific nature gained through years of training and experience. This is coupled with an intelligence level sufficient to understand how to diagnose problems and to choose and/ or modify routines to deal with them.The complexities at this level are due to the need to be able to sum the requirements of a situation and to determine what to do. Because problems do not have the same pattern the method of dealing with them must be varied. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 13 SKILL LEVEL FOUR: TACTICAL SKILL LEVEL This level of skill requires conceptualisation of future action or needs in order to formulate short to medium term plans for within a discipline or function. Advice, recommendations and/ or the management or tactical use of resources specific to the job are features at this level.Positive interpretative skills and innovative plans are essential as the framework or ground–rules either do not exist or else are vague. Characteristics 1. Decisions governed by master plan, programme or budget. 2. Decisions require independent reasoning. 3. Decisions often involve optimum allocation of resources to support plans. 4. Sets precedents, creates rules. Must consider the consequences arising from rule making. 5. Works from first principles in developing new concepts. 6. Knowledge of a discipline/ function. 7. Results of areas under control co-ordinate with those of other areas. 8.Translates overall company plans into working decisions for or within a discipline/ function. 9. Decides on unique situations not covered by precedents. Confirmation guidelines Knowledge and experience of a discipline or function with the ability to understand the significance of strategically important areas of the organisation in the medium term. Complexities are due to the need to interpret strategic requirements and form conclusions. Jobs at this level provide the interface between the specialised and strategic skill levels and therefore involve forward planning, organising and conceptual problem solving.May provide input for strategic planning. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 14 B. FACTOR ASSESSMENT AND POINTS SKILL LEVEL ONE: BASIC SKILL LEVEL COMPLEXITY 1 2 3 4 5 6 A number of activities or operations. These are performed following direct instructions or initial demonstrations. Operations of a varied nature. A minimal degree of latitude allowed as guidance is not always available to deal with problems as they arise. KNOWLEDGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 Knowledge and understanding, sufficient to follow instructions and/ or demonstrations of the activities/ operations to be performedKnowledge and understanding of the relationships of the activities involved within the operation (s). Understanding of basic written words/ number recognition followed by training and/ or repeated exposure to the operations. INFLUENCE 1 2 3 4 Influence on others is co-incidental, being limited to contact with them. Interaction with others and dealing with information or product/ equipment problems. PRESSURE Steady flow of light to medium work with occasional peak periods and/ or minimal stress involved. 1 2 3 4 Medium to heavy physical effort and/ or important deadlines to meet.Physical effort guideline Light: Medium: Heavy: less than 5 kg 5-20kg over 20kg Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 15 SKILL LEVEL TWO: DISCRETIONARY SKILL LEVEL COMPLEXITY Operations in one well established straight forward routine. The operations are generally repetitive. Job parameters and guidelines for resolving problems are defined. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A variety of routines of which some operations may be non repetitive. Guidelines for resolving problems are not readily available. A variety of routines, some of which are diverse. Problems arise which have to be resolved without the availability of specific guidelines.KNOWLEDGE 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Knowledge of one routine, together with the training and experience, providing the necessary background to perform operations. Knowledge of a number of routines with the need to apply discretion in changing circumstances. Knowledge of varied and/ or variable routines and an understanding of routines in related areas. Required to work independently. INFLUENCE Influence is exercised by the recording and passing on of information and/ or advice to others. 5 6 Interaction with others where persuasive influence is necessary and/ or responsibility for the work of others in the same skill level 8 PRESSURE Flow of work is subject to fluctuation and/ or decisive action required to meet predetermined deadlines. 5 6 Considerable interruptions and time stress are inherent and/ or conflicting deadlines to meet. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 7 8 16 SKILL LEVEL THREE: SPECIALISED SKILL LEVEL COMPLEXITY A system or specified end result consisting of routines from which to choose, some of which are variable. Problems which arise have to be resolved by reference to established practices. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 A broad base system or specified end result consisting of a number of variable routines.Problems have to be resolved within a general framework. A variety of variable routines within a complex system. Interaction with other systems and integration into own area of activity is required. Guidelines for resolving problems are non specific and wide. KNOWLEDGE 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Knowledge of a system providing diagnostic skills to identify problems and determine corrective action. Knowledge providing broad diagnostic ability. Background knowledge of routines in other area is required. Knowledge of a complex system and a full understanding of other systems and their critical interrelationships.Background providing for an understanding of own and other related issues in a departmental context. INFLUENCE 9 10 11 12 Influence is exercised by the provision of information and/ or advice to others. Interaction with others where negotiation/ strong persuasive influence is required and/ or responsibility for the work of others in the same skill level. PRESSURE Fluctuating workflow subject to peak periods and/ or necessary to make plans to meet predetermined deadlines/ issues. 9 10 Frequent unforeseen peak periods or considerable interruptions and time stress and/ or imperative to take immediate action on conflicting deadline/ issues.Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 11 12 17 SKILL LEVEL FOUR: TACTICAL SKILL LEVEL COMPLEXITY A number of decisions which have to be interpreted within one discipline or function to achieve the objectives set. Guidelines for resolving problems are normally available. Works generally within functional policy. 25 26 27 Decisions many of which are variable and diverse within a discipline or function, the systems of which are broadly based. Guidelines for resolving problems are broadly defined. Interaction with other disciplines or functions is essential in order to achieve objectives.Usually works with others at a similar level and provides guidance on functional policy. A range of decisions which have variety and diversity in setting policy and/ or objectives for one discipline or function and/ or have an effect on more than one discipline or function. Guidelines for resolving problems are limited. KNOWLEDGE Knowledge of a discipline/ function and the background to deal with unique situations. Problems are determined and resolved by considering principles, theory and techniques within the discipline/ function and other factors in related areas.Knowledge of a discipline/ function with the need to determine new approaches and apply them. Background providing a full understanding of the critical interrelationships of other disciplines or functions. In depth knowledge of a discipline/ function together with a broad understanding of more than one discipline. Background providing for an understanding of the significance of strategically important areas of the organisation and to plan accordingly.INFLUENCE 28 29 30 31 32 33 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Influence is exercised by the provision of information and/ or advice to others at a level of a discipline/ function. 3 14 Interaction with others where vital/ critical negotiation is required which will impact on the organisations image and/ or responsibility for the work of others in the same skill level. 15 16 PRESSURE Interruptions and pressing issues to deal with or necessary to take decisive action where reliable precedents are not always available and/ or conflicting managerial aims to be resolved. Prolonged periods of stress and/ or urgent actions needed to deal with critical issues within changing corporate parameters. Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 13 14 15 16 18 Job Evaluation Guideline 2006 19