Which of the following is an example of a programmed decision situation?
reorder of raw materials from an established supplier
All of the following are characteristics of a nonprogrammed decision situation except:
The initial step in a problem solving, decision situation is:
The final step in the decision-making process is:
feedback and monitoring
Intuition would be a major part of the input for a manager making what kind of decision?
An effective decision is timely, acceptable to the individuals affected by it, and:
meets the desired objective
The rational model of decision making assumes:
that the decision maker can calculate the probability of success for alternatives
In the rational model, the decision maker strives to:
Under the bounded rationality model of problem solving and decision making:
managers are comfortable making decisions without identifying all options
The model of bounded rationality was first proposed by:
You are starting your senior year of college and look forward to graduation in May. An important task at hand is selecting courses for your final year of study. All but two of your courses are electives. Your course selections will most likely be made based on the:
bounded rationality model
An important element of the bounded rationality model is:
shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity
Which decision-making model is the most realistic in portraying the managerial decision process?
A decision situation where some information is known and probabilities can be assigned to alternative solutions reflects a decision made under:
The cognitive style that exhibits a preference for data and a detailed, objective approach to decision making is:
The fourth step in the Z model of problem solving is:
Step one of the Z model corresponds to the _____ cognitive style.
The first step in the Z problem solving model, which is to examine facts and detail, uses which of the following to gather information about the problem?
All of the following are examples of escalation of commitment except:
Blue Man Group’s history of making decisions that involve exiting businesses and offers to sell credit cards and soft drinks
Which of the following best represents the three reasons why managers may hang on to a losing course of action or escalate their commitment?
cognitive dissonance, overly optimistic, and illusion of control
Which of the following is NOT one of the explanations for the escalation of commitment?
high or low self-monitoring
Continuing to support a failing course of action is known as:
escalation of commitment
Research indicates that women are:
more averse to risk than men
In the consideration of whether the right or the left part of the brain should be utilized in decision making, the ideal situation is to be:
The right side of the brain is best used for which type of activity or decision?
develop visions and strategic plans
An incorrect assumption about the use of intuition in making decisions is that:
it is seldom a positive force
The research by Henry Mintzberg regarding intuition and managerial roles suggests that:
managers make judgments based on hunches
A recent review of the research on intuition suggests that:
although intuition cannot be taught, managers can be trained to rely more fully on the prompting of their intuition
Agor, a researcher on intuition, suggests all of the following can be techniques used by managers to tap into their intuition except:
using decision heuristics and satisficing
The stage of creativity where one engages in other activities while the mind considers the problem is:
Which of the following is generally NOT associated with creative abilities or creativity?
concern for failure
An organization should do or provide all of the following except _____ if it wants to encourage employee creativity.
An organization could increase creativity by doing which of the following?
eliminate office walls and cubicles
Research has indicated that creative performance is highest when:
there is a match, or fit, between the individual and organizational influences on creativity
Searching for the “right” answer and avoiding problems outside of our own expertise would be considered what type of problem for creativity?
Research on the impact of moods on tasks that involve considerable cognitive demands suggests:
Negative moods result in better performance
Responsive creativity is:
responding to a problem that is presented to you by others because it is part of your job
The majority-wins rule in group decision making is an example of:
a social decision scheme
When the group decision involves a matter of preference or opinion, the most appropriate social decision scheme is:
the majority-wins rule
A shortcoming or liability of the group process in decision making is:
too much time spent making the decision
A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment resulting from in-group pressures defines:
High cohesiveness, directive leadership, and high stress are antecedent conditions for:
An approach to minimize groupthink is to:
re-examine the preferred solution even if consensus has been reached
Which of the following would NOT be considered a symptom of groupthink?
A group approach to decision making tends to be appropriate when:
employees may be in conflict over preferred solution
A review of the decision situation in the Challenger incident identified which two variables as being important to the groupthink phenomena?
leadership style and time constraints
Group polarization results in:
the tendency for group members who were initially more cautious to become significantly less cautious
The social comparison approach and persuasive arguments view have both been used to explain:
A good group decision approach when an objective is to maximize the number of alternatives is:
A structured approach to decision making that focuses on generating alternatives silently, prevents criticism of alternatives, and uses a voting process to identify group choices is:
the nominal group
A technique that is valuable in its ability to generate a number of independent judgments without the requirement of a face-to-face meeting is:
the Delphi technique
As a project group leader, you have recognized the benefits of conflict and some disagreement among project members in solving difficult problems. Accordingly, you are likely to use:
Which of the following is a characteristic of quality teams?
They make data-based decisions about improving product and service quality.
An antidote for groupthink in self-managed teams is:
Recent research examining the effects of cultural diversity on decision making has found that when individuals in a group are racially dissimilar:
they arrive at better decisions than racially similar groups
Participative decision making tends to be associated with:
higher levels of employee job satisfaction
A key organizational requirement for participation in decision making includes:
Which of the following is NOT considered to be an individual prerequisite for participation and empowerment?
reliance on external rewards
Formulating a set of decision rules for making inventory re-ordering decisions is an example of programmed decision making.