Organizational Behavior Theories Taxonomy
Running Head: Taxonomy Taxonomy Anonymous Grand Canyon University Management 415 March 22, 2010 Management Theory Taxonomy Leadership qualities dated back to (315-311 BC) – Seleukos conquers and unites Roman and Persian empire by leading his troops ethically, with respect for diversity, social responsibility and organizational culture. Management Foundation- Scientific management 1. Frederick W. Taylor (1911) – Time study: to analyze motional task and develop the most efficient ways to perform them.
Reduce job to basic physical motions. Principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the company and maximum prosperity for the employee. 2.
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Frank and Lillian Gilbreth – Motion studies to observe motions workers make to simplify job. 3. Henri Fayol (1916) – Administrative Principles – believed management could be taught • Foresight – complete plan of action for the future • Organization – resources to complete plan • Command – lead, select and evaluate workers Coordination – diversity, information, solve problems • Control – Ensure plan works and correct any negative action Bureaucratic Organization Max Weber – Organization is logic, orderly and has legitimate authority. • Impersonal • Career managers • Clear division of labor • Promotion based on merit • Formal hierarchy of authority • Written rules and standard procedures Behavioral Management Approaches Mary Parker Follett – Organization is community • Every employee is an owner and has collective responsibility and input.
The Hawthorne Studies (1924) – Scientific Management • Determine economic incentives and physical conditions of the workplace affect the output of workers. • Hawthorne Effect – Tendency or personas singled out for special attention to perform as expected. • Human Relations movement (1050-1960) Managers using good human relations will achieve productivity Abraham Maslow – Maslow’s Theory of human needs – Managers who help people satisfy deprived needs at work will achieve productivity: • Self-actualization • Esteem • Social • Safety Physiological Douglas McGregor – McGregor’s theory X and Theory Y • X – Assumes people dislike work, lack ambition, act irresponsibly and prefer to be led. • Y – Assumes people are willing to work, like responsibility, and are self directed and creative. • Self-fulfilling prophecy – occurs when a person acts in ways that confirm another’s expectations. Chris Argyris – Theory of Adult Personality – Managers who treat people positively and as responsible adults will achieve the highest productivity. Modern Management Foundations
Manage the organization from a broader perspective, coordinate central administration with its programs, engineering with manufacturing, supervisors with workers. Quantitative Analysis and Tools – mathematical forecasting of future projection • Management science – systematically analyzed, appropriate mathematical models and computations are applied and optimum solution is identified. • Operations research – testing and tweaking • Operation management – Study of how organizations produce goods and services Organizations as systems System – Collection of interrelated parts working together for purpose • Subsystems – Smaller component of larger system • Open system – Interacts with the environment and transforms resource input into outputs. Contingency thinking – Match management practices with situational demands Quality Management • Total quality management – Manage with organization-wide commitment to continuous improvement, product quality, and customer needs • Continuous improvement – Always searching for new ways • ISO Certificate – Indicates conformance with a rigorous set of international quality standards
Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning • Use intellectual capital for competitive advantage • Learning Organization – continuously changes and improves using the lessons of experience. The global economy our country’s market is engaged with requires that organization’s theories of management account for and help interpret the rapidly changing nature of today’s organizational environments.