Oceanography Test 1

Eratosthenes
A. established settlements in North America
B. led voyage that first circumnavigated the globe
C. first european explorer to see the Pacific Ocean
D. first determination of Earth’s circumference
D. first determination of Earth’s circumference
Ptolemy
A. led voyage that first circumnavigated the globe
B. first European explorer to see the pacific ocean
C. mapped world with Roman knowledge showing longitude and latitude
D. first determination of Earth’s surface
C. mapped world with Roman knowledge showing longitude and latitude
Core
A. outermost portion of the earth composed largely of the igneous rocks basalt and granite
B. composed mostly of iron and nickel with a liquified metallic outer layer
C. gaseous and dusty space cloud
D. the sun and the eight major planets revolving around it
B. composed mostly of iron and nickel with a liquified metallic outer layer
Arrange the Oceans in order from smallest to largest.
Arctic, Indian, Atlantic, Pacific
The vertical movement of earth’s crust due to the addition or removal of weight is:
A. continental drift
B. viscosity
C. isostatic adjustment
D. plate tectonics
C. isostatic adjustment
If a container ship that is floating on water has weight removed from its deck, it would float _____ in relation to its previous position.
A. higher
B. lower
C. the same height
A. higher
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During the height of the last ice age, large glaciers made the continents ride _____ with respect to the mantle.
A. the same
B. lower
C. higher
B. lower
Since the end of the last ice age, the melting of glaciers has caused continental land masses to ride ____ with respect to the mantle.
A. the same
B. lower
C. higher
C. higher
Mantle
A. gaseous and dusty space cloud
B. composed mostly of iron and nickel with a liquified metallic outer layer
C. contains minerals rich in iron and magnesium, between the crust and the core, second largest volume according to chemical classification
D. outermost portion of the Earth
C. contains minerals rich in iron and magnesium, between the crust and the core, second largest volume according to chemical classification
Solar system
A. gaseous and dusty space cloud
B. composed mostly of iron and nickel with a liquified metallic outer layer
C. the sun and the eight major planets revolving around it
D. outermost portion of the earth
C. the sun and the eight major planets revolving around it
Basalt
A. lower portion of the mantle that is rigid
B. oceanic crust
C. continental crust
D. crust and the uppermost mantle consisting of a solid rock layer
B. oceanic crust
Lithosphere
A. crust and the uppermost mantle consisting of a solid rock layer
B. continental crust
C. oceanic crust
D. lower portion of the mantle that is rigid
A. crust and the uppermost mantle consisting of a solid rock layer
What is the difference between and ocean and a sea?
A. seas are smaller and shallower bodies of saltwater, somewhat enclosed by land, but directly connected to the world’s oceans
B. there is no difference
C. seas are bodies of water composed by saltwater but enclosed by land, therefore not directly connected to the world oceans
D. seas are smaller, shallower composed of freshwater and somewhat enclosed by land
A. seas are smaller and shallower bodies of saltwater, somewhat enclosed by land, but directly connected to the world’s oceans
The largest of the ocean basins, which currently covers more than half of the ocean surface is:
A. Indian
B. Atlantic
C. Arctic
D. Pacific
D. Pacific
The average depth of the world’s oceans is approximately:
A. 3,682 meters
B. 2,172 meters
C. 840 meters
D. 11,022 meters
A. 3,682 meters
Choose the word that doesn’t fit.
A. Adriatic
B. Black
C. Caspian
D. Indian
E. Mediterranean
D. Indian
The important contribution to navigation made by Eratosthenes in the third century BC was:
A. a reasonably accurate calculation of of the circumference of our planet
B. discovery of a trade route from Europe around Africa to india
C. the introduction of latitude and longitude lines on maps of the world
D. devising a means of fixing longitude while at sea
A. a reasonably accurate calculation of the circumference of our planet
The first humans from the western hemisphere known to have developed the art of navigation were the:
A. Phoenicians
B. Polynesians
C. Vikings
D. Greeks
A. Phoenicians
The first person we are aware of who determined the circumference of the earth using trigonometry and the angle of sunlight at Alexandria, Egypt was:
A. seneca
B. ptolemy
C. pytheas
D. Eratosthenes
D. Eratosthenes
The european age of discovery began with:
A. viking voyages to north america
B. polynesian colonization of pacific islands
C. Phoenician exploration of the Mediterranean
D. christopher columbus’s discovery of the new world
D. christopher columbus’s discovery of the new world
All of the following were accomplishments of James Cook except:
A. mapping of unknown islands
B. exploring the southern ocean
C. determining the outline of the pacific ocean
D. measuring environmental characteristics
E. all of the above are true
E. all of the above are true
Choose the one that does not fit:
A. Vasco de gama
B. ptolemy
C. Christopher Columbus
D. john cabot
E. Ferdinand magellan
B. ptolemy
____ are some of the first navigators; they used stick charts to navigate the seas.
A. Pacific Islanders
B. Greeks
C. Arabs
D. Vikings
A. Pacific Islanders
___ were the first humans to develop the art of navigation.
A. Pacific Islanders
B. Phoenicians
C. Greeks
D. Vikings
B. Phoenicians
____ used the polar north star to determine latitude.
A. Pacific Islanders
B. Phoenicians
C. Greeks
D. Vikings
C. Greeks
___ were the dominant navigators in the Mediterranean sea during the middle ages.
A. Pacific Islanders
B. Greeks
C. Arabs
D. Vikings
C. Arabs
____ possessed excellent ships and good navigation skills to actively explore the atlantic ocean in the late 10th century.
A. Greeks
B. Arabs
C. Vikings
D. James Cook
C. Vikings
____ was an italian navigator who made four trips across the atlantic & credited with discovering north america.
A. Vikings
B. Arabs
C. James Cook
D. Christopher Columbus
C. James Cook
D. Christopher Columbus
The term “scientific certainty” –
A. is true because scientific theories are the absolute truth
B. is true because science reaches an absolute truth when we are certain we have all observations
C. is false because science never reaches an absolute truth
C. is false because science never reaches an absolute truth
A tentative, testable statement about the general nature of a phenomenon is called a/an:
A. theory
B. observation
C. guess
D. hypothesis
D. hypothesis
Which two observations help constrain the dimensions of Earth’s core and mantle?
A. earth’s density and the wobble of the magnetic field axis
B. earth’s volume and the wobble of earth’s rotation axis
C. earth’s mass and the wobble of the magnetic field axis
D. earth’s density and the wobble of the earth’s rotation axis
D. earth’s density and the wobble of the earth’s rotation axis
What does the wobble of earth’s rotation axis tell us?
A. the core must be thicker than the mantle
B. the core must be more massive than the mantle
C. the core must have more volume than the mantle
D. the core must be denser than the mantle
D. the core must be denser than the mantle
How do we know the core has a density less than 15 g/cm^3?
A. the core contains the element iron
B. the density is higher than the model will allow
C. the core contains the element nickel
D. this density is higher than any known substance
D. this density is higher than any known substance
How do we know the radius of the earth’s core has to be at least 3100km?
A. a smaller core would require material with the same density as the mantle.
B. a smaller core would require material with an unnatural density
C. a smaller core would require material with the same density as the sun
D. a smaller core would require material with the same density as the crust
B. a smaller core would require material with an unnatural density
How do we know the radius of the earth’s mantle has to be at least 1771km?
A. if it were smaller, the temperature would be too much like the core
B. if it were smaller, it would have a density that is too high
C. if it were smaller, it would have a composition too much like the core
D. if it were smaller, the rock would have a density that is too low
D. if it were smaller, it would have a density that is too low
How do we know the actual dimensions of the earth’s core and mantle?
A. from models of earth’s interior
B. from the thickness of earth’s interior
C. from the temperature of earth’s interior
D. from earthquake waves passing through earth
D. from earthquake waves passing through earth
Earth’s current atmosphere supports animal life because:
A. bacterial action has produced essential methane
B. volcanic outgassing produces nitrogen and argon
C. the oceans have provided water vapor
D. plant photosynthesis provides oxygen that is critical for aerobic respiration
D. plant photosynthesis provides oxygen that is critical for aerobic respiration
The sun and the rest of the solar system formed about 5 billion years ago from a huge cloud of dust and gas called a:
A. nebula
B. supernova
C. solar system
D. protoplanet
A. nebula
The separation of earth into layers while it was molten was the result of:
A. presence of water at earth’s surface
B. differing densities of the elements that make up earth
C. initial collection of materials and their position in earth
D. gravitational force created by the rotating earth
B. differing densities of the elements that make up earth
Which of the following statements regarding continental and oceanic crust is true?
A. Continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust.
B. Continental crust and oceanic crust have equal densities.
C. Continental crust is thinner and denser than oceanic crust.
D. Continental crust is thicker and denser than oceanic crust.
A. Continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust.
Choose the one that does not fit.
A. atmosphere
B. lithosphere
C. asthenosphere
D. mesosphere
E. core
A. atmosphere
Current scientific knowledge indicates that the most likely origin of most of earth’s oceans was due to:
A. comets from outer space
B. release of liquid water from the core
C. water vapor released from volcanic outgassing
D. all of the above
C. water vapor released from volcanic outgassing
What happens during radioactive decay?
A. parent isotopes turn into energy
B. daughter isotopes turn into parent isotopes
C. daughter isotopes turn into energy
D. parent isotopes turn into daughter isotopes
D. parent isotopes turn into daughter isotopes
What is the scientific definition of half-life?
A. the number of parent isotopes that will be lost during a single radioactive decay event.
B. the amount of time over which the number of parent isotopes decreases by half
C. the amount of time over which the number of parent isotopes increases by half
D. the number of daughter isotopes that will be gained during a single radioactive event
B. the amount of time over which the number of parent isotopes decreases by half
Two containers hold the same radioactive isotope. Container A has 1000 atoms and container B has 500 atoms. Which statement is true?
A. rate of decay in atoms in container B is greater than the rate of decay in container A
B. rate of decay in container A is greater than the rate of decay in container B
C. rate of decay is the same in both containers
B. rate of decay in container A is greater than the rate of decay in container B
A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half life of 1.5 months. How many total atoms will be in the container after 3 months?
A. 100
B. 50
C. 25
D. 0
A. 100
A container holds 100 atoms of an isotope. This isotope has a half life of 1.5 months. How many atoms of the radioactive isotope will be in the container after 3 months?
A. 100
B. 50
C. 25
D. 0
C. 25
A rock sample contains 75 atoms of a parent isotope and 25 atoms of a daughter isotope. The half-life of the parent isotope is 100 years. How old is this rock?
A. 25 years old
B. 50 years old
C. 75 years old
D. 100 years old
B. 50 years old
Which of the following rock appears to be the most resistant to weathering and erosion?
A. lyons formation
B. crystalline basement
C. ralston creek formation
D. lykins formation
B. crystalline basement
What is a possible age of the ralston creek formation?
A. early triassic
B. late pennsylvanian
C. early permian
D. early cretaceous
A. early triassic
Generally, in what colors are the quaternary deposits drawn?
A. shades of blue and green
B. shades of orange
C. shades of yellow
D. shades of yellow, orange and brown
D. shades of yellow, orange, and brown
What colors are used to represent rocks from the permian through jurassic?
A. red
B. blue
C. white/grey
D. green
B. blue
Which argument offers the best evidence that the quaternary deposits are indeed younger than the permian through jurassic rocks in the area?
A. quaternary deposits are exclusively in areas of low elevation
B. quaternary deposits are exclusively in areas of high elevation
C. there are more quaternary deposits than deposits from permian through jurassic
D. quaternary deposits seem to be draped over the older rocks
D. quaternary deposits seem to be draped over the older rocks
Imagine that you could remove the quaternary rocks to reveal the rocks beneath them. Which answer correctly describes the outcrop pattern of the rocks?
A. permian through Cretaceous rocks outcrop in parallel bands that run roughly east to west on the lower half of the map
B. permian through Cretaceous rocks outcrop in parallel bands that run roughly north to south on the left-hand side of the map
C. permian through Cretaceous rocks outcrop in parallel bands that run roughly north to south on the right-hand side of the map
B. permian through cretaceous rocks outcrop in parallel bands that run roughly north to south on the left-hand side of the map
Where do the oldest rocks in this area outcrop and how old are they?
A. north central part of the map, cretaceous in age
B. western side of the map, precambrian in age
C. north central part of the map, paleocene in age
D. western part of the map, permian in age
B. western side of the map, precambrian in age
What law of relative dating did you apply to determine the relative age of rocks?
A. law of inclusions
B. law of original horizontality
C. law of lateral continuity
D. law of superposition
D. law of superposition: oldest rocks will be on the bottom
Rocks steeply dip eastward, which suggests they have been uplifted and deformed. What law of relative dating could be used to establish this observation?
A. law of inclusions
B. law of original horizontally
C. law of lateral continuity
D. law of superposition
B. law of original horizontality
In the road cut, which rocks are least resistant to weathering and erosion, and where are they located?
A. shales and mudstones to the east
B. shales and sandstones to the west
C. shales and mudstones to the west
D. shales and sandstones to the east
C. shales and mudstones to the west
Describe the origin of earth’s oceans.
A. the water was derived from equal parts of outgassing and ice comets
B. the water has been here since the origin of earth itself
C. the water was derived mostly from outgassing, with minor component coming from ice comets
D. the water was derived mostly from ice comets, with a minor component coming from outgassing
C. the water was derived from outgassing, with a minor component coming from ice comets
Have the oceans always been salty?
A. the composition is so erratic that we are unable to tell if they have always been salty
B. Although earth’s oceans have existed since early in the formation of the planet, its chemical composition must have changed due to the high carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide content in the early atmosphere as well as volcanic outgassing of gasses such as chlorine
C. earth’s oceans have occasionally been salty and occasionally been freshwater
D. earth’s oceans have had a constant composition throughout their existence
B. Although earth’s oceans have existed since early in the formation of the planet, its chemical composition must have changed due to the high carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide content in the early atmosphere as well as volcanic outgassing of gasses such as chlorine
The lithosphere consists of earth’s:
A. lower mantle
B. crust and uppermost mantle
C. upper mantle and hydrosphere
D. outer core
B. crust and uppermost mantle
One of the reasons that free oxygen in our atmosphere is important to the development and maintenance of life on earth is because oxygen:
A. can form ozone and block some UV rays
B. reduces atmospheric temperature
C. combines with iron in volcanic rocks
D. is necessary for photosynthesis to occur
A. can form ozone and block some UV rays
Choose the word that does not belong.
A. oxygen
B. water vapor
C. carbon dioxide
D. methane
E. ammonia
A. oxygen
What does the term “asthenosphere” literally mean?
A. flexible sphere
B. hot sphere
C. viscosity sphere
D. weak sphere
D. weak sphere
A ____ is steep and primarily due to the eruption of a mixture of volcanic material containing less fluid materials which travel less distance.
A. composite volcano
B. cinder cone
C. shield volcano
D. basaltic volcano
A. composite volcano
A ____ is a wide volcano that produces mainly basaltic lava flows.
A. composite volcano
B. cinder cone
C. shield volcano
D. cinder volcano
C. shield volcano
A ____ is a steep sided volcano built from ejected lava fragments.
A. composite volcano
B. cinder cone
C. shield volcano
D. cinder volcano
B. cinder cone
Broad sheets of fluid ____ lava travels long distances and gives shield volcanoes their distinctive shape.
A. basaltic
B. andesitic
C. rhyolitic
D. proclastic
A. basaltic
Moderately vicious and and gas rich ____ lavas can erupt as lava flows or pyroclastic materials leading to the steepeneing slope of composite volcanoes
A. basaltic
B. andesitic
C. rhyolitic
D. pyroclastic
B. andesitic
Explosive eruptions of highly viscous ____ lavas create steep sided cinder cone volcanoes.
A. basaltic
B. andesitic
C. rhyolitic
D. pyroclastic
C. rhyolitic
Which of the following explains why the 2010 earthquake in Chile caused a large tsunami while the 2010 earthquake in Haiti only caused a small and local tsunami?
A. The earthquake in Haiti was the result of motion on a convergent boundary, which does not produce any vertical motion of the sea floor, while the Chilean earthquake was the result of motion along a transform plate boundary, which does.
B. The earthquake in Haiti was the result of motion on a transform boundary, which does not produce any vertical motion of the sea floor, while the Chilean earthquake was the result of motion along a convergent plate boundary, which does.
C. Haiti is not located near and ocean but Chile is.
B. the earthquake in Haiti was the result of motion on a transform boundary, which does not produce any vertical motion of the sea floor, while the Chilean earthquake was the result of motion along a convergent boundary which does.
Which of the following best describes how scientists help the public prepare for an earthquake?
A. scientists cannot predict when one will occur, but they can identify tectonically active areas that are likely to produce earthquake activity and let the public know if they’re in such an area
B. scientists cannot predict an earthquake so there is no way they can help the public prepare.
C. scientist can predict when an earthquake will happen and can alert the public
A. scientists cannot predict when one will occur, but they can identify tectonically active areas that are likely to produce earthquake activity and let the public know if they’re in such an area
What did Stanley Miller’s experiment demonstrate?
A. it stimulated the current earth in a bottle, demonstrating the life can exist on our planet
B. demonstrated that organic molecules could not have been produced in earth’s early oceans
C. demonstrated that vast amounts of organic molecules could have been produced in earth’s early oceans
D. synthesized prebiotic materials to determine the salinity of he ocean water
C. demonstrated that vast amounts of organic molecules could have been produced in earth’s early oceans
The water in earth’s oceans came from:
A. melting of the polar icecaps
B. completely from volcanic outgassing
C. completely from comets colliding with earth
D. mostly from volcanic outgassing and partly from comets
D. mostly from volcanic outgassing and partly from comets
According to the geological time scale, which selections list the correct order of coexistence, from earliest to latest?
A. trilobites and amphibians, insects and dinosaurs, dinosaurs and birds, flowering plants and fishes, humans and reptiles
B. insects and dinosaurs, trilobites and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, flowering plants and fishes, humans and reptiles
C. trilobites and amphibians, insects and dinosaurs, flowering plants and fishes, dinosaurs and birds, humans and reptiles
D. trilobites and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, humans and reptiles, flowering plants and fishes, insect and dinosaurs
A. trilobites and amphibians, insects and dinosaurs, dinosaurs and birds, flowering plants and fishes, humans and reptiles
Earth is about:
A. 4.6 million years old
B. 40 million years old
C. 4.6 billion years old
D. 400,000 years old
C. 4.6 billion years old
Choose the word that does not fit.
A. Devonian
B. jurassic
C. ordovician
D. permian
E. silurian
B. jurassic
Describe how the half-life of radioactive material can be used to determine the age of rock through radiometric age dating.
A. radiometric half-lives cannot be used to determine the age of rocks
B. Radiometric age dating can determine relative dates of geologic materials, but it cannot give absolute or “hard dates” for the ages of rocks
C. The half-life of a material is the time required for one-half of the atoms in a sample to decay to other atoms. The older Earth material is, the more radioactive material will have been converted to decay product(s). Scientists can measure the amount of radioactive material and the amount of resulting decay product in the rocks. By comparing these two quantities, the age of the material can be determined
C. The half-life of a material is the time required for one-half of the atoms in a sample to decay to other atoms. The older Earth material is, the more radioactive material will have been converted to decay product(s). Scientists can measure the amount of radioactive material and the amount of resulting decay product in the rocks. By comparing these two quantities, the age of the material can be determined
In science, which of the following would be considered an observation?
A. waves are seen to approach the beach at an angle.
B. waves are usually caused by a distant storm
C. waves lose little energy as they travel across the ocean
D. none of the above
A. waves are seen to approach the beach at an angle
____: supercontinent 250 million years ago.
A. subduction zone
B. Pangea
C. panthalessia
D. rift valley
B. Pangaea
____: study of magnetism over geological time.
A. paleontology
B. paleomagnetism
C. geology
D. radiology
B. paleomagnetism
___: island arc.
A. spreading center
B. subduction zone
B. subduction zone
___: seafloor magnetic stripes.
A. spreading center
B. subduction zone
A. spreading center
___: trench.
A. spreading center
B. subduction zone
B. subduction zone
A(n) ____ occurs where two plates converge, and the denser plate is subducted.
A. oceanic-continental convergence
B. oceanic-oceanic convergence
C. continental-continental convergence
A. oceanic-continental convergence
A(n) ____ occurs when two plates of the same composition converge, resulting in the older, denser plate being subducted.
A. oceanic-continental convergence
B. oceanic-oceanic convergence
C. continental-continental convergence
B. oceanic-oceanic convergence
A(n) ___ occurs where two plates of the same composition converge, resulting in neither plate being subducted.
A. oceanic-continental convergence
B. oceanic-oceanic convergence
C. continental-continental convergence
C. continental-continental convergence
North america lay on the equator:
A. 540 million years ago
B. 300 million years ago
C. 180 million years ago
D. 120 million years ago
A. 540 million years ago
India separated from Antarctica:
A. 540 million years ago
B. 300 million years ago
C. 180 million years ago
D. 120 million years ago
D. 120 million years ago
The north atlantic opened:
A. 540 million years ago
B. 300 million years ago
C. 180 million years ago
D. 120 million years ago
C. 180 million years ago
The continents came together as Pangaea:
A. 540 million years ago
B. 300 million years ago
C. 180 million years ago
D. 120 million years ago
B. 300 million years ago
What type of plate boundary is most closely associated with formation of a new ocean floor?
A. hot spot
B. divergent
C. convergent
D. transform
B. divergent
Which of the following statements about earth’s magnetic field is most accurate?
A. earth’s magnetic field does not switch polarity
B. earth’s magnetic field switches polarity at irregular time intervals
C. earth’s magnetic field switches polarity at regular time intervals
D. earth does not have a regular magnetic field
B. earth’s magnetic field switches polarity at irregular time intervals
How often does earth’s magnetic field switch polarity?
A. every 100,000 to several million years
B. every 500,000 years
C. every 10,000 to 50,000 years
D. every 10,000 to 100,000 years
A. every 100,000 to several million years
How are normal polarity and and reverse polarity of earth’s magnetic field different?
A. a compass points toward the north pole during normal polarity and the south pole during reverse polarity
B. A compass points toward the South Pole during normal polarity and to the equator during reverse polarity.
C. A compass points toward the North Pole during normal polarity and to the equator during reverse polarity
D. A compass points toward the South Pole during normal polarity and to the North Pole during reverse polarity
A. a compass points towards the north pole during normal polarity and the south pole during reverse polarity
In general, what is our best evidence that the orientation of earth’s magnetic field has changed over time?
A. A record of Earth’s gravitational field is recorded in continental rocks, which show a clear pattern of changes in Earth’s gravitational polarity
B. A record of Earth’s magnetic field is recorded in oceanic rocks, which show a clear pattern of changes in Earth’s magnetic polarity
C. A record of Earth’s magnetic field is recorded in continental rocks, which show a clear pattern of changes in Earth’s magnetic polarity
B. a record of earth’s magnetic field is recorded in oceanic rocks, which shows a clear pattern of changes in earth’s magnetic polarity
Where would you expect to see alternating bands of rock with different magnetic polarities?
A. on both sides of the mid-oceanic ridge
B. on the youngest side of the mid-oceanic ridge
C. on the oldest side of the mid-oceanic ridge
D. on the slow-moving side of the mid-oceanic ridge
A. on both sides of the mid-oceanic ridge
The slowly increasing distance between south america and Africa is due to:
A. seafloor spreading
B. subduction
C. deduction
D. hot spots
A. seafloor spreading
Old faithful geyser gets its energy from:
A. hot spot
B. sedimentary rock
C. subduction
D. fault
A. hot spot
Layered ___ exposed by erosion can be seen when looking at the grand canyon in the U.S.
A. hot spot
B. sedimentary rock
C. faults
D. crust
B. sedimentary rock
Australia is composed of a relatively old and thick:
A. hot spot
B. sedimentary rock
C. continental crust
D. fault
C. continental crust
The extremely deep marianas trench is a result of:
A. hot spots
B. subduction
C. deduction
D. seafloor spreading
B. subduction
___ found in the atlantic ocean between north america and Europe is composed of dense and relatively young rock.
A. hot spots
B. sedimentary rock
C. continental crust
D. seafloor crust
D. seafloor crust
The earthquakes that occur in southern California occur above a:
A. hot spot
B. continental crust
C. seafloor crust
D. fault
D. fault
Evidence for continental drift includes:
A. the distribution of organisms
B. past glacial activity
C. matching sequences of rocks and mountain chains
D. the fit of the continents
E. all of the above
E. all of the above
Fossils of ancient polar plants are currently found near the equator because:
A. plants lives near the poles, but landmasses have drifted to current locations
B. plants probably were tolerant of both polar and tropical conditions
C. poles were at the equator in geological past
D. earth had entire polar conditions at the time when the plants were living
A. plants lived near the poles, but landmasses have drifted to current locations
Climate distribution on earth is primarily controlled by:
A. latitude
B. earth’s geological history
C. longitude
D. plants and animals that live in an area
A. latitude
Choose the word that does not belong.
A. Gondwanaland
B. panamerica
C. Pangaea
D. panthalassia
E. teathy’s sea
B. panamerica
Regarding glacial ages, why is it unlikely that the entire world was covered in ice 300 million years ago?
A. Ice has never covered lower-latitude regions such as South America, Africa, India, and Australia
B. The world was covered by ice 300 million years ago. Even tropical areas were covered by thick ice.
C. The entire world was covered with ice, indicating that the positions of the continents were the same 300 million years ago as they are today.
D. Coal deposits from the same geologic age are now present in North America and Europe, which formed from the remains of vast tropical swamp plants.
D. coal deposits from the same geological age are now present in north america and Europe, which formed from the remains of vast tropical swamp plants
How are earth geographic and magnetic axis relative to each other?
A. Earth’s geographic and magnetic axes are oriented at a slight angle to each other.
B. Earth’s geographic and magnetic axes are oriented identically.
C. Earth’s geographic and magnetic poles are oriented in opposite directions.
D. Earth’s geographic and magnetic poles are nearly perpendicular.
A. earth’s geographic and magnetic axes are oriented at a slight angle to each other
Where do magnetic field lines exit the earth today?
A. at the equator
B. at the north pole
C. at the south pole
C. at the south pole
Earth’s magnetic field is similar to which of the following?
A. the magnetic field of a bar magnet
B. the gravitational field of earth
C. the magnetic field of mars
D. the magnetic field of a horseshoe magnet
A. the magnetic field of a bar magnet
In general, how do magnetic objects align relative to Earth’s magnetic field?
A. parallel
B. perpendicular
C. at an angle
A. parallel
On average, how long do periods of reverse and normal polarity last?
A. 10,000 years
B. 100,000 years
C. 500,000 years
D. about 1 million years
C. 500,000 years
Where would the north end of a magnet point during a time of reverse polarity?
A. toward the magnetic south pole
B. toward the geographic North Pole
C. toward the geographic South Pole
D. toward the magnetic north pole
A. toward the magnetic south pole
Earthquakes can occur only in the:
A. asthenosphere
B. crust
C. lithosphere
D. core
C. lithosphere
Rank the plate boundary types in order of the severity of the earthquakes they produce. (lowest severity to highest)
-convergent
-divergent
-transform
convergent, transform, divergent
The book The History of Ocean Basins, which contained the idea of seafloor spreading, was written by geologist:
A. Harry Hess
B. Charles Darwin
C. Frederick Vine
D. Drummond Matthews
A. Harry Hess
The seafloor magnetic pattern is best described as:
A. parallel to, but not symmetric about mid-ocean ridges
B. perpendicular to, but not symmetric about mid-ocean ridges
C. perpendicular to and symmetric about mid-ocean ridges
D. parallel to and symmetric about mid-ocean ridges
D. parallel to and symmetric about mid-ocean ridges
Tectonic plates are pieces of the ___ that float along the more fluid ___ below.
A. asthenosphere; lithosphere
B. lithosphere; mesosphere
C. lithosphere; asthenosphere
D. mantle; crust
C. lithosphere; asthenosphere
When will magma rise to earth’s surface?
A. when the magma is denser than adjacent rock
B. when the magma has more volume than adjacent rock
C. when the magma is less dense than adjacent rock
D. When the magma has more mass than adjacent rock
C. when the magma is less dense than the adjacent rock
In general, when will melted rock in the mantle rise?
A. sometimes, depending on the magma’s pressure
B. sometimes, depending on the magma’s temperature
C. almost always
D. almost never
C. almost always
How are felsic magmas formed?
A. Pressure from overlying crust forces mantle magmas through cracks to Earth’s surface.
B. Felsic magmas form when volcanoes mix mafic rock with dissolved gases.
C. Heat from the mantle melts part of the lower crust.
D. Felsic magmas generally do not exist.
C. heat from the mantle melts part of the lower crust
In general, why does earth’s crust sit on top of the mantle?
A. Earth’s crust is denser than the mantle.
B. Earth’s crust is less dense than the mantle.
C. Earth’s crust is hotter than the mantle.
D. Earth’s crust is colder than the mantle.
B. earth’s crust is less dense than the mantle
Where are tectonic plates located?
A. below Earth’s surface, near the core
B. below Earth’s surface, in the upper mantle
C. just under Earth’s surface
D. at Earth’s surface
D. at earth’s surface
What are the three type of plate boundaries?
A. divergent, convergent, and transverse
B. divergent, converse, and transform
C. divergent, convergent, and transform
D. digressive, convergent, and transform
C. divergent, convergent and transform
Which of the following statements about earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.0 is most accurate?
A. Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.0 occur in a pattern than correlates closely with plate boundaries.
B. Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.0 occur in a pattern than correlates loosely with hot spots.
C. Earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.0 occur in a pattern than correlates loosely with plate boundaries.
A. earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.0 occur in a pattern that correlates closely with plate boundaries
Which plate boundary is not associated with volcanic eruptions?
A. convergent
B. divergent
C. transform
C. transform
Which phenomenon can explain the presence of volcanoes in the middle of the Pacific Ocean?
A. subduction
B. hot spots
C. earthquakes
D. seafloor spreading
B. hot spots
Which type of plate boundary is most closely associated with uplifting continental regions and mountain building?
A. transform boundaries
B. divergent boundaries
C. convergent boundaries
C. convergent boundaries
What is convection?
A. a cycle of moving material formed by the rise of less-dense material and the sinking of denser material
B. a cycle of moving material formed by the sinking and rising of high-density material
C. a cycle of moving material formed by the rise of denser material and the sinking of less-dense material
A. a cycle of moving material formed by the rise of less-dense material and the sinking of denser material
What accounts for tectonic plate motion?
A. forces at convection cells
B. forces at upwelling plumes
C. forces at subduction zones
D. forces at divergent zones
C. forces at subduction zones
What is the relationship between temperature and density?
A. In general, warmer materials are less dense, and colder materials are denser.
B. In general, warmer materials are denser, and colder materials are less dense.
C. In general, warmer materials are more massive, and therefore denser, and colder materials are less massive.
D. In general, warmer materials are less massive, and therefore less dense, and colder materials are more massive.
A. in general, warmer materials are less dense, and colder materials are denser.
Which of the following terms best characterizes upwelling in the asthenosphere?
A. convective
B. diverse
C. concentrated
D. diffuse
D. diffuse
What is a plume?
A. a zone of upwelling material originating at the outer core-mantle boundary
B. a zone of upwelling material originating at the mantle-asthenosphere boundary
C. a zone of upwelling material originating at the subduction-outer core boundary
D. a zone of upwelling material originating at the outer core-asthenosphere boundary
A. a zone of upwelling material originating at the outer core mantle boundary
What features at the surface provide evidence of plumes?
A. hot spots
B. hot zones
C. subduction zones
D. convective zones
A. hot spots
What information do geologists use to classify volcanoes?
A. Height of peak and type of deposits
B. Shape and height of peak
C. Shape and type of deposits
D. Color and height of peak
C. shape and type of deposits
Cinder cones are made of________.
A. basalt flows
B. pyroclastic deposits
C. granite flows
D. pyrobasalt deposits
B. pyroclastic deposits
In general, how often do most cinder cones erupt?
A. Most cinder cones erupt several times each decade.
B. Most cinder cones erupt annually.
C. Most cinder cones do not erupt.
D. Most cinder cones erupt once.
D. most cinder cones erupt once
What are shield volcanoes generally made of?
A. Pyrobasalt deposits
B. Granite flows
C. Basalt flows
D. Pyroclastic deposits
C. basalt flows
What is the range of shield volcano height?
A. 300 to 10,000 meters
B. 300 to 1,000 meters
C. 1,000 to 3,000 meters
D. 3,000 to 10,000 meters
A. 300 to 10,000 meters
Why are shield volcanoes wider than composite volcanoes?
A. The pyroclastic material that comes out of shield volcanoes is more fluid than the lava that flows out of composite volcanoes.
B. The lava that flows out of shield volcanoes is more fluid than the lava that flows out of composite volcanoes.
C. The lava that flows out of shield volcanoes is less fluid than the lava that flows out of composite volcanoes.
B. the lava that flows out of shield volcanoes is more fluid than the lava that flows out of composite volcanoes
What type of magma erupts out of dome complexes?
A. Felmafic magma
B. Mafic magma
C. Mafelsic
D. Felsic magma
D. felsic magma
What type of volcanoes are the highest?
A. Cinder cones
B. Dome complexes
C. Composite volcanoes
D. Shield volcanoes
D. shield volcanoes
What is the range of dome complex height?
A. 500 to 2,000 meters
B. 20 to 500 meters
C. 200 to 500 meters
D. 20 to 5,000 meters
A. 500 to 2,000 meters
What type of volcano is Mount St. Helens?
A. Shield
B. Composite
C. Plinian
D. Cinder cone
B. composite
Which of these most directly triggered the main eruption?
A. Outgassing of the magma
B. A massive landslide
C. Avalanches of pyroclastic debris
D. Mud flows in the Toutle river
A. a massive landslide
There had been many earthquakes in the area prior to this eruption. Why did this last earthquake trigger a massive landslide?
A. Clearing of trees allowed erosion on the mountain slopes.
B. Moving magma had over-steepened the mountain slopes.
C. Extensive rain had weakened the mountain slopes.
B. moving magma had over-steepened the mountain slopes
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of a:
A. convergent plate boundary (continent-oceanic).
B. transform fault boundary.
C. convergent plate boundary (oceanic-oceanic).
D. divergent plate boundary.
D. divergent plate boundary
Which of the following is characteristic of oceanic-continental convergent plate boundaries?
A. volcanic island arcs
B. mid-ocean ridges
C. fracture zones
D. andesitic volcanoes
D. andesitic volcanoes
Which of the following is characteristic of continental-continental convergent plate boundaries?
A. uplifted mountain ranges
B. hot spots
C. mid-ocean ridges
D. volcanic island arcs
A. uplifted mountain ranges
Choose the phrase that does not belong.
A. divergent plate boundary
B. oceanic-continental convergence
C. oceanic-oceanic convergence
D. transform plate boundary
E. hot spot
E. hot spot
Choose the phrase that does not belong.
A. hydrothermal vents
B. island arc
C. mountains
D. oceanic trench
E. volcanoes
A. hydrothermal vents
Choose the phrase that does not belong.
A. transform fault
B. Sand Andreas Fault
C. oceanic transform fault
D. Juan de Fuca Ridge
E. Mariana Trench
E. Mariana trench
Do most lithospheric plates contain both oceanic- and continental-type crust?
A. No, most lithospheric plates contain only continental-type crust.
B. No, lithospheric plates cannot contain both continental- and oceanic-type crust.
C. No, most lithospheric plates contain only oceanic-type crust.
D. Yes, most lithospheric plates contain both oceanic- and continental-type crust.
D. yes, most lithospheric plates contain both oceanic and continental type crust
What is the relationship between the crust and the lithosphere?
A. The crust lies on top of a larger layer called the lithosphere.
B. The crust lies below a larger layer called the lithosphere.
C. All of the crust is contained within a larger layer called the lithosphere.
D. Some of the crust is contained within a larger layer called the lithosphere.
C. all of the crust is contained within
What is the relationship between the mantle and the lithosphere?
A. Some of the mantle is contained within a smaller layer called the lithosphere.
B. The mantle lies below a smaller layer called the lithosphere.
C. All of the mantle is contained within a smaller layer called the lithosphere.
D. The mantle lies on top of a smaller layer called the lithosphere.
A. some of the mantle is contained within a smaller layer called the lithosphere
What is the relationship between the mantle and the asthenosphere?
A. All of the mantle is contained within a larger layer called the asthenosphere.
B. The mantle lies on top of a smaller layer called the asthenosphere.
C. The mantle lies below a smaller layer called the asthenosphere.
D. All of the asthenosphere is contained within a larger layer called the mantle.
D. all the asthenosphere is contained within a larger layer called the mantle
What surface feature provides evidence for the location of hot spots?
A. volcanoes near tectonic plates
B. volcanoes within tectonic plates
C. volcanoes at the edges of tectonic plates
D. volcanoes above tectonic plates
B. volcanoes within tectonic plates
When will a hot spot volcano become extinct?
A. when the volcano stops sending rising mantle to the hot spot
B. when the hot spot stops sending rising mantle to the volcano
C. when the volcano is carried away from the hot spot by the tectonic plate
D. when the hot spot is carried away from the volcano by the tectonic plate
C. when the volcano is carried away from the hot spot by the tectonic plate
What surface feature would you expect to form if both a hot spot and a tectonic plate are stationary?
A. a small hill above the hot spot
B. a chain of volcanoes
C. a ring of volcanoes
D. a single volcano
D. a single volcano
What is a seamount?
A. An active volcano that occurs along the trench of a subduction zone.
B. An active volcano that occurs along the crest of the mid-ocean ridge.
C. An inactive volcano that occurs along the trench of a subduction zone.
D. An inactive volcano that occurs along the crest of the mid-ocean ridge.
B. an active volcano that occurs along the crest of the mid-oceanic ridge
What is a table mount?
A. A seamount that grew to just below sea level, experienced wave erosion, and is now active.
B. A seamount that grew above sea level, experienced wave erosion, and is now inactive.
C. A seamount that grew to just below sea level, experienced wave erosion, and is now inactive.
D. A seamount that grew above sea level, experienced wave erosion, and is now active.
B. a seamount that grew above sea level, experienced wave erosion, and is now inactive
Where do coral reefs exist with sea mounts?
A. tropical latitudes
B. polar latitudes
C. both
A. tropical latitudes
Which of the following statements about coral reefs and seamounts is most accurate?
A. Seamounts at the ocean surface grow towards coral reefs over time.
B. Coral reefs at the ocean surface grow away from seamounts over time.
C. Coral reefs at the ocean surface grow towards seamounts over time.
D. Seamounts at the ocean surface grow away from coral reefs over time.
B. coral reefs at the ocean surface grow away from seamounts over time
Why do coral reefs at the ocean surface grow away from seamounts over time?
A. Seamounts subside as tectonic plates move. Coral reefs grow away from the seamount in order to stay in the ocean water.
B. Seamounts uplift as tectonic plates move. Coral reefs grow away from the seamount in order to stay near the sunlight.
C. Seamounts subside as tectonic plates move. Coral reefs grow away from the seamount in order to stay near the sunlight.
C. seamounts subside as tectonic plates move. coral reefs grow away from the seamount in order to stay near the sunlight
What is the difference between a barrier reef and an atoll?
A. Barrier reefs surround an inactive volcano emerging above sea level, while atolls surround the previous location of a submerged volcano.
B. Barrier reefs surround an active volcano emerging above sea level, while atolls surround the previous location of a submerged volcano.
C. Atolls surround an active volcano emerging above sea level, while barrier reefs surround the previous location of a submerged volcano.
A. barrier reefs surround an inactive volcano emerging above sea level, while atolls surround the previous location of a submerged volcano
Which is the correct order of coral reef development near seamounts?
A. Fringing reef, barrier reef, atoll
B. Barrier reef, fringing reef, atoll
C. Barrier reef, atoll, fringing reef
D. Fringing reef, atoll, barrier reef
A. fringing reef, barrier reef, atoll
Iceland is located on what type of plate boundary?
A. Oceanic/oceanic convergent
B. Continental/continental convergent
C. Transform
D. Divergent
D. divergent
The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is:
A. being subducted beneath Japan.
B. diving under Japan.
C. being thrust over the North American plate.
D. being subducted beneath the North American plate.
E. moving over a hot spot or mantle plume.
E. moving over a hot spot or mantle plume
volcanoes on the seafloor that are flat-topped because of wave erosion are called:
A. abyssal hills.
B. mantle plumes.
C. tablemounts.
D. seamounts.
C. tablemounts
The first scientist to propose the origin of coral reefs based upon subsidence (sinking) of volcanic islands was:
A. Charles Darwin.
B. Alfred Wegener.
C. John Tuzo Wilson.
D. Harry Hess.
A. Chales Darwin
Choose the one that does not belong.
A. Aleutian Islands
B. Canary Islands
C. Galapagos Islands
D. Hawaiian Islands
E. Iceland
A. aleutian islands
The study of historical changes of continental shapes and positions is called:
A. sedimentology.
B. paleoclimatology.
C. paleomagnetism.
D. paleogeography.
D. paleography
Loihi is __________.
A. a flat-topped seamount
B. the geophysical boundary between the crust and the mantle
C. a prehistoric palm tree
D. the newest Hawaiian volcano
D. the newest Hawaiian volcano
A researcher interested in the vertical zonation of oceanic lithosphere would want to study __________.
A. atolls
B. magnetic reversals
C. nemataphs
D. mantle plumes
E. ophiolites
E. ophiolites
What do all plate boundaries have in common?
A. They are all located along the edges of continents.
B. They are all associated with zones of earthquakes.
C. They occur entirely within the middle of continents.
D. They are all associated with an abundance of volcanic activity.
B. they are all associated with zones of earthquakes
Multi-beam sonar:
A. measurement of ocean depth and seafloor topography
B. cumulative plot of area versus depth or elevation
C. uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth
D. a method of mapping the topography of the ocean floor along a strip up to 60 km
D. a method of mapping the topography of the ocean floor along a strip up to 60 km
Precision-depth recorder:
A. cumulative plot of area versus depth or elevation
B. uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth
C. used to determine ocean structure beneath the sea floor
D. a method of mapping the topography of the ocean floor along a strip up to 60 km
B. uses high frequency sound waves to measure ocean depth
Ocean trench:
A. flat depositional surfaces that cover extensive portions of the deep-ocean basins
B. shallow-water areas close to continents
C. deep linear scars on the deep-ocean floor caused by plate convergence
D. a generally flat zone extending from the shore to the shelf break
C. deep linear scars on the deep-ocean floor caused by plate convergence
Continental shelf:
A. flat depositional surfaces that cover extensive portions of the deep-ocean basins
B. shallow-water areas close to continents
C. a generally flat zone extending from the shore to the shelf break
D. narrow and deep valleys on continental slopes
C. a generally flat zone extending from the shore to the shelf break
Abyssal plain:
A. a generally flat zone extending from the shore to the shelf break
B. deep linear scars on the deep-ocean floor caused by plate convergence
C. shallow-water areas close to continents
D. flat depositional surfaces that cover extensive portions of the deep-ocean basins
D. flat depositional surfaces that cover extensive portions of the deep-ocean basins
Continental slope:
A. a generally flat zone extending from the shore to the shelf break
B. deep linear scars on the deep-ocean floor caused by plate convergence
C. shallow-water areas close to continents
D. lies beyond the shelf break, with a steeper incline, extending out to the deep ocean basin
D. lies beyond the shelf break, with a steeper incline, extending out to the deep ocean basin
___ is a transition zone between the continental margin and the deep-ocean floor composed of a huge submerged pile of sediments.
A. continental shelf
B. continental rise
C. continental crust
D. deep sea fan
B. continental rise
___ is a narrow, deep submarine valley that is V-shaped in profile and have branches with steep to overhanging walls found on the continental shelf and slope.
A. deep sea fan
B. seafloor
C continental rise
D. submarine canyon
D. submarine canyon
___ is deposits at the mouth of submarine canyons; create the continental rise when they merge along the base of the continental slope.
A. deep sea fan
B. submarine canyon
C. continental slope
D. continental rise
A. deep sea fan
___: below sea level but rises more than 1 km above the surrounding ocean floor, with a conical or pointy top like an upside down ice cream cone that never reached the ocean surface.
A. seamounts
B. tablemounts
C. abyssal hills
A. seamounts
___: volcanic features on the ocean floor that are less than 1 km; some of the most abundant features on the planet that cover a large percentage of the entire ocean floor.
A. seamounts
B. tablemounts
C. abyssal hills
C. abyssal hills
___: also called a guyot; sub-oceanic volcano with a flattened top that once existed above sea level
A. seamounts
B. tablemounts
C. abyssal hills
B. tablemounts
The method used most frequently to investigate sediment and rock layers of the sea floor is:
A. light waves
B. sound waves
C. direct observation
D. satellite observation
B. sound waves
Describe how an echo sounder works:
A. An echo sounder sends a sound signal from a ship downward into the ocean, where it produces echoes when it bounces off any density difference (e.g., the seafloor). The time it takes for the echoes to return to the point of origination is then used to determine the depth and corresponding shape of the ocean floor.
B. An echo sounder is an Earth-orbiting satellite, which can observe large areas of the ocean at one time.
C. An echo sounder sends a line with a heavy weight on the end until it touches bottom. Mariners then measure the length of the line to determine the depth and hence shape or topography of the ocean floor.
A. an echo sounder sends a sound signal from a ship downward into the ocean, where it produces echoes when it bounces off any density difference (e.g. the seafloor). The time it takes for the echoes to return to the point of origination is then used to determine the depth and corresponding shape of the ocean floor.
What are turbidity currents?
A. dense mixtures of sand, mud, and other debris that move at low speeds up submarine canyons
B. dense mixtures of sand, mud, and other debris that move at high speeds down submarine canyons
C. dense mixtures of sand, mud, and other debris that move at high speeds up submarine canyons
B. dense mixtures of sand, mud and other debris that move at high speeds down submarine canyons
How do turbidity currents affect canyons?
A. Turbidity currents deposit material in canyons as currents move upslope.
B. Turbidity currents erode material from canyons as currents move upslope.
C. Turbidity currents erode material from canyons as currents move downslope.
D. Turbidity currents deposit material in canyons as currents move downslope.
C. turbidity currents erode material from canyons as currents move downslope
How often do turbidity currents occur?
A. frequently
B somewhat frequently
C. infrequently
C. infrequently
What types of deposits do turbidity currents leave in alluvial fans?
A. graded bedding that begins as coarse material and becomes finer upward
B. lateral bedding containing mostly fine material mixed with coarse material
C. lateral bedding containing mostly coarse material mixed with fine material
D. graded bedding that begins as fine material and becomes coarser upward
A. graded bedding that begins as coarse material and becomes finer upward
What would you look for as evidence that a rock layer formed from materials deposited by ancient turbidity currents?
A. repeated sequences of lateral bedding containing mostly coarse material mixed with fine material
B. repeated sequences of graded bedding that begin as fine material and become coarser upward
C. repeated sequences of graded bedding that begin as coarse material and become finer upward
C. repeated sequences of graded bedding that begin as coarse material and become finer upward
A ship’s fathometer (an echo sounder) transmits a sound pulse and records the return of an echo 7.4 seconds later. If the speed of sound in water is 1,500 m/second, what is the water depth in meters?
A. 4,550 meters
B. 5,550 meters
C. 11,100 meters
D. 7,400 meters
B. 5,550 meters
The two relatively flat areas on the hypsographic curve represent:
A. some interior continental areas/coastal plains and mid-ocean ridges.
B. some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal plains on the ocean floor.
C. continental mountains and mid-ocean ridges.
D. continental mountains and abyssal plains.
B. some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal plains on the ocean floor
Explain what graded bedding is and how it is formed.
A. Graded bedding creates the continental slope when it merges along the base of the continental slope.
B. Graded bedding is created by turbidity currents. As the current slows, the larger suspended pieces of sediment fall out first, and then progressively smaller pieces settle out.
C. Graded bedding is a volcanic feature on the ocean floor and is one of the most abundant features on the planet.
D. Graded bedding is formed when fine particles of sediment slowly drift onto the deep ocean floor, covering most irregularities of the deep ocean.
B. graded bedding is created by turbidity currents. as the current slows, the larger suspended pieces of sediment fall out first, and then progressively smaller pieces settle out
Passive continental margins are characterized by all of the following except:
A. very little volcanic and earthquake activity.
B. deep-sea trenches.
C. broad continental shelves.
D. shallow coastal waters.
B. deep-sea trenches
All of the following are considered part of the continental margin except:
A. fracture zone.
B. submarine canyon.
C. continental rise.
D. continental shelf.
A. fracture zone
Underwater avalanches of muddy water mixed with rocks and debris are:
A. graded bedding.
B. turbidity currents.
C. white smokers.
D. deep sea fans.
B. turbidity currents
Choose the phrase that does not fit.
A. continental margin
B. active margin
C. convergent active margin
D. transform active margin
E. rift valley
E. rift valley
Choose the phrase that does not fit.
A. turbidity currents
B. graded bedding
C. turbidite deposits
D. abyssal plains
E. deep-sea fans
D. abyssal plains
Most ocean floor features owe their origins to:
A. erosion and weathering
B. ocean current activity
C. extreme pressure at depth
D. plate tectonic processes
D. plate tectonic process
The greatest proportion of Earth’s surface lies in this elevation/depth interval.
A. 4,000-5,000 m below sea level
B. 3,000-4,000 m below sea level
C. 1,000-2,000 m above sea level
D. 0-1,000 m above sea level
A. 4,000-5,000 m below sea level
Nearly all oceanic islands are:
A. parts of continents separated from continents
B. formed at hot spots as lithospheric plates pass over mantle plumes
C. formed at high-standing areas of mid-ocean ridges
D. volcanic in origin
D. volcanic in origin
In comparison with other ocean basins, major sedimentary features such as continental rises and abyssal plains are relatively rare in the Pacific. The primary reason for their scarcity in the Pacific is that:
A. rivers do not carry much sediment into the Pacific
B. turbidity currents are rare in the Pacific, so little sediment is carried down the continental slopes
C. sediment is trapped within the trenches of the convergent plate boundaries ringing the Pacific
C. sediment is trapped within the trenches of the convergent plate boundaries ringing the pacific
Extending from the base of the continental rises into the deep-ocean basins are flat depositional surfaces called:
A. abyssal hills.
B. continental shelves.
C. abyssal plains.
D. tablemounts.
C. abyssal plains
Volcanic peaks on the deep-ocean floor with conical tops are called:
A. oceanic ridges.
B. tablemounts.
C. oceanic trenches.
D. seamounts.
D. seamounts
Along the margins of the Pacific are found most of Earth’s:
A. tablemounts.
B. abyssal hills or seaknolls.
C. oceanic ridges.
D. oceanic trenches.
D. oceanic trenches
Oceanic ridges and rises result from seafloor spreading along:
A. divergent plate boundaries.
B. convergent plate boundaries.
C. transform plate boundaries.
D. none of the above.
A. divergent plate boundaries
Coccolithophores:
A. biogenous sediment
B. cosmogenous sediment
C. hydrogenous sediment
D. lithogenous (terrigenous) sediment
A. biogenous sediment
Halite:
A. biogenous sediment
B. hydrogenous sediment
C. cosmogenous sediment
D. lithogenous (terrigenous) sediment
B. hydrogenous sediment
Metal sulfides:
A. lithogenous (terrigenous) sediment
B. biogenous sediment
C. cosmogenous sediment
D. hydrogenous sediment
D. hydrogenous sediment
Siliceous ooze:
A. biogenous sediment
B. cosmogenous sediment
C. hydrogenous sediment
D. lithogenous (terrigenous) sediment
A. biogenous sediment
Tekites:
A. cosmogenous sediment
B. biogenous sediment
C. hydrogenous sediment
D. lithogenous (terrigenous) sediment
A. cosmogenous sediment
Ice rafting:
A. associated with glacial deposits
B. particle size classification
C. depth at which all calcium carbonate is in solution (i.e. dissolved)
D. associated with submarine canyons and deep-sea alluvial fans
A. associated with glacial deposits
Turbidite:
A. associated with glacial deposits
B. particle size classification
C. depth at which all calcium carbonate is in solution (i.e. dissolved)
D. associated with submarine canyons and deep-sea alluvial fans
D. associated with submarine canyons and deep-sea alluvial fans
Choose the phrase that does not fit.
A. siliceous ooze
B. quartz sand
C. rock fragments
D. clay
E. volcanic ash
A. siliceous ooze
What is the best definition of a glacial snow line?
A. the line of latitude dividing zones of melting snow and zones of glacial snow
B. the line dividing zones of snow and zones of rock at the base of a glacier
C. the line of latitude dividing zones of snowfall and zones of glacial ice formation
D. the line dividing zones of accumulation and melting of ice at the surface of a glacier
D. the line dividing zones of accumulation and melting of ice at the surface of a glacier
Under what conditions will the front of a glacier remain stationary?
A. Glacial fronts remain stationary when friction exceeds gravity forces.
B. Glacial fronts remain stationary when melting and snow accumulation are unequal.
C. Glacial fronts remain stationary when gravity forces exceed friction.
D. Glacial fronts remain stationary when melting and snow accumulation are equal.
D. glacial fronts remain stationary when melting and snow accumulation are equal
Which way does ice flow in a glacier retreating uphill?
A. both upslope and downslope
B. Ice does not flow in a glacier.
C. upslope
D. downslope
D. downslope
How would a snow line on a glacier move as a glacial front is advancing?
A. The snow line would remain in approximately the same place.
B. The snow line would move upslope.
C. The snow line would move downslope.
C. the snow line would move downslope
How would you expect the front of a glacier to move if it undergoes a period of net accumulation, followed by net wastage, and finally a period of net accumulation?
A. backward, forward backward
B. it’s impossible to tell
C. forward, backward, forward
D. just forward
C. forward, backward, forward
How can pieces of rock in contact with a stream bed move?
A. rolling, sliding, suspension
B. bouncing, suspension, twisting
C. rolling, sliding, dissolution
D. bouncing, sliding, dissolution
E. rolling, sliding, bouncing
E. rolling, sliding, bouncing
Complete this analogy: Bouncing is to sand as suspension is to:
A. gravel
B. sand
C. clay
D. ions
C. clay
Complete this analogy: Sliding is to gravel as dissolution is to:
A. gravel
B. sand
C. clay
D. ions
D. ions
What are the three types of loads carried by streams?
A. bed load, bouncing load, dissolved load
B. bed load, sliding load, rolling load
C. sliding load, rolling load, bouncing load
D. bed load, suspended load, dissolved load
D. bed load, suspended load, dissolved load
What is suspended load?
A. the ions that travel in the water column above the stream bed
B. the fine-grained particles that travel in the water column above the stream bed
C. the ions that travel along stream bed
D. the fine-grained particles that travel along the stream bed
B. the fine-grained particles that travel in the water column above the steam bed
Why does water frozen in the cracks of a rock help to break down the rock?
A. Water contracts when frozen and chemically forces the rock apart.
B. Water contracts when frozen and physically forces the rock apart.
C. Water expands when frozen and chemically forces the rock apart.
D. Water expands when frozen and physically forces the rock apart.
D. water expands when frozen and physically forces the rock apart
What is salt weathering?
A. The formation of minerals in rock cracks during the evaporation of salty water, forcing rock apart.
B. The formation of minerals in rock cracks during the condensation of salty water, forcing rock apart.
C. The formation of ice in rock cracks during the condensation of salty water, forcing rock apart.
D. The formation of ice in rock cracks during the evaporation of salty water, forcing rock apart.
A. the formation of minerals in rock cracks during the evaporation of salty water, forcing rock apart
What do freeze-thaw and salt weathering have in common?
A. Both freeze-thaw and salt weathering force rocks apart physically. Only salt weathering requires rain.
B. Both freeze-thaw and salt weathering require rain. Only salt weathering forces rocks apart physically.
C. Both freeze-thaw and salt weathering require rain and force rocks apart physically.
C. both freeze-thaw and salt weathering require rain and force rocks apart physically
___ has a crucial influence on the rates of all types of mechanical weathering.
A. climate
B. sheeting
C. frost wedging
D. biological activity
A. climate
___ can contribute to crumbling roadways in areas where salt is spread to melt snow and ice in winter.
A. climate
B. salt crystalline growth
C. frost wedging
D. sheeting
B. salt crystalline growth
The fissures formed as a result of sheeting in exfoliation domes can be further enlarged by ____ in areas subjected to seasonal freeze-thaw cycles.
A. climate
B. salt crystalline growth
C. frost wedging
D. biological activity
C. frost wedging
The most abundant mineral in lithogenous sediments is:
A. quartz
B. aragonite
C. gypsum
D. calcite
A. quartz
Sediments with all grains of about the same size are classified as:
A. well rounded
B. neritic
C. lithogenous
D. well sorted
D. well sorted
Sediment that begins as rocks on continents or islands is called:
A. hydrogenous sediment.
B. lithogenous (terrigenous) sediment.
C. biogenous sediment.
D. cosmogenous sediment.
E. All of the above.
B. lithogenous (terrigenous) sediment
Sediments that are poorly sorted were most likely deposited by:
A. volcanic eruption
B. wind
C. glacier
D. organisms
C. glacier
Sediments derived from pre-existing rocks on land are called:
A. cosmogenous.
B. lithogenous.
C. hydrogenous.
D. volcanogenic.
B. lithogenous
What is calcareous ooze?
A. a coarse-grained, deep-ocean sediment containing the skeletal remains of ooze-secreting microbes
B. a coarse-grained, deep-ocean sediment containing the skeletal remains of calcite-secreting microbes
C. a fine-grained, deep ocean sediment containing the skeletal remains of calcite-secreting microbes
C. a fine-grained, deep ocean sediment containing the skeletal remains of calcite-secreting microbes
What is the calcite compensation depth, or CCD?
A. the ocean depth below which calcite is unstable and will dissolve quickly
B. the ocean depth above which calcite is unstable and will dissolve quickly
C. the ocean depth below which calcite is stable and will deposit quickly
D. the ocean depth above which calcite is unstable and will deposit quickly
A. the ocean depth below which calcite is unstable and will dissolve quickly
What three steps are required for calcareous ooze to exist below the CCD?
A. deposition of calcite shells above the CCD, cover of these shells by a non-calcareous material, and stability of the sea floor over millions of years
B. deposition of calcite shells above the CCD, cover of these shells by a non-calcareous material, and movement of the sea floor over millions of years
C. deposition of calcite shells below the CCD, cover of these shells by a non-calcareous material, and movement of the sea floor over millions of years
B. deposition of calcite shells above the CCD, cover of these shells by a non-calcenous material, and movement of the sea floor over millions of years
What would happen if the depth of the CCD were above the top of the mid-ocean ridge?
A. The mid-ocean ridge would dissolve.
B. Calcareous ooze would be found below the CCD.
C. Non-calcareous sediment on the mid-ocean ridge would dissolve.
D. Calcareous ooze would not be found below the CCD.
D. calcareous ooze would not be found below the CCD
Oozes are uncommon on continental margins because:
A. biogenous material dissolves faster than it accumulates
B. the biogenous component tends to be overwhelmed by the amount of lithogenous material derived from the nearby continent
C. very little sediment accumulates on continental margins
D. relatively few marine organisms live in the waters over the continental margins
B. the biogenous component tends to be overwhelmed by the amount of lithogenous material derived from the nearby continent
Which of the following contains calcium carbonate (CaCO3)?
A. glauconite
B. phosphorites
C. foraminiferans
D. radiolarians
C. foraminiferans
Calcium carbonate is most likely to dissolve in water with which characteristics?
A. lots of carbon dioxide and colder temperatures
B. low pressure and colder temperatures
C. low pressure and warmer temperatures
D. low carbon dioxide and warmer temperatures
A. lots of carbon dioxide and colder temperatures
Choose the phrase that does not belong.
A. coccolithophores
B. diatoms
C. foraminiferans
D. oolites
E. radiolarians
D. oolites
Salt beds of the U.S. Gulf Coast are:
A. hydrogenous sediments
B. biogenous sediments
C. cosmogenous sediments
D. neritic sediments
A. hyrdrogenous sediments
All of the following are hydrogenous sediments except:
A. manganese nodule.
B. phosphates.
C. stromatolites.
D. halites.
C. stromatolites
The most likely place to find abundant manganese nodules is on the:
A. continental rise.
B. abyssal plain far from a continent.
C. crest of a mid-ocean ridge.
D. continental shelf.
B. abyssal plain far from a continent
Choose the phrase that does not belong.

A. halite and other salts
B. manganese nodules
C. metal sulfides
D. phosphates
E. tektites

E. tektites
Sediments with an extraterrestrial origin are called:
A. lithogenous.
B. biogenous.
C. hydrogenous.
D. cosmogenous.
D. cosmogenous
The particles found in some sediment that suggests that an extraterrestrial impact event are:
A. clays.
B. evaporites.
C. silt.
D. tektites.
D. tektites
You take a sediment sample from the ocean floor at a depth of 5500 m. The area has low biological productivity and the CCD is at 4500 m depth. Your sample will probably consist of:
A. siliceous ooze
B. calcareous ooze
C. sand
D. clay
D. clay
Sediments found on continental margins are called:
A. pelagic.
B. estuarine.
C. continental.
D. neritic.
D. neritic
Pelagic clays contain lots of material that settles to the seafloor through the water column and are:
A. more than 30% biogenous material.
B. less than 30% neritic material.
C. more than 30% hydrogenous material.
D. less than 30% biogenous material.
D. less than 30% biogenous material
All of the following are true concerning neritic sediment deposits except:
A. they may contain sediments of lithogenous origin.
B. they may contain sediments transported from rivers onto the continental shelf.
C. they may form in shallow coastal waters.
D. they are primarily composed of calcareous deposits of biological origin.
D. they are primarily composed of calcareous deposits of biological origin
Which of the following is not an important control on oceanic sediment accumulation?
A. dilution
B. rate of deposition
C. degree of preservation
D. input from other sediment types
E. All of the above factors are important.
E. all of the above factors are important
Ocean sediments provide all of the following mineral resources except:
A. methane hydrates.
B. petroleum.
C. manganese nodules.
D. coal.
D. coal
Which of the following conditions allows for calcareous ooze to be found beneath the CCD?
A. The deposit is mixed with hydrogenous sediment.
B. The deposit undergoes slow burial.
C. The calcareous ooze accumulates faster than it dissolves.
D. The ooze accumulates above the CCD and then is covered before being transported to deeper depths by sea floor spreading.
D. the ooze accumulates above the CCD and then is covered before being transported to deeper depths by sea floor spreading
Sediments derived from the remains of the hard parts of once-living organisms are called ___ sediments.
A. volcanogenic
B. hydrogenous
C. biogenous
D. cosmogenous
C. biogenous
Two common types of chemical compounds found in biogenous sediments are ___ and ___.
A. silica; quartz
B. calcium carbonate; volcanic ash
C. calcium carbonate; quartz
D. calcium carbonate; silica
D. calcium carbonate; silica
The two major types of microscopic, planktonic organisms that produce siliceous oozes are ___ and ___.
A. diatoms; coccolithophores
B. diatoms; radiolarians
C. diatoms; foraminifers
D. coccolithophores; foraminifers
B. diatoms; radiolarians
How does siliceous ooze accumulate on the seafloor if silica-based residues are dissolved slowly at all depths?
A. Silica tests accumulate faster than seawater can dissolve them.
B. Silica-based residues do not accumulate on the seafloor.
C. Low primary productivity in surface waters results in siliceous ooze accumulation.
D. Silica tests sink slower than seawater can dissolve them.
A. silica tests accumulate faster than seawater can dissolve them
Siliceous ooze is particularly abundant on the seafloor at ___ and at ___.
A. high latitudes; mid latitudes
B. high latitudes; low latitudes
C. mid latitudes; equatorial upwelling zones
D. high latitudes; equatorial upwelling zones
D. high latitudes; equatorial upwelling zones
Calcite-secreting organisms such as __________ and __________ live in the ocean’s sunlit surface waters and form the basis of most marine food webs.
A. diatoms; foraminifers
B. coccolithophores; radiolarians
C. coccolithophores; foraminifers
D. diatoms; radiolarians
C. coccolithophores; foraminifers
The depth at which calcite dissolves rapidly in the ocean is called the:
A. halocline
B. thermocline
C. pycnocline
D. calcite compensation depth or CCD
D. calcite compensation depth or CCD
The pH scale is a measure of the __________ ion concentration of a solution.
A. hydrogen
B. carbonate
C. bicarbonate
D. hydroxide
A. hydrogen
As a whole, the pH of surface waters of the ocean is slightly:
A. neutral
B. alkaline
C. acidic
B. alkaline
Carbon dioxide (CO2) combines with water (H2O) to form:
A. carbonate ions (CO3 −2)
B. bicarbonate ions (HCO3 −)
C. calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
D. carbonic acid (H2CO3)
D. carbonic acid (H2CO3)
According to the nebular hypothesis, __________.
A. most bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous cloud composed of mostly heavier elements with only a small amount of hydrogen and helium
B. all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous cloud composed of mostly heavier elements, with only a small amount of hydrogen and helium
C. a few bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous cloud composed of mostly heavier elements, with only a small amount of hydrogen and helium
D. all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous cloud composed of hydrogen, helium, and heavier elements in equal amounts
E. all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous cloud composed of mostly hydrogen and helium, with only a small percentage of heavier elements
E. all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous cloud composed of mostly hydrogen and helium, with only a small percentage of heavier elements
Density stratification in relation to Earth’s interior results in __________.
A. a homogeneous composition of Earth materials
B. the highest density materials concentrated toward Earth’s core, whereas progressively lower density components form concentric spheres around the core toward the planet’s surface
C. the lowest density materials concentrated at Earth’s core, whereas progressively higher density components form concentric spheres around the core toward the planet’s surface
D. the densest materials migrating to oceans whereas the lightest materials end up on the mountains
E. the densest materials migrating to mountains whereas the lightest materials end up in the oceans
B. the highest density materials concentrated toward Earth’s core, whereas progressively lower density components form concentric spheres around the core toward the planet’s surface
Examine the shape of the shoreline of Red Sea. Which of the following set of observations offers the best evidence that the northeast (right-hand) and southwest (left-hand) shores of the Red Sea were once joined to each other?
A. the varying width of the sea, and rocks of similar age on opposite shores of the Red Sea.
B. the jigsaw-puzzle-like fit of the shorelines with each other, old rocks on the northeast shore, and young rocks on the southwest shore.
C. the jigsaw-puzzle-like fit of the shorelines with each other, and rocks of similar age on opposite shores of the Red Sea.
D. the varying width of the sea, old rocks on the northeast shore, and young rocks on the southwest shore.
C. the jigsaw-puzzle-like fit of the shorelines with each other, and rocks of similar age on opposite shores of the Red Sea.
Double-click the Fault Trace placemark. Which of the following statements about the San Andreas Fault is correct?
A. It is a left-lateral strike-slip fault caused by shear stress.
B. It is a normal fault caused by tension.
C. It is a reverse fault caused by compression.
D. It is a right-lateral strike-slip fault caused by shear stress.
D. It is a right-lateral strike-slip fault caused by shear stress.
Describe Earth’s magnetic field, including how it has changed through time.
A. Earth’s magnetic field is composed of invisible lines of magnetic force that originate from beyond Earth’s gravitational force and travel out into space. The polarity of the field has remained the same throughout geologic time.
B. Earth’s magnetic field is composed of invisible lines of magnetic force that originate from beyond Earth’s gravitational force and travel out into space. The polarity of the field has reversed itself throughout geologic time.
C. Earth’s magnetic field is composed of invisible lines of magnetic force that originate within Earth and travel out into space. The polarity of the field has remained the same throughout geologic time.
D. Earth’s magnetic field is composed of invisible lines of magnetic force that originate within Earth and travel out into space. The polarity of the field has reversed itself throughout geologic time.
E. Earth’s magnetic field is composed of the aurora borealis, which indicates that the polarity of the field has remained the same throughout geologic time.
D. Earth’s magnetic field is composed of invisible lines of magnetic force that originate within Earth and travel out into space. The polarity of the field has reversed itself throughout geologic time.
Describe seafloor spreading and why it was an important piece of evidence in support of plate tectonics.
A. Captain Hess suggested that new ocean crust was created at the mid-oceanic ridges and disappeared back into deep Earth at the trenches near the edges of ocean basins. This was an important piece of evidence in support of plate tectonics because it showed that tidal forces moved continental masses.
B. Captain Hess suggested that new ocean crust was created at the mid-oceanic ridges and disappeared back into deep Earth at the trenches near the edges of ocean basins. This was an important piece of evidence in support of plate tectonics because it proved that continental rock plowed through oceanic rock.
C. Captain Hess suggested that new ocean crust was created at the edges of ocean basins and disappeared back into deep Earth at the trenches near the mid-oceanic ridges. This was an important piece of evidence in support of plate tectonics because it showed that tidal forces moved continental masses.
D. Captain Hess suggested that new ocean crust was created at the mid-oceanic ridges and disappeared back into deep Earth at the trenches near the edges of ocean basins. This was an important piece of evidence in support of plate tectonics because it provided a mechanism for continental and oceanic plate motion.
E. Captain Hess suggested that new ocean crust was created at the trenches near the edges of ocean basins and disappeared back into deep Earth at the mid-oceanic ridges. This was an important piece of evidence in support of plate tectonics because it provided a mechanism for continental motion and how continents move across ocean basins.
D. Captain Hess suggested that new ocean crust was created at the mid-oceanic ridges and disappeared back into deep Earth at the trenches near the edges of ocean basins. This was an important piece of evidence in support of plate tectonics because it provided a mechanism for continental and oceanic plate motion.
How do mafic volcanic rocks get to Earth’s surface?
A. Pressure from overlying crust forces mantle magmas through cracks to Earth’s surface. These magmas erupt out of volcanoes, cool, and solidify into rock.
B. Pressure from overlying mantle forces crust magmas through cracks to Earth’s surface. These magmas erupt out of volcanoes, cool, and solidify into rock.
C. Heat from the mantle melts part of the lower crust to form magma, which rises to Earth’s surface. These magmas erupt out of volcanoes, cool, and solidify into rock.
D. Heat from the lower crust melts part of the mantle to form magma that rises to Earth’s surface. These magmas erupt out of volcanoes, cool, and solidify into rock.
A. Pressure from overlying crust forces mantle magmas through cracks to Earth’s surface. These magmas erupt out of volcanoes, cool, and solidify into rock.
How much material was removed from the volcano?
A. 0.28 cubic kilometers of rock
B. 2.8 cubic kilometers of rock
C. 28 cubic kilometers of rock
D. 280 cubic kilometers of rock
B. 2.8 cubic kilometers of rock
How is the age distribution pattern of the Hawaiian Islands-Emperor Seamount chain explained by the position of the Hawaiian hot spot?
A. The volcanoes in the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain get progressively older as one heads northwestward from Hawaii. These age relationships suggest that the Pacific Plate has been steadily moving northwestward, while the underlying mantle plume has remained relatively stationary.
B. The volcanoes in the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain get progressively older as one heads southeastward. These age relationships suggest that the Pacific Plate has steadily moved northwestward, while the underlying mantle plume has remained relatively stationary.
C. The volcanoes in the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain get progressively younger as one heads northwestward. These age relationships suggest that the Pacific Plate has steadily moved northwestward, while the underlying mantle plume has remained relatively stationary.
D. The volcanoes in the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain get progressively younger as one heads northeastward. These age relationships suggest that the Pacific Plate has steadily moved northeastward, while the underlying mantle plume has remained relatively stationary.
E. The volcanoes in the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain get progressively older as one heads northwestward. These age relationships suggest that the Pacific Plate has steadily moved southeastward, while the underlying mantle plume has remained relatively stationary.
A. The volcanoes in the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain get progressively OLDER as one heads NORTHWESTWARD from Hawaii. These age relationships suggest that the Pacific Plate has been steadily moving northwestward, while the underlying mantle plume has remained relatively stationary.
How can plate tectonics be used to help explain the difference between a seamount and a table mount?
A. A seamount is a volcano with a cone-shaped top, whereas a tablemount is a volcano with a flattened top. Though both of these features originate at the crest (and topographic high) of the mid-ocean ridge, a tablemount has been subject to wave erosion when it rises above sea level. When the crust containing the tablemount is pushed away from the crest (and therefore onto a topographically lower position), or is moved away from a hot spot, it is re-submerged with its flat top.
B. A seamount is a coral reef with a cone-shaped top, whereas a tablemount is a coral reef with a flattened top. Though both of these features originate at the crest (and topographic high) of the mid-ocean ridge, a tablemount has been subject to wave erosion. When the crust containing the tablemount is pushed away from the crest (and therefore onto a topographically lower position), it is re-submerged with its flat top.
C. Seamounts and tablemounts are volcanos with a cone-shaped top. Though both of these features can originate at the crest (and topographic high) of the mid-ocean ridges, a tablemount has not been subject to wave erosion. The crust containing the tablemount is pushed away from the crest (and therefore onto a topographically lower position), and it is re-submerged with its conical-shaped top.
D. A seamount is a volcano with a cone-shaped top, whereas a tablemount is a volcano with a flattened top. Though both of these features originate far from the crest of the mid-ocean ridge, a tablemount has been subject to wave erosion. When the crust containing the tablemount is pushed toward the crest it is re-submerged with its flat top.
E. A tablemount is a volcano with a cone-shaped top. A seamount is a volcano with a flat top. Though both of these features originate at the crest (and topographic high) of the mid-ocean ridge, a seamount has been subject to wave erosion. When the crust containing the seamount is pushed away from the crest (and therefore onto a topographically lower position) it is re-submerged with its flat top.
A. A seamount is a volcano with a cone-shaped top, whereas a tablemount is a volcano with a flattened top. Though both of these features originate at the crest (and topographic high) of the mid-ocean ridge, a tablemount has been subject to wave erosion when it rises above sea level. When the crust containing the tablemount is pushed away from the crest (and therefore onto a topographically lower position), or is moved away from a hot spot, it is re-submerged with its flat top.
The cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco, CA, are about 380 miles apart. Plate motion along the San Andreas Fault is about five centimeters per year. If the Los Angeles Dodgers and the San Francisco Giants continue to play at their current locations, how long will it be before their games will constitute a cross-town rivalry?
A. About 10,110,000 years
B. About 17,930,000 years
C. About 18,490,000 years
D. About 15,650,000 years
E. About 12,230,000 years
E. About 12,230,000 years
Segments of the oceanic ridge system that are gentler and less rugged in slope due to faster rates of seafloor spreading are called:
A. deep-sea trenches.
B. convergent plate boundaries.
C. oceanic rises.
D. fracture zones.
E. transform faults.
C. oceanic rises
The direction of motion along a seafloor transform fault is:
A. associated with turbidity currents.
B. influenced by underwater boundary currents.
C. in the same direction as the plates are spreading.
D. perpendicular to the direction of plate movement.
E. in the same direction as the ridge offset.
C. in the same direction as the plates are spreading.
Transform faults have all of the following characteristics except:
A. movement occurs in the same direction.
B. they have many earthquakes.
C. they occur between offset oceanic ridge segments.
D. they occur along transform plate boundaries.
A. movement occurs in the same direction.
Choose the one that doesn’t fit.
A. abyssal hill
B. abyssal plain
C. submarine canyon
D. seamount
E. tablemount
C
Choose the one that doesn’t fit.
A. rift valley
B. oceanic ridge
C. oceanic rise
D. seaknoll
E. seafloor spreading
D
Choose the one that doesn’t fit.
A. black smoker
B. deep focus earthquake
C. hydrothermal vent
D. rift valley
E. white smoker
B
Describe characteristics and features of the mid-ocean ridge, including the difference between oceanic ridges and oceanic rises.
A. The mid-ocean ridge is a topographically high feature, composed of sediment. Along the crest is a rift valley created by seafloor spreading. Cracks and faults are commonly observed in the central rift valley. Ocean ridges are segments of the mid-ocean ridge with a prominent rift valley and steep, rugged slopes. Oceanic rises have slopes that are gentler and less rugged.
B. The mid-ocean ridge is a topographically high feature, composed of basaltic lavas. Along the crest is a rift valley created by seafloor spreading. Cracks and faults are commonly observed in the central rift valley. Ocean rises are segments of the mid-ocean ridge with a prominent rift valley and steep, rugged slopes. Oceanic ridges have slopes that are gentler and less rugged.
C. The mid-ocean ridge is a topographically high feature composed of basaltic lavas. Along the crest is a rift valley created by seafloor spreading. Cracks and faults are commonly observed in the central rift valley. Ocean ridges are segments of the mid-ocean ridge with a prominent rift valley and low, gradual slopes. Oceanic rises have slopes that are steeper and more rugged.
D. The mid-ocean ridge is a topographically low feature composed of basaltic lavas. Along the crest is a rift valley created by seafloor spreading. Cracks and faults are commonly observed in the central rift valley. Ocean ridges are segments of the mid-ocean ridge with a prominent rift valley and steep, rugged slopes. Oceanic rises have slopes that are gentler and less rugged.
E. The mid-ocean ridge is a topographically high feature, composed of basaltic lavas. Along the crest is a rift valley created by seafloor spreading. Cracks and faults are commonly observed in the central rift valley. Ocean ridges are segments of the mid-ocean ridge with a prominent rift valley and steep, rugged slopes resulting from slower plate divergence. Oceanic rises have slopes that are gentler and less rugged due to faster plate divergence.
E. The mid-ocean ridge is a topographically high feature, composed of basaltic lavas. Along the crest is a rift valley created by seafloor spreading. Cracks and faults are commonly observed in the central rift valley. Ocean ridges are segments of the mid-ocean ridge with a prominent rift valley and steep, rugged slopes resulting from slower plate divergence. Oceanic rises have slopes that are gentler and less rugged due to faster plate divergence.
What kinds of unusual life can be found associated with hydrothermal vents? How do these organisms survive?
A. Hydrothermal vents are home to unusual deep-ocean ecosystems that include giant tubeworms, large clams, beds of mussels, and many other creatures. These organisms are able to survive in the absence of sunlight because the vents discharge oxygen gas, which is metabolized by Archae to provide a food source for other organisms.
B. Hydrothermal vents are home to organisms that are roughly the same as organisms in the nearshore environment.
C. Hydrothermal vents are home to unusual deep-ocean ecosystems that include giant tubeworms, large clams, beds of mussels, and many other creatures. These organisms are able to survive in the absence of sunlight because the vents discharge hydrogen sulfide gas, which is metabolized by Archaea (bacteria adapted to harsh conditions) to provide a food source for other organisms.
D. Hydrothermal vents are home to unusual deep-ocean ecosystems that include giant tubeworms, large clams, beds of mussels, and many other creatures. These organisms are able to survive in sunlight that penetrates through the deep ocean waters.
E. Hydrothermal vents are home to unusual deep-ocean ecosystems that include giant tubeworms, large clams, beds of mussels, and many other creatures. These organisms are able to survive in sunlight because the vents discharge hydrogen sulfide gas, which is metabolized by Archaea to provide a food source for other organisms.
C. Hydrothermal vents are home to unusual deep-ocean ecosystems that include giant tubeworms, large clams, beds of mussels, and many other creatures. These organisms are able to survive in the absence of sunlight because the vents discharge hydrogen sulfide gas, which is metabolized by Archaea (bacteria adapted to harsh conditions) to provide a food source for other organisms.
Describe differences between transform faults and fracture zones.
A. A transform fault is a seismically inactive area that shows evidence of past transform fault activity. Two lithospheric plates are moving in the same direction in a transform fault. A fracture zone, on the other hand, is a seismically active area that offsets the axis of a mid-ocean ridge. There is no relative motion because the lithospheric plates are moving in opposite directions.
B. A transform fault is a seismically inactive area that shows evidence of past transform fault activity. Two lithospheric plates are moving in opposite directions in a transform fault. A fracture zone, on the other hand, is a seismically active area that offsets the axis of a mid-ocean ridge. There is no relative motion because the lithospheric plates are moving in the same direction.
C. A fracture zone is a seismically active area that shows evidence of past transform fault activity. Two lithospheric plates are moving in opposite directions in a transform fault. A transform fault, on the other hand, is a seismically inactive area that offsets the axis of a mid-ocean ridge. There is no relative motion because the lithospheric plates are moving in the same direction.
D. A transform fault is a seismically active area that shows evidence of past transform fault activity. Two lithospheric plates are moving in the same direction in a transform fault. A fracture zone, on the other hand, is a seismically inactive area that offsets the axis of a mid-ocean ridge. There is no relative motion because the lithospheric plates are moving in different directions.
E. A transform fault is a seismically active area that shows evidence of past transform fault activity. Two lithospheric plates are moving in opposite directions in a transform fault. A fracture zone, on the other hand, is a seismically inactive area that offsets the axis of a mid-ocean ridge. There is no relative motion because the lithospheric plates are moving in the same direction.
E. A transform fault is a seismically active area that shows evidence of past transform fault activity. Two lithospheric plates are moving in opposite directions in a transform fault. A fracture zone, on the other hand, is a seismically inactive area that offsets the axis of a mid-ocean ridge. There is no relative motion because the lithospheric plates are moving in the same direction.
Measurement of ocean floor bathymetry from satellites relies on ___________.
A. density differences of ocean waters
B. calculations of how much water versus rock there is at any ocean location
C. sea surface elevation, which varies depending on the shape of the underlying sea floor
D. water temperature, which is higher in areas of shallow ocean waters and can easily be detected by satellites
E. water flows off the high areas and into the low areas, making the ocean surface topography the exact inverse of the shape of the sea floor
C. sea surface elevation, which varies depending on the shape of the underlying sea floor
Sediments deposited by the process of suspension settling produce the main sediment found on ___________.
A. submarine fans
B. abyssal plains
C. the continental slope and rise
D. the continental shelf
E. shallow islands in tropical seas
B. abyssal plains
Describe the process of how a deep-sea drilling ship such as the JOIDES Resolution obtains core samples from the deep ocean floor.
A. This ship has a tall metal drilling rig to conduct rotary drilling. The drill pipe is made up of individual sections that can be screwed together to make a single string of pipe. The drill bit, located at the end of the pipe string, rotates as it is pressed against the ocean bottom. A core can then be raised to the surface from inside the pipe.
B. A bucket-like device called a dredge is used to scoop up sediment from the deep-ocean floor for analysis.
C. A tall drilling rig resembling a steel tower is attached to a ship. The tower can produce cores that can be analyzed onboard the ship.
D. There is no way to obtain core samples from the deep-ocean floor.
E. A gravity corer’a hollow steel tube with a heavy weight on top’is thrust into the seafloor to collect cylinders of sediment and rock.
A. This ship has a tall metal drilling rig to conduct rotary drilling. The drill pipe is made up of individual sections that can be screwed together to make a single string of pipe. The drill bit, located at the end of the pipe string, rotates as it is pressed against the ocean bottom. A core can then be raised to the surface from inside the pipe.
Describe the origin, composition, texture, and distribution of lithogenous sediment.
A. Lithogenous sediment is derived from pre-existing rock that is weathered and transported to the oceans by streams, wind, glaciers, and gravity. The composition of lithogenous sediment reflects the material from which it was derived. This type of sediment is typically all the same particle size and can be found nearly everywhere on the ocean floor.
B. Lithogenous sediment is derived from the remains of hard parts of once-living organisms. The composition of lithogenous sediment reflects the material from which it was derived. The size of the sediment is dependent on the energy needed to deposit the sediment, as well as its sorting by size. Lithogenous sediment can be found nearly everywhere on the ocean floor.
C. Lithogenous sediment is derived from pre-existing rock that is weathered and transported to the oceans by streams, wind, glaciers, and gravity. The composition of lithogenous sediment reflects the material from which it was derived. The size of the sediment is dependent on the energy needed to deposit the sediment, as well as its sorting by particle size. Lithogenous sediment can be found only in the nearshore environment.
D. Lithogenous sediment is derived from extraterrestrial sources. The composition of lithogenous sediment reflects the material from which it was derived. The size of the sediment is dependent on the energy needed to deposit the sediment, as well as its sorting by particle size. Lithogenous sediment can be found nearly everywhere on the ocean floor.
E. Lithogenous sediment is derived from pre-existing rock that is weathered and transported to the oceans by streams, wind, glaciers, and gravity from land. The composition of lithogenous sediment reflects the material from which it was derived. The size of the sediment particles is dependent on the energy needed to lay down the deposit, as well as its sorting. Lithogenous sediment can be found nearly everywhere on the ocean floor.
E. Lithogenous sediment is derived from pre-existing rock that is weathered and transported to the oceans by streams, wind, glaciers, and gravity from land. The composition of lithogenous sediment reflects the material from which it was derived. The size of the sediment particles is dependent on the energy needed to lay down the deposit, as well as its sorting. Lithogenous sediment can be found nearly everywhere on the ocean floor.
What is the difference between neritic and pelagic deposits? Give examples of lithogenous sediment found in each.
A. Neritic deposits are found on continental shelves and in shallow water near islands; these deposits are generally coarse grained and are composed primarily of feldspar. Pelagic deposits are found in the deep-ocean basins, are typically fine grained, and are composed primarily of quartz.
B. Pelagic deposits are found on continental shelves and in shallow water near islands; these deposits are generally fine grained. Neritic deposits are found in the deep-ocean basins and are typically coarse grained.
C. Neritic deposits are found on continental shelves and in shallow water near tropical islands; these deposits are generally coarse grained. Pelagic deposits are found in the deep-ocean basins and are typically fine grained.
D. Neritic (of the coast) deposits are found on continental shelves and in shallow water near islands; these deposits are generally coarse grained. Pelagic (of the sea) deposits are found in the deep-ocean basins and are typically finer-grained materials.
E. Pelagic deposits are found on continental shelves and in shallow water near islands; these deposits are generally coarse grained. Neritic deposits are found in the deep-ocean basins and are typically fine grained.
D. Neritic (of the coast) deposits are found on continental shelves and in shallow water near islands; these deposits are generally coarse grained. Pelagic (of the sea) deposits are found in the deep-ocean basins and are typically finer-grained materials.
List the two major chemical compounds that comprise most biogenous sediment, as well as examples of the organisms that produce them.
A. The two most common chemical compounds in biogenous sediment are phosphorous (produced by foraminifers and coccolithophores) and nitrogen (produced by diatoms and radiolarians).
B. The two most common chemical compounds in biogenous sediment are calcium carbonate (derived from extraterrestrial sources) and silica (produced by diatoms and radiolarians).
C. The two most common chemical compounds in biogenous sediment are silica (produced by foraminifers and coccolithophores) and calcium carbonate (produced by diatoms and radiolarians).
D. The two most common chemical compounds in biogenous sediment are calcium carbonate (produced by foraminifers and coccolithophores) and silica (produced by diatoms and radiolarians).
D. The two most common chemical compounds in biogenous sediment are calcium carbonate (produced by foraminifers and coccolithophores) and silica (produced by diatoms and radiolarians).