Nutrition-Spotlight on Eating Disorders

eating disorders
A spectrum of abnormal eating pattern that eventually may endanger a person’s health or increase the risk for other diseases. Generally, psychological factors play a key role.
disordered eating
An abnormal change in eating pattern related to an illness, a stressful event, or a desire to improve one’s health or appearance. If it persists it may lead to an eating disorder.
anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder marked by prolonged decrease of appetite and refusal to eat, leading to self-starvation and excessive weight loss. It results in part from a distorted body image and intense fear of becoming fat, often linked to social pressures.
body image
A person’s mental concept of his or her appearance, constructed from many different influences.
binge-eating disorder
An eating disorder marked by repeating episodes of binge eating and a feeling of loss of control. The diagnosis is based on a person’s having an average of at least two binge-eating episodes per week for 6 months.
compulsive overeating
binge- eating disorder
bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder marked by consumption of large amounts of food at one time (binge eating) followed by a behavior such as self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or other practices to avoid weight gain.
obsessive-compulsive disorder
A disorder in which a person attempts to relieve anxiety by ritualistic behavior and continuous repetition of certain acts.
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by an emotional response to a traumatic event or situation involving severe external stress.
orexin
A type of hormone in the brain that might affect food consumption.
emetics
Agents that induce vomiting.
enemas
Infusion of fluid into the rectum, usually for cleansing or other therapeutic purposes.
diuretics
Drugs or other substances that promote the formation and release of urine. These are given to reduce body fluid volume in treating such disorders as high blood pressure, congestive heart disease, and edema. Both alcohol and caffeine act as this.
laxatives
Substances that promote evacuation of the bowel by increasing the bulk of the feces, lubricating the intestinal wall, or softening the stool.
binge
Consumption of a very large amount of food in a brief time (e.g. two hours) accompanied by a loss of control over how much and what is eaten.
purge
Emptying of the GI tract by self-induced vomiting and/or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.
body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)
An eating disorder in which a distressing and impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance is the primary symptom.
night-eating syndrom (NES)
An eating disorder in which a habitual pattern of interrupting sleep to eat is the primary symptom.
anorexia athletica
Eating disorder associated with competitive participation in athletic activity.
diabulemia
The deliberate injection by those with type 1 diabetes of less insulin that prescribed for the purpose of losing weight.
baryophobia
An uncommon eating disorder that stunts growth in children and young adults as a result of underfeeding.
infantile anorexia
Severe feeding difficulties that begin with the introduction of solid food to infants. Symptoms include persistent food refusal for more that one month, malnutrition, parental concern about the child’s poor food intake, and significant caregiver-infant conflict during feeding.
A major social factor involved in the development of eating disorders, especially among women, is
an unrealistic standard of thinness
Which of the following factors is associated with the development of disordered eating or eating disorders?
Unrealistic expectations to be perfect
A young woman involved in which of the following activities is most likely to develop anorexia nervosa?
Gymnastics
Which of the following is the usual sequence of events in a bulimic person’s behavioral pattern?
Emotional trigger, bingeing, purging
When compared to women, men who develop eating disorders are more likely to be
overweight.
Anorexia athletica frequently affects
dancers.
How often does a person have to binge-eat on a regular basis to be diagnosed with binge-eating disorder?
At least twice a week
Antidepressant hormones used to treat bulimia increase which of the following hormones?
Serotonin
What is missing from the binge-eating disorder cycle that is present in the emotional/behavioral cycle of a bulimic?
Triggering event
Which of the following is a characteristic warning sign of bulimia nervosa?
Binge eating