Nutrition Chapter 1 Terms

the science that studies how food nourishes our bodies and influences our health
animal or plant product that can be taken into the body to yield nutrients
chemicals found in foods that are critical to human growth and function
the ability to do work
food energy
calories; is converted into mechanical, electrical, or heat energy in the body
essential nutrients
those that the body can’t make for itself or cannot make in sufficient quantities to meet its needs
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organic nutrients
a nutrient that contains the element carbon
inorganic nutrients
a nutrient that does not contain carbon
dietary reference intake; replaced the periodic revision of the recommended dietary allowances, or rda
recommended dietary allowances; formerly the principle nutrition standard for americans
tolerable upper intake levels; intake of a nutrient above this increases the potential for toxic effects and health problems
adequate intake; recommended average daily intake level based on experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people
estimated average requirements; the average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half or 50 of the people in a particular category
acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges; describes the portion or % of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient
a multidimensional, lifelong process that includes physical, emotional, and spiritual health
2 critical components of wellness
nutrition and physical activity
scurvy, goiter, rickets
nutrient deficiencies
4 chronic diseases nutrition is associated with
heart disease, cancer, cerebrovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes
increases the risk of the four chronic diseases
nutrition plays a critical role in 4 diseases
osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, some forms of cancer
nutrients needed in relatively small amounts to support normal health and body functions
nutrients that our bodies need in relatively large amounts to support normal health and function
protein, carbs, fats, and water
what are the 4 macronutrients
vitamins and minerals
what are the 2 micronutrients
examples of organic nutrients
carbs, fats, proteins, and vitamins
examples of inorganic nutrients
minerals and water
energy yielding nutrients
carbs, fats, and proteins
measure of heat energy, amount of heat energy needed to raise the temp of 1 kg of water 1 degree C
1 kilocalorie
1,000 calories
unit of weight
caloric value of carbs
4 kcal/g
caloric value of fat
9 kcal/g
caloric value of protein
four kcal/g
caloric value of alcohol
2 roles of energy nutrients
yield energy and provide building blocks to make chemical compounds
reason alcohol isn’t a nutrient
does not support the regulation of body functions or the building or repairing of tissue
energy’s use
help build new compounds, do work, and generate heat
primary source of fuel for our bodies
carb source
fuel for brain and exercise
refers to carbon
refers to water
fat source
important at rest and low-intensity exercise
type of lipid
composition of carbs
carbon, hydrogen, and water
composition of fats
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
not a primary source of energy
protein source
builds new cells, tissues, growth, and repair
composition of proteins
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
what the body does with excess energy
it is stored as fat on the body, or to be drawn between meals, while fasting, or when exercising
nutrients that yield no energy
vitamins, minerals, and water
organic compounds that assist us in regulating our bodies processes
vitamin characteristics
essential to energy metabolism, do not supply energy, and sensitive to light, heat, and chemical agents
vitamin classifications
water soluble and fat soluble
water soluble vitamins
B and C
fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, and K
inorganic substances that are not broken down during digestion and absorption and are not destroyed by heat or light
number of essential minerals
mineral functions
assist in fluid regulation and energy production, essential to health of bones and blood, helps to rid the body of harmful by-products of metabolism
major minerals
need > 100 mg/day
trace minerals
need < 100 mg/day
an indispensable and abundant inorganic nutrient that is vital for survival
water characteristics
needed in large amounts, component of almost every body tissue, participates in metabolic reactions, and a medium of transport to and from the cell
ways water is consumed
its pure form, juices, soups, and solids such as fruits and vegetables
RDA are set for
energy, protein, 11 vitamins, 7 minerals, for various age groups throughout the life cycle, males and females, and pregnant and lactating women
excess intake of energy
uses of rda
to plan and evaluate diets of populations, estimate risk of deficiencies over time, determine the adequacy of diets in surveys, establish guidelines for food assistance programs, guidelines for food labeling, and to develop new food products
estimated energy requirement; average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult
registered dietitian requirements
bs in nutrition, completion of supervised clinical experience, passing a national registration examination, and work in a variety of settings
centers for disease control and prevention
national health and nutrition examination survey
behavioral risk factor surveillance system
national institutes of health