Notes for The 8th Grade Social Studies Staar Test

French and Indian War
left Britain with huge debt and the desire to avoid future costly conflicts
Proclamation of 1763
law prohibited settlement west of Appalachian Mountains crest
mercantilism
trade practice whereby colonies enrich mother country by supplying raw materials and purchasing finished goods
Stamp Act
tax on legal documents and other printed papers
“no taxation without representation”
colonists argued the taxes were unconstitutional
boycotts
colonists refused to buy British goods
Stamp Act riots
civil disobedience harassment of tax collectors
Intolerable Acts
punished Massachusetts for Boston Tea Party
Quartering Act
required colonists to house British soldiers
King George III
King of Britain; his policies angered patriots
patriots
colonists who supported independence and Continental Army
loyalists
colonists who supported independence and Continental Army supported loyalists
William Blackstone
English lawyer
Crispus Attucks
died at Boston Massacre
Samuel Adams
advocated independence and resistance
Abigail Adams
advised John Adams and ran family farm
John Adams
advocated independence; Continental Congress delegate
Patrick Henry
Proclaimed, “Give Me Liberty, Or Give Me Death”
Wentworth Cheswell
rode all night to warn of British invasion
George Washington
Continental Army commander and skilled leader; retreated when necessary; led surprise attacks
John Paul Jones
declared in naval battle,” I have not yet begun to fight!”
Skilled Leader in Continental navy
Mercy Otis Warren
wrote anti-British and anti-loyalist plays
James Armistead
spied on British, posing as runaway black slave
Thomas Paine
wrote Common Sense, convincing many ordinary colonists to support independence from Britain
Thomas Jefferson
wrote majority of Declaration of Independence
Benjamin Franklin
secured French aid; advocated colonial unity
Bernardo do Galvez
shipped supplies to Americans; led Spanish troops to defeat British and deny southern port
Haum Salomon
helped finance war effort, broker
1776
colonies adopted Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
separation from Britain
unalienable rights
God given like Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness
Battles of Lexington
first battles small colonial victories
Battle of Saratoga
Continental Army victory (turning point)
Enduring the Winter at Valley Fore Pennsylvania
thousands of Washington’s troops died this winter
Battle of Yorktown
British surrender to Washington
Treaty of Paris 1783
officially ended war, defined u.s borders
Articles of Confederation
created U.S. government with limited powers
strengths
foreign treaties;national army;navy;westward expansion
weaknesses
could not tax, regulate commerce, or revise Articles without agreement of all thirteen states; no executive or judicial branches