Nonverbal Communications

Nonverbal
20% of our communication; paralanguage, proxemics, eye contact, kinesics, haptics
Paralanguage
vocal elements the accompany verbal/spoken (Intrinsic & Deliberate)
Paralanguage Intrinsic Characteristics
Quality, Rate, Volume
Paralanguage Deliberate variable characteristics
Emphasis – amount of force put on a word, syllable, sentence Tone- mood of speaker
Proxemics
study of space relationships. Adjust distance based on Relationship and nature of subject
Edward T. Hall
4 distance or zones used by people when communicating
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Intimate zone
0″-18″, private, touching, love making, comforting, fighting, sensory awareness at highest. tells others to “stay away”
Personal zone
18″-4′ Less intimate but still implications of privacy, when comfortable with friends, coworkers
protective bubble
distance from others where we feel comfortable 2.5′-3.5′
Social zone
4′-12′ most business communication, not necessarily friends, not personal info., job conversation 4-6′, meetings 6′-8′, formal business conversations across table 10-12′
Public zone
12′ or more, non personal for all listeners
Factors affecting proxemic behavior
social, race, sex, ethnicity, geographic
First impressions
5-10 seconds, nonverbal communication can override verbal message
Eye Contact
Regulatory Eye contact – when you should and should not communicate, regulates inclusion/exclusion. Expressive function of eye contact…
Eye Contact: Approach/Reproach system
lets you know if you can interrupt/approach a person or if you are being reproached for attempting to enter into a conversation
Eye contact distance and amount
shorter distance = less eye contact
greater distance = more eye contact
Kinesics
how we use our body to add to messages: (includes facial expressions) somatyping, body movements(emblems, illustrators, regulators, adaptors, affect displays)
Kinesics/Somatyping
Endomorphic, Mesomorphic, Ectomorphic
Kinesics/Emblems
movements/gestures that can be translated into words, need to be understood by all, take place of words
Kinesics/Illustrators
movements used to help explain or illustrate what our words are saying
Kinesics/Affect Displays
Facial movements that show how we are being affected by a message. Made by the receiver. most expressive part of body
Mark Knapp:use facial language to:
open/close communication channels, compliment/qualify verbal/nonverbal responses, Replace speech
Kinesics/Regulators
movements that encourage/discourage further communication. Positive vs. Negative
Kinesics/Adaptors
movements which help us to get comfortable/better oriented to a situation. subliminal, way we sit, hold our head, stand or walk
Haptics
study of touch, human contact, how much/how little – cultural