In this report I am going to be covering camera techniques, narrative structure, format, styles and content and technical elements. When doing so I am going to be explaining how each one works, what it does and give examples of how they are used.
Camera techniques In film and television production there are two main types of camera techniques single camera production and multi camera productions.
A single camera production either film or video is employed on the set and each shot to make up a scene. These shots are taken individually. Using the single-camera setup generally employs just one camera. Each of the various shots and camera angles is taken with the same camera which is moved and reset to get each shot or from a new angle, if a scene cuts back and forth between actor A and actor B, the director will first point the camera towards A and shoot shots number 1, 3, 5, 7, and so on.
Then they will point the camera toward subject B and do shots number 2, 4, 6, 8, ECT. Multiple-camera mode of production or multicam is a method of shooting films and television programs. Several cameras either film or video are employed on the set and simultaneously records or broadcast a scene. By using this format there is multiple shots taken to chapter the overall action and establishes the geography of the room. An example of the set up of a multi camera production set is shown below
Narrative structure helps to define the story and helps to understand the message within the film giving it a meaning, this only applies to the way the story is told not the story itself. Narrative structure is divided into 3 different stages also known as the chronological stages.
Stage 1 -the beginning – the state of equilibrium
Stage 2 –the middle – the destruction of equilibrium
Stage 3 – the end- the reinstatement of the equilibrium.
However there is another way to describe Narrative structure in more depth the French male Tzvetan Todorov does this by using 5 stages.
Stage 1 – A state of equilibrium is defined.
Stage 2 – Disruption to the equilibrium by some action or crisis.
Stage 3- the character(s) attempt to repair the disruption, Setting goals to resolve problem.
Stage 4- The Character(s) attempt to repair the disruption; Obstacles need to be overcome to restore order.
Stage 5- Reinstatement to the equilibrium. Situation is resolved, a conclusion is announced.
Narrative flashbacks takes the narrative back in time from the current point that the story has reached. Most of the time flashbacks are used to recount events that have happened before the story’s primary sequence of events or to fill in a crucial back-story or stories. A character origin flashback specifically refers to flashbacks dealing with key events early in a character’s development. In the opposite direction, a flash forward reveals events that will occur in the future. This technique is used to create suspense in a story, or develop a character.
Linear Vs Non Linear
Non Linear is where events that are happening are portrayed out of chronological order It is often used to mimic the structure and recall of human memory but has been applied for other reasons as well. 2 examples of non linear films are kill bill and across the hall however linear is where events that happening are in chronological order; the story starts at the beginning goes on throughout the middle and then finishes at the end an example of a linear film is little red riding hood and also beauty and the beast.
Realism vs surrealism
Realism narrative is a storyline that capture real life though the life of the character(s) . The events that happen within the story line could happen in everyday The clue of its meaning is within the name realism, so anything that happens within a realism narrative is capable of happening in everyday life. Surrealism narrative is the opposite within this particular narrative the content and events involved in the story line will be unreal and essentially made up from someone’s imagination.
Comedy Comedy film is a genre of film in which the main emphasis is on humor. Comedy, unlike other film genres, puts much more focus on individual stars, with many former stand-up comic transitioning to the film industry due to their popularity. The plot of the comedy is often concerned with a love affair or some other scandal. However, the plot is generally less important than its witty dialogue. Hybrid comedy genres
• Action comedy films blend comic antics and action where the film stars combine wit and one-liners with a thrilling plot and daring stunts. These types of films are often with mismatched partners films which are an example of this are Rush Hour, Bad Boys, and Hot Fuzz.
• Comedy horror is a type of horror film in which the usual dark themes are treated with a humorous approach. These films are either use goofy horror clichés such as in The Old Dark House, Young Frankenstein, Little Shop of Horrors, Haunted Mansion and Scary Movie. • Fantasy comedy films are types of films that use magic, supernatural and or mythological figures for comic purposes. Most fantasy comedy includes an element of parody turning many of the fantasy conventions on their head such as the hero becoming a cowardly fool. Examples of these films include Night at the Museum, Day, and Shrek
• Sci-fi comedy films, like most hybrid genre of comedy use the elements of science fiction films to over the top extremes and exaggerated science fiction stereotypical characters. Popular examples of these types of films include Ghostbusters, Evolution and Men in Black. • Military comedy films, involve comic situations in a military setting. Examples of military comedy are What Did You Do in the War, Daddy?, MASH, the Private War of Major Benson. Action
Action film is a film genre where one or more heroes are put into a series of challenges that require physical feats, extended fights and frenetic chases. Story and character development are generally secondary to explosions, fist fights, gunplay and car chases. This particular genre is closely linked with the thriller and adventure film genres and spy fiction. Technical elements
Light In film, the use of light can influence the meaning of a shot. For example, film makers often portray villains that are heavily shadowed or veiled, using backlight. There are many different types of lighting techniques including Background lighting, Cameo lighting ,Fill light, Flood lighting ,High-key lighting ,Key Lighting ,Lens flare ,Low-key lighting, Mood lighting, Rembrandt lighting, Stage lighting and Soft light
Sound Sound effects or audio effects are created or enhanced sounds, which are used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media. In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music. In professional motion picture and television production, dialogue, music, and sound effects recordings are treated as separate elements. Dialogue and music recordings are never referred to as sound effects, even though the processes applied to them, such as reverberation or flanging effects. Editing
Film editing is part of the process of filmmaking. It involves the selection and combining of shots into sequences, and ultimately creating a finished motion picture. It is an art of storytelling. Film editing is the only art that is unique to cinema, separating film-making from other art forms that preceded it such as photography, theater, dance, writing, and directing, Film editing is often referred to as the “invisible art] because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that he or she is not even aware of the editor’s work.