Mythology Edith Hamilton Study Guide

Hera
Juno
Poseidon
Neptune
Zeus
Jupiter
Hades
Pluto
Apollo
Phoebus
Artemis
Diana
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Hephaestus
Vulcan
Demeter
Ceres
Athena
Minerva
Ares
Mars
Aphrodite
Venus
Hermes
Mercury
Eros
Cupid
Dionysus
Bacchus
Zeus
Greek king of the gods
Poseidon
Greek god of the sea, horses and earthquakes
Hades
Greek god of the underworld
Hestia
Greek goddess of hearth and home; sister of Zeus
Ares
Greek god of war
Pallas Athena
Greek goddess of wisdom, war and weaving
Phoebus Apollo
Greek and Roman god of the sun, music, poetry and medicine
Aphrodite
Greek goddess of love and beauty
Hermes
Greek messenger-god; god of travelers and thieves
Artemis
Greek goddess of moon and hunting; patroness of maidens
Hephaestus
Greek god of fire; forger of armor
Hera
Greek queen of gods
Hestia
Vesta
Gaea
Mother Earth
Cyclopes
One-eyed children of Mother Earth and Father Heaven
Ouranos
Father Heaven
Cronus
The titan who rebelled against Father Heaven
Cronus
He swallowed his children out of fear that one would overthrow him
Furies
punishes evildoers in the underworld. Tisiphone, Alecto, and Magaera.
Cronus
Dethroned by his son Zeus
Atlas
His punishment from Zeus was to carry the world upon his shoulders
Zeus
Breastplate=Aegis
Zeus
Bird=Eagle
Zeus
Tree=Oak
Sirens
Women with enchanting voices whose singing lured sailors to their death
Oreads
Nymphs of the mountains
Gorgons
Dragon-like creatures with wings, whose looks turn people to stone
Chiron
The wisest of the centaurs
Dryads
The nymphs of trees; each one’s life was bound up with that of her tree
Castor and Pollux
Sons of Leda; special protectors of sailors
Pan
Hermes’ son; part goat and part man; born in Arcady; liked to play reed pipes
Hera
Animals=cow and peacock
Hera
City=Argos
Poseidon
Carried the trident
Hades
god of wealth (mineral riches)
Hades
helmet when worn that made the wearer invisible
Tartarus and Erebus
2 divisions of the underworld
Virgil
Roman poet who described Underworld in details
Nereus
Old man of the sea
Nereids
Nymphs of the sea; named after their father
Lethe
River of Forgetfulness
Styx
The river in the underworld by which the gods make their oaths
Charon
The boatman of the underworld; he ferries the dead souls across a river
Persephone
Queen of the underworld; taken by Hades
Naiads
Water nymphs who lived in brooks, springs and fountains
Proteus
Had the power to change shape and foretell the future; son/companion of Poseidon
Graces
Nine sisters who give song and inspiration to humanity; daughters of Zeus and Mnemonsyne (Memory)
Eros
Greek god of love; son of Aphrodite; often shown blindfolded
Athena
daughter of Zeus alone; sprang full-grown from his head
Athena
First tamed horses
Athena
one of three virgin goddesses (chief)
Athena
City=Athens
Tree=Olive
Bird=Owl
Temple=Parthenon
Apollo
First taught people the healing arts
Apollo
Oracle at Delphi
Apollo
Pythian=killed the python of Parnassus
Lycian=Wolf God
Apollo
Tree=laurel
Creatures=dolphin, crow
Phoebus
brillant or shining
Artemis
Lady of Wild Things; huntsman-in-Chief
Artemis
Tree=Cypress
Animal=Deer
Aphrodite
Tree=Myrtle
Birds=Dove, Sparrow, Swan
Ares
Bird=Vulture
Animal=Dog
Hephaestus
Workman for immortals
Clio
Muse of history
Urania
Muse of astronomy
Melpomene
Muse of tragedy
Thalia
Muse of comedy
Terpsichore
Muse of dance
Calliolpe
Muse of epic poetry
Erato
Muse of love-poetry
Polyhymnia
Muse of songs to the gods
Euterpe
Muse of lyric poetry
Cerberus
3-headed, dragon-tailed dog of the Underworld
Demeter
Goddess of Corn. Daughter of Cronus and Rhea
Dionysus
God of Wine
Aelous
King of Winds
Boreas
North Wind
Zephyr
West Wind
Notus
South Wind
Eurus
East Wind
Centaurs
half-man, half-horse: savage creatures. More like beast then man.
Asgard
Norse Olympus
Odin
sky father in Norse mythology
Odin
eats nothing; feeds two wolves
Odin
2 ravens=news about the world of humans
Odin
Wednesday is named after him
Odin
Responsibility-postpone day of doom=Ragnarok
Odin
gains knowledge of the Runes in a mystreious way after giving up one of his eyes to drink at the Well of Wisdom
Valkyries
attended Odin; decides who lives and dies in battle; carries the brave dead to Valhalla (Hall of the Slain)
Balder
most beloved; Odin and Frigga’s son
Balder
death was the 1st disaster of the gods; death is attributed to Loki
Loki
son of a giant
Loki
punished by imprisonment in a deep cavern
Thor
Thunder god; strongest god
Thor
Thursday is named after him
Goddesses
not as important in Asgard as in Olympus
Frigga
Friday is said to be named after her
Freya
Friday is named after her
Frigga
wise, silent; never shares her knowledge
Freya
goddess of love and beauty in Norse mythology
Freya
gets her share of dead on the battlefield
Hela/Hel
has absolute rule over the Kindgom of Death
Asgard
belongs to the gods
Niflheim
Death
Midgard
battlefield; where humans live
Valhalla
belongs to the heroes
Yggdrasil
ash tree
Clotho
Spinner; spun the thread of life
Lachesis
Disposer of Lots; assigned each man his destiny
Atropos
carried the “Abhorred Shears” and cuts the thread of life
Hercules
12 labors; not intelligent; incredibly strong
Eris
evil goddess of Discord. Threw the golden apple at King Peleus’ and the sea nymph Thetis’ marriage.
Paris
gave Aphrodite the golden apple. Young prince who lived near Troy; King Priam’s son.
Hera
Offered Paris to become Lord of Europe and Asia
Aphrodite
Offered Paris the fairest woman in all the world to be his.
Athena
Offered Paris to lead the Trojans to victory against the Greeks and lay Greece in ruins.
Oedipus
Solved the Sphinx’s riddle; the Sphinx killed herself
Oedipus
Held to be son of King Polybus from Corinth
Oedipus
Killed his real father and married his own mother; had two sons. Blinded himself once he knew what he had done
Oedipus
Became King of Thebes
Arcrisius
a king of Argos, father of Danae who locked her in a pit. Grandfather of Perseus, who learned of a prophecy in which his grandson would kill him. Perseus hits him on the head with a discus.
Perseus
the hero who faces the Medusa and the Gorgons. His parents were Zues and Danae, and when he was discovered by Acrisius, put in a chest by his grandfather. Saves by Dictys, he grew up and is tricked by Polydectes to fight Medusa. With help from Athena (shield), Hermes (directions), Grey Woman (directions), Hyperboreans(bag, sandals, cap of invisibility), he kills Medusa. On his return, his saves Andromeda, his later to be wife, from a giant sea serpent. He turns the evil king to stone with Medusa’s head. After accidentally killing his grandfather in a discus throwing competition, he is forced to change the kingdom in which he rules. He died of old age.
Danea
Mother of Perseus who, like him, was sent in a chest out to sea. Polydectes falls in love with her ,and she finds safety in the Islands temple of Athena.
Polydectes
The evil king of the islands, he was the brother of Dictys. He was killed by Perseus at his wedding, and he fell in love with Danea
Dictys
Fisherman who takes in Perseus and Danea
Gray Women
Three wise woman who share a single eye. They help lead Perseus to the land of the Hyperboreans.
Hyperboreans
These partying people of the North give Perseus three gifts: wallet (which can hold anything), shoes (which can fly), and cap (of invisibility)
Gorgons
three ugly monsters with the power to turn their foes to stone if they look at them. Two of the three are immortal.
Medusa
The only mortal gorgon. She used to be a lover of Poseidon until she is punished by Athena. Perseus requires the head of the monster.
Andromeda
a pretty maiden who was chained to a rock due to her mother’s claiming that she was more beautiful than the Neriads. _______ was doomed to be eaten by a sea monster until saved by Perseus. Later, they get married, and Perseus, unlike so many other heroes, remains faithful to his wife
Labor 1
This labor involved the killing of the Namean Lion, a beast immune to all weapons which he choked
Labor 2
This Labor involved the killing of the Lyrinian Hydra, a monster who sprouted new heads when one head is cut off
Labor 3
This labor involved bringing back the Stag with Golden Horns, an animal sacred to Artemis
Labor 4
This labor involved capturing the Great Boar of Mount Erymanthus
Labor 5
This labor involved cleaning the Aegian Stables
Labor 6
This labor involved driving away the Styphilian birds
Labor 7
This labor involved the catching of Poseidon’s Bull at Crete
Labor 8
This labor involved the man-eating mares
Labor 9
This labor involved bringing back the girdle of the Amazon Apolata, who was the queen
Labor 10
This labor involved bringing back Geryon’s cattle
Labor 11
This labor involved bringing back the golden apples of the Hesperides
Labor 12
This labor involved capturing Cerberus and out-wrestling Hades
Judgement of Paris
the time where Paris, a son of Priam, choose the fairest out of three goddesses, Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite, not out of their beauty but their bribes
Eris
The goddess of discord who was not invited to the marriage of King Peleus and Thetis. She throw in the golden apple, which lead to the Trojan War
King Peleus
the father of Achilles
Thetis
the mother of Achilles, who made him immune to all attack except in the heal. After the shameful actions of Agamemnon to Achilles, involving his maiden of war, she demanded from Zues that the Greeks win no more battles
“For the Fairest”
the phrase on the golden apple of discord
Who were Paris’s parents?
Priam, king of Troy, and Hecuba, queen of Troy
Oenone
Paris’s girlfriend who he dumps for Helen after the judgement of Paris. When Paris comes to her after he is mortally wounded, she refuses to heal him and he dies. Then, she kills herself.
Paris
Originally, he was a shepherd living with Oenone because his father, King Priam, heard a prophecy that he would led to the ruin of Troy. After judging the fairest of the goddesses, he gains Aphrodite’s favor and, breaking the laws of hospitality, steals Helen while Menelaus is away. This action starts the Trojan War. Beyond fighting Menelaus and losing and killing Achilles with the help of Apollo, he takes little part in the war. After being mortally wonder by Philoctetes with Hercules’s arrows, he returns to Oenone and pleads for healing. However, she refuses.
Hera’s Bribe
Lord of all of Europe and Asia
Athena’s Bribe
A Trojan victory against the Greeks
Aphrodite’s Bribe
The Most Beautiful Woman on Earth as his wife
Helen
The most beautiful woman on earth who was the daughter of Zues and Lyda. She was the sister of Castor and Pollux. At one point, she was kidnapped by Theseus for Pirithous and taken to Athens, and her brothers recked the city and saved her. When Paris stole her away, the Trojan War started due to a pact made by all the Greek chieftains. She was “the face that launched a thousand ships.” Her husband was Menelaus.
Menelaus
The husband of Helen and king of sparta, this man was also the brother of Agamemnon. When he battled Paris to decide the fate of the Trojan War, Paris is saved by Aphrodite. Beyond that, little is known of his exploits during the Trojan War.
Agamemnon
Brother of Menelaus who leads the troops of Greece. Although he causes much strife, with the stealing of Breseis from Achilles, he remains a good general. As a member of the House of Atreus, upon returning, he is killed by his wife, Clymestra, and her adulterer/his cousin, Aegisthus
Kidnapping of Helen
this action starts the Trojan War and breaks the Laws of Hospitality
Odysseus
the shrewdest and most cunning of all the Greek warriors. When he heard of the war, he pretended to be mad and sowed the earth with salt. However, he still went to war and proved a necessity in collecting the arrows of Hercules an the Palladium. He also helps the capture of the Trojan seulth sayer. Later, he returns to his homeland, Ithica, described in the Odyssey.
Iphigenia
the daughter of Agamemnon who, to some accounts, was sacrificed. Artemis was making sure the winds were unfavorable for the killing of a sacred hare. In some stories, Iphigenia survives and travels to the island of the Tarians where she becomes the priestess of Artemis. There she reunites with her brother Orestes, and the curse of the House of Atreus finally lifts.
Priam
the king of Troy with sons such as Hector and Paris. He is killed by Neoptalimas, the son of Achilles
Hecuba
the queen of Troy who offers her best robe to Athena to end her favoritism to the Greeks. However, Athena refuses this gift
Hector
the “tamer of horses,” this man was easily the best of the Trojan warriors and was favored greatly by Apollo who repeatedly aided him/ revenged him. His wife was Andromache and son Astyanax. This man kills Patroclus, the friend of Achilles, and Achilles avenges his death. His body is mangled as Achilles drags his around behind his chariot. however, Priam pleads for the return of his sons body and Achilles obliges.
Andromache
wife of Hector who pleads that he does not go into battle and that her son, Astyanax,be a better warrior even than his father
Achilles
the greatest Greek warrior, this man was invulnerable in every place except his heal, due to the actions of his mother Thetis. His death was foretold to be closely after that of Hector, who he killed is battle with the help of Athena. Thetis gave his beautiful arms made by Hephestus himself which, after his death at Paris’s/Apollo’s hands, caused much discord by Ajax the greater and Odysseus. When Agamemnon takes Briseis away from him, he goes into doldrums and refuses to fight for the Greeks. During recruiting, he pretends to be a girl but is tricked by Odysseus into revealing himself.
Chryseis
the daughter of a priest of Apollo who called a pestilence upon the Greeks until she was returned to her father. She was originally the war bride of Agememnon.
Calchas
a Greek suelth-sayer
Brisies
Originally, this maiden was the war bride of Achilles. However, after the departure of Chryseis, Agamemnon demanded that Brisies become his war bride. This action led to Achilles camping in his tent due to the shame.
Ajax the Greater
a very skilled fighter who battled Hector to a draw. Noted for his height, this man killed himself after a bit of temporary madness (in which he killed the greek cattle thinking they were his comrades) caused by Athena. He was greatly angered by the decision to give Achilles’s arms to Odysseus
Ajax the Lesser
a skilled fighter who fought alongside Ajax the Greater
Diomedes
during the period of Achilles’s departure, this man proved to be a great warrior. While fighting Aneas, he wounds him, and when Aphrodite attempts to save him from the battlefield, he cuts her hand, sending her away from the Trojan War. Aneas, however, escapes this man luckily. Also, in the midst of battle, he manages to gore Ares with his spear with the help of Athena
Astyanax
the son of Hector who was the last of Priam’s line. He was Troy’s last sacrifice. He was thrown off the wall of Troy.
“tamer of horses”
the title given to Hector
Nestor
the oldest and the wisest of the Greeks
Patroclus
the friend of Achilles who takes his armor and fights in his stead. Although he is originally successful, Hector mets him and kills him. His death brings Achilles out of his doldrums and he avenges the death of his friend.,
Achilles Armor
this device causes tension between the Greek leaders, who all want it. Thetis gives it to Achilles and it was made by Hephaestus. It causes Ajax to go insane through a series of events.
Hercules’s Arrows
one of the items required for the Greeks to win the war. This weapons kill Paris when shot by their holders Philoctetes. Odysseus is sent out to trick Philoctetes and get them; however, he decides to bring Philoctetes along with them to Troy
Philoctetes
holder of the arrows of Hercules who mortally wound Paris and was bitten by a snake and left behind originally
Palladium
an item needed for a Greek victory found in troy that was a wooden statue of Athena
Sinon
the clever Greek warrior who told the Trojans the story of the horse and the Greek departure
Cassandra
a daughter of Priam who was loved by Apollo and given the gift of prophecy. However, when she did not return his love, Apollo cursed her so that no one ever believed her prophecies
“Beware Greeks Bearing Gifts”
Cassandra’s Prophecy which no Trojan heeds
Theseus
the clever Athenian hero who represented all of the values of Athens: wisdom and justice. He, who was thought to be the son of Poseidon, fought multiple bandits on his way to Athens and became very popular. Upon arrival, he went to the palace which belonged to his earthly father, Aegeus. When he got there, however, his father did not recognize him and Medea, who knew his identity, planned to kill him with poison. However, at the last second, Aegeus recognizes Theseus’s sword and stops the murder. Theseus also battles the minotaur in the labyrinth, stops an unruly lot of centaurs at a friends wedding, journeys to the underworld to give his friend a new bride, Persephone, and suffers a severe marital scandal. Later, for reasons unknown, he is pushed off a cliff by King Lycomedes.
Aegeus
The last king of Athens whose son was Theseus. He set up a boulder and told his wife to let Theseus go to Athens when he could lift it and get the things, his sword and shoes, under it. Although he accidentally attempted to kill his son, he recognized him at the last moment. When Theseus forgot to raise the white sail, he jumps into the water, later known as the Aegean Sea.
Sciron
one of the wicked men along the path towards Athens who forced his victims to bend over and wash his shoes. While kneeling, this man would kick them out a cliff and into the sea. Theseus threw his off his own cliff.
Sinis
one of the wicked men along the path toward Athens, who killed people by catapulting them off pine trees, was killed by Theseus in the same way.
Procrustes
one of the wicked men along the path towards Athens, who killed people by tricking them into one of his beds. Once laying on the beds, he would stretch those two short and chop off the limbs of those two long. Theseus, although not clear which he did, killed this man in the same way.
Minos
The father of Adrogeus, Ariadne, and the Minotaur, this man was a powerful king of Crete. A son of Zues, he demanded frequent sacrifice from the Athenians to the minotaur after the death of his son.
Androgeus
While visiting Athens, this man found hospitality with King Aegeus. However, the King did something no one, following the laws of hospitality, should do. He sent this prince to battle and dangerous bull, and he was killed. Minos declared that there should be a sacrifice of Athenians in revenge.
Rule of Hospitality
These rules, excepted by every Greek, provided regulation for treatment of guest and host. ADD TO.
every 9 years, 7 girls, 7 boys
the Athenian penance that Minos inflicted involving those sent to the Minotaur
Minotaur
a horrible monster, half man, half bull, which dwelled in the Labyrinth. It was killed by Theseus with his own bare hands.
Daedelus
The wise man and architect who created the Labyrinth for the Minotaur. Also, he aided Ariadne by telling her the secret of the string, which helped Theseus overcome the labyrinth. After years of imprisonment from Minos, he escaped on wings with his son Icarus, who died during the escape
Ariadne
The princess of the Island of Crete who falls in love with Theseus. She gives Theseus the string and runs away with him. However, at the Island of Naxos, where she was either deserted by Theseus or died after a bad wind leaves her abandoned.
Ball of Thread
this item is given to Theseus by Ariadne to help him find his way through the Labyrinth.
Black/White Sails
the sign to Aegeus so that he could tell of Theseus had survived or not. Theseus’s forgetfulness led his father to jump to his death.
Hippolytus
The son of Theseus who, favored by Artemis, was an extremely skilled hunter. Phaedra, his stepmother, falls in love with him, he refuses her love. Phaedra suicide, due to her incriminating note, is blamed on him, and Thesues curses him. When mortally wound due to his father’c curse, his horses being scared by a sea monster and his chariot shattered. Dying, Artemis returns him to his father and tells him the truth. He dies in his father’s arms.
King Lycomedes
a friend of Theseus who, for reasons unknown, pushed him off a cliff. Later, at his court, Achilles dressed up like a girl to hide from the draft.
Eurystheus
the king who, with the help of Hera, decided the twelve labors of Hercules.
Deianira
a wife of Hercules, who he won in a battle against Acheloues, that accidentally kills him knowing that his is unfaithful. A centaur named Nessus tells her that his blood (which is mixed with Hydra venom) is a powerful love potion. She attempts to make a robe, dipped in the potion, and send it to Hercules. When he puts it on, only Jason’s bride, he does not die immediately but slowly and painfully. He lights his own funeral pyre, and upon realizing what she has done, this woman kills herself.
music teacher
This man, who was one of the many teachers of Hercules, who Hercules killed in a moment of Madness
Hippolyta
the Queen of the Amazons whose girdle was demanded in the ninth labor. She greeted Hercules kindly and gave him the girdle; however, Hera stirred up trouble. She made the Amazons believe that Hercules was trying to steal the queen. Hercules, seeing the Amazons coming to attack him, killed her.
King Eurytus
father of Iole, a beautiful maiden, this king is revenged upon by Hercules. Hercules makes an army, captures the king, and puts him to his death.
Philoctetes
A friend of Hercules who lit his funeral pyre. He was given the arrows of Hercules which would, along with himself, play an important part of the Trojan War
Alcestis
the wife of Admetus who states that she was willing to die for him. Hercules, after wrestling with death, brings her back to life.
Hercules
the hero of Thebes, who, was the son of Zues and Alcetis. He is the strongest man on earth and, after killing his wife and kids in a fit or rage brought on by Hera, he fells so much guilt he intends to kill himself until convinced otherwise by Theseus. He then takes on the twelve labors, extremely difficult tasks, as penance for his crimes. He dies at the hands of his wife, who, believing that she has a powerful poison, she covers a robe in it and gives it to Hercules. Once he puts it on, he fells terrible pain due to the mix of Hydra poison and centaur blood. He lights his own funeral pure and Philoctetes shoots the burning arrows into the pure.
Athamas
A king who got tired of his first wife and married another, Princess Ino. He, thinking he was following the orders of the oracle but actually that of Ino, was forced by his civilians to sacrifice Phrixus, his own son.
Ino
The second wife of king Athamas who attmepted to kill Phrixus by ruining one years crop. Then, she bribed the messenger to the oracle to say that only with the scrifice of Phrixus would the crop grow again.
Helle
Namesack of the Hellesponte, this girl and sister of Phrixus slipted off the Golden Ram sent by Hermes and drowned in the water between Europe and Asia.
Phrixus
this boy, son of Athamas, was almost sacrificed because of a false sacrifice made up by his stepmother, Ino. However, his originally mother had prayed to Hermes, who sent a Golden Ram to pick up her children from the Alter (her daughter Helle was also in danger). He landed in Colchis were the king, Aetes, greated him kindly and let him have, in the future, one of his daughters as his wife. As a man, he sacrificed the ram that saved his life to Zues.
Colchians
The people of Colchis who greated Phrixus kindly and held on to the golden fleece.
Aetes
King of Colchis and father of Medea who recieves Phrixus kindly. He held on to the Golden Fleece protectively, and he attempted to thrwart Jason by giving him near impossible tasks if not for the help of Medea. Once Jason got the fleece, he attempted to have him followed and killed by Medea, by means unknown, kills her brother Apsyrtus and delays them.
Pelias
Jason’s cousin who steals the thrown from Jason’s father. He is warmed to beware a man wearing one shoe and one in his family, such as Jason appears to him with only one shoe. He rules over Corinth until Jason, with the help of Medea, tricks his daughters, making them think that they would make him youthful again, into cutting him up.
Argo
the magical boat, which could talk, that was built with the help of Athena, was the vehicle of travel that the argonauts took.
Hylas
the armor bearer and friend of Hercules who went to get some water on Lemnos. When getting some water, a water nymph pulled him in to kiss him and he was seen no more. Hercules left the Argo to go searching for him and forgot about the quest.
Harpies
these bird-like monsters troubled Phineus until the two sons of Boreas chased them away. Before they could slay them, Iris, the messenger goddess of the rainbow, stopped them by swearing on the River Styx, a oath that could not be broken, that they would never return. A stench followed them and whatever they touched so that Phineas, who the Harpies attacked by touching all of his food, could not eat
Phineus
the prophet that was troubled by the Harpies for telling to many secrets. He, repaying the for riding him of the monsters, told them of the dangers of the Clashing Rocks.
Medea
This princess, the duaghter of King Aetes, was as powerfully magically as her aunt, Circe. She, who had fallen in love with Jason due to Cupid’s arrows, helped him on his quest by using magic and killing when necessary. Although Jason promised that they would be married, he refused when they arrived home and married the King of Corinth’s daughter. In revenge she killed their children and his wife with her magic. Then, she fled on some dragons to Athens, where she attempted to kill Theseus.
Hera/Aphrodite
the two goddesses who work together to make Medea side with Jason
Talus
the giant bronze statue, all immune in the heal, who threw boulders at those who came close to him as he patrolled the cost of Corinth
the wife of Jason
King of Corinth’s daughter
brings back the Ram/father, Talus, healing herbs
All the instances of Magic by Medea
Death of Apsyrtus, Jason’s wife/children, Pelias
All of Medea’s murders
Tantalus
the root of the House of Atreus who started the original curse. Although favored by the gods, he became prideful and thought they had many faults. To prove this, he attempted to feed them his son Pelops in a stew. For this sin, he was sent to the underworld into a pool were all food and drinks always remained out of his reach
Pelops
this son of Tantalus was the oly member of the house of Atreus to avoid the curse, ignoring being stewed and almost being eaten by the gods. Frequently, he got help from the gods on his journeys. His wife, Hippodamia, he won in a horse race for his life with her father. With the help of Poseidon’s horse, superior to those of Ares his competitor, and Hippodamia, who changed parts of the wheel into wax, he suceeded. However, when the King was thrown off his chariot, he cursed this man as he died, and their is some debate whether this is the origin of the curse of Atreus. He is the father of Atreus and Thyestes.
Hippodamia
The wife of Pelops, who won her hand in a horse race. However, she played a role in his victory by convincing Myrtilus to change parts of the wheels into wax. She is the mother of Atreus and Thyestes.
Agamemnon
this general of the Greek troops in Troy, fought valiently and arrived home safely. However, upon arrival back to his house, he was killed by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her love/ his cousin, Aegisthus. This was a combination for revenge upon the actions towards Thyestes, Aegesithus’s father, and the sacrifice of Iphigenia, Agamemnon’s daughter, in order for the wind to be favorable enough to allow them passage to Troy. Later, he would be revenged by his son, Orestes.
Clytemnestra
this woman is the wife of Agamemnon who kills him for revenge with the help of her lover while Agamemnon was away, Aegisthus (Agamemnon’s cousin). Her motive was the death of her daughter, Iphigenia, as she was sacrificed in order to travel with facorable wind to Troy. This woman, a queen, was killed by her own son, Orestes.
Aegeisthus
This lover of Clytemnestra helped her kill Agamemnon. Although this cousin of Agamemnon and Menelaus died before Orestes could revenge his father, he had taken revenge for the acts towards his father, Thyestes, by Atreus.
Orestes
this son of Agamemnon was away from the house when Clytemnestra, his mother, killed his father. He, with the encouragement of Apollo, he kills his parents. He is drived crazy by the Furies until he reconciles with Iphigenia, his sister.
The Furies
the tormentors of Orestes after he kills his mother and her lover. They drove him partially mad until he prays to Athena and, with the help of Apollo, calls these monsters away from him
Electra
the sister of Orestes and Iphigenia, who, since Aegesthus did not have the heart to kill, worked as a slave and was seriously mistreated. Here single hope was that Orestes would come back and revenge the death of her father.
Iphigenia
the daughter of Agememnon who, to some accounts, was sacrificed to appeal to Artemis. However, some believe that she lived among the Taurians as a priestess until saved by her brother, Orestes.
Laws of Hospitaly
a group of Laws stating the role of host and guest. The host is supposed to let anyone in, give them clothing, a bath, and shelter, and food/drink. In return, the guest should treat the host with respect and should not harm or steal anyone.
funeral pyre
the burning of the dead which, at the time, was believed to be the only way the dead could go to the underworld.
patriarchy
society in which men have a majority of the power
The format of the Odyssey
dactylic hexameter
Tyndarius
the father of Helen who asked all of her many suitors to unite if anyone of of them, or anyone else, attempts to hurt/steal her. He gives Helen and a spot as king of Sparta to Menelaus
Odysseus
The king of Ithaka and hero of Troy who tries to make it home with his crew in the Odyssey. He is the father of Telemachus and husband of Penelope. His courage, wit, and patients led him to arrive home, but his crews sins destroy them on the way home
Telemachus
the loyal son of Odysseus, who, encouraged by Athena, attempts to learn all about the story and location of his father. He suffers abuse from Penelope’s suitors for many years while waiting for his father to return
Penelope
the faithful and clever wife of Odysseus who tricks the suitors with Laertes’s shroud and remains, unlike Clytemnestra, faithful
Laertes
the father, saddened by the believed death of his son of Odysseus who lives on a farm
Anticlea
wife of Laertes and mother of Odysseus whom he meets in the Land of the Dead and is unable to embrace
Eumaeus
loyal swineherd of Odysseus
Eurycleia
a faithful old maiden and nanny who helps Telemachus escape unnoticed by the suitors, used to be greatly respected by Laertes as a lover, and recognizes Odysseus by the scar on his leg
Menelaus
Husband of Helen who tells the Nostos of the men of troy, captures and questions Proteus, and treats Telemachus with the greatest respect
Nestor
The wisest of the Greeks who tells Telemachus, after be a great host, of the fall of Troy
Calypso
A nymph, who name means “The Concealer,” who holds Odysseus on her island, captive, for 7 years
Alcinous
King of the Phaeacians who shows great hospitality to Odysseus, against the frequent believes of the Phaeacians. He listens to Odysseus story with great respect and gives him a ride back home to Itaka
Arete
Queen of the Phaeacians and wife of Alcinous. Nausicaa, her daughter, tells Odysseus to plea to this lady
Nausicaa
The Phaeacian princess who finds Odysseus, informs him where he is, tells him what to do when he reaches the city, and how to when her parents’ favor
Demodocus
the blind bard (perhaps Homer) of the Phaeacians, who sings a beautiful song about the fall of Troy, the love affair of Ares and Aprodite, and Odysseus
Polyphemus
the horrible, savage cyclops that traps Odysseus and some of his men in his cave. After eating a couple of them, Odysseus gets him drunk and claims to him that he is “Nobody.” Then, while the monster was asleep, Odysseus stabs him in the eye with a pointed, poker-hot olive branch, blinding him. After escaping, Odysseus calls out to the boulder-throwing cyclops his name, and the cyclops, a son of Posiedon, curses him to never reach his homeland with all of his crew in a fit condition any time soon.
Eurylachus
One of Odysseus crew members who was second in command. After losing trust in Odysseus once he sees him with Circe’s and the sorceress turning men into pigs, he guards the boat while the rest go off. He argues with Odysseus and, worst of all, convinces the men to kill the Cattle of Hyperion, which curses them to their dooms at Zues’s hands
Elpenor
a foolish man who dies after falling off a roof, meets Odysseus in the Land of the Dead, pleads for a proper funeral, and is buried on Circe’s island
Teiresias
The only spirit who retains his memory of life without the help of the blood, this bling prophet tells Odysseus many things in the Land of the Dead. He instructs him that his crew might get him if they refuse to eat the Cattle of Hyperion. He also tells him what to do right when he gets home to appease the gods, particularly Posiedon
Antinous
the worst and most powerful suitor of Penelope who decides to attempt to kill Telemachus
Eurymachus
the “wide fighter” who is one of the leading suitors, but is not as evil as Antinous
Athena
Goddess of wisdom and wit who protects Odysseus and Telemachus on their journeys (she is represented by an olive tree)
Poseidon
God of the Ocean and Sea, also known as the earth shaker, who despises Odysseus for blinding his favored son Polyphemus
Circe
A goddess (“surrounded by men who are pigs”) who turned some of Odysseus men into pugs, but she is seduced and falls in love with him. Then, whe provides his crew with food, beds, and information about the Land of the Dead/ Teiriesias, Sirens, and Scylla and Charybdis
Scylla
An ugly monster with long, snake-like dog head which picks men off from their ships six at a time. She lives on top of an unclimbable cliff, and Odysseus decides to follow her path as she is the lesser of the two dangers
The Sirens
Monsters who look like vultures who entrance travelers to go to their beach to be eaten through a magical song