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Myth Study Guide

CLT3378 Exam 1 Dr. Branscome Section 4 http://quizlet. com/14533032/clt3378-flash-cards/ Above is a link to a useful, flash card, study tool to help master these terms.

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* Hero: Figures in whom the gods take a special interest. An example of a hero in Greek culture is Hercules. * Trickster: Tricksters are amoral, shape-shifting deceivers in mythology. An example in the Babylonian Enuma Elish is the god Ea. * Polytheism: The belief and acknowledgement of many gods. Polytheistic cultures include the Greeks, Canaanites and Babylonians. Anthropomorphism: Conception of gods “in shape of human beings,” have features of humans and act like humans. An example of this is Baal in the Canaanite Baal Cycle. * Binaturalism: Conception of gods with as having “two natures. ” An example of binaturalism is the Babylonian Tiamat, who is both a god and a thing (sea). * Syncretism: Adaptation of one culture’s mythic beliefs by another culture. An example is the Sumerian Inanna is the same as the Akkadian Ishtar. * Sphere of Influence: Areas with which gods are associated/have power. For example the Greek god Zeus is the god of rain, lightning, kingship, hospitality. Primordial Waters: Waters that exist at beginning of or even before creation. In many creation myths. Usually precede the sea and other large bodies of water * Ancient Near East: The area encompassing Mesopotamia, Canaan, Israel, Anatolia and Egypt in which many myths were adopted such as the Babylonian Enuma Elish. The Ancient Near East does not include Ancient Greece. * Mesopotamia: Mesopotamia is known as the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Cultures such as the Babylonians resided there and assembled the creation myth, the Enuma Elish. * Sumerians: The Sumerians were the first people to inhabit Mesopotamia.

They are considered the first human civilization and influenced the Akkadians. * Akkadians: The Akkadians were a culture in Mesopotamia. They overtook the Sumerians and adopted their spoken language. * Babylonians: The Babylonians were a culture in Mesopotamia. They created the myth the Enuma Elish and spoke a dialect of the Akkadian language. * Enuma Elish: A Babylonian Myth was written about 2000 BCE. This myth is a creation myth and succession myth that involves a great battle between the storm god Marduk and Tiamat, the god of the seas. * Marduk: The storm god in the Babylonian Enuma Elish.

He is the son of Ea and Damkina, is crowned king of the gods and defeats Tiamat, creating the heavens and the earth. * cuneiform: Cuneiform is a type of script writing on tablets commonly used by ancient cultures such as the Babylonians. The myth the Enuma Elish was written by the Babylonians in cuneiform. * Apsu: Apsu is the binatural, Babyloninan god of freshwater who is the husband of Tiamat. Apsu is killed in the Enuma Elish by Ea. * Tiamat: Tiamat, the wife of Apsu, is the binatural, Babylonian god of the seas. In the Enuma Elish, Tiamat battles the storm god Marduk and loses. Lahmu: Lahmu is the son of the gods Tiamat and Apsu. In the Babylonian Enuma Elish, Lahmu is described as being formed from the mingling waters of Apsu and Tiamat. * Lahamu: Lahamu is the daughter of the gods Apsu and Tiamat. In the Babylonian Enuma Elish, Lahmu is described as being formed from the mingling waters of Apsu and Tiamat. * Anshar: Anshar is the Babylonian sky god. In the Enuma Elish, he is the son of Lahmu and Lahamu. * Kishar: Kishar is the Babylonian earth goddess. In the Enuma Elish, she is the daughter of Lahmu and Lahmu. * Anu: Anu is the son of both Anshar and Kishar.

In the Babylonian Enuma Elish, Anu gives Marduk the four winds to defeat Tiamat. * Ea/Enki/Nuddimud: Ea is the Babylonian trickster god who is the father of Marduk. In the Enuma Elish, Ea discovers Apsu’s plot to wage war against the gods and Ea kills him. * Mummu: Mummu is a vizier in the Babylonian Enuma Elish. In this myth, Mummu gives Apsu the go ahead to kill the gods and is captured by Ea once he discovers Mummu’s plot. * Damkina: In the Babylonian Enuma Elish, Damkina is the mother of Marduk. She is the consort of Ea. * Qingu/Kingu: Qingu is the leader of Tiamat’s army of eleven monsters in the Babylonian Enuma Elish.

Tiamat also gives Qingu the Tablet of Destinies. * Tablet of Destinies: The Tablet of Destinies is given to Qingu in the Babylonian Enuma Elish. Marduk kills Tiamat and her army and reclaims the Tablet of Destinies. * Semitic: Semitic is a Mesopotamian culture that speaks a language similar to the language Hebrew. The Akkadians spoke this language. * Amorites: Amorites are a people that overthrew the Sumerians in Mesopotamia in 1900 BCE. They spoke a dialect of Akkadian. * Babylon: Babylon is the established capital city of Mesopotamia when controlled by the Amorites.

People that lived in the capital city of Babylon were known as Babylonians and they are attributed for adopting the Enuma Elish. * ziggurat: Ziggurat is the temple in which gods were worshiped in Mesopotamia. Each city-state had its own patron god, and that god was worshipped in a ziggurat. * Akitu: Akitu is also known as the Babylonian New Year Festival. This festival honored Marduk as the King of the gods in the city of Babylon. * Baal Cycle: The Baal Cycle is a group of poems that surround the Canaanite god Baal. These myths involve Baal’s battle with Yam, Baal’s battle with Mot, and the dilemma surrounding his palace. Ugarit: Ugarit was a coastal trading city which was prosperous around 1400 BCE. This city is where thousands of clay tablets were found, including the Canaanite Baal Cycle * Canaan: Canaan is the region in which Ugarit was located. In this region, the Baal Cycle was adopted. * Canaanite: Canaanites are the people who lived in the region of Canaan. They were one of the first cultures to use an alphabetic writing system instead of a cuneiform system. * El: El is the father of the gods in Canaanite mythology. In the Baal Cycle, El agrees to give up Baal’s hiding place to Yam so they could battle.

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Baal: Baal is the storm god mentioned in the Canaanite Baal Cycle. He uses two clubs to defeat Yam and become known as “Baal the Conqueror. ” * Hadad: Hadad is another name for the storm god Baal. In Caananite culture, Hadad means “thunderer. ” * Dagon: Dagon is the father of Baal in the Baal Cycle. He is the god of grain. * Zaphon: Zaphon is the sacred mountain that belongs to Baal. In the Canaanite Baal Cycle, Baal’s palace is constructed here. * Asherah: In Canaanite mythology, Asherah is the wife of the god El. She is known as the Mother of the Gods. * Anat: In Canaanite myhtology, Anat is the sister of Baal.

She is the bloodthirsty goddess of war and hunting who slaughters Yams warriors in the Baal Cycle. * Kothar-wa-Hasis: In Canaanite mythology, Kothar is a craftsman god. In the Baal Cycle, he creates the clubs Baal uses to defeat Yam and Baal’s house out of cedar. * Shapash: Shapash is the sun goddess in Canaanite mythology. In the Baal Cycle, she advises Baal to create a substitute that Mot will kill instead of Baal himself. * Attanu-Purlianni: Attanu-Purlianni is the name of the chief priest of the temple of Baal. The Ugaritic text the Baal Cycle was found in his library. Ilimiku: Ilimiku is the scribe who lived in Canaan. Ilimiku is the scribe who wrote down the Baal Cycle. * Niqmaddu II: Niqmaddu II was the king of Ugarit around 1375-1345 BCE. He was the king of Ugarit when the Baal Cycle was written. * Yam: Yam is the god of the seas in Canaanite culture. In the Canaanite Baal Cycle, Yam is defeated by the storm god Baal. * Mot: Mot is Death in Canaanite mythology. He battles Baal in the Baal Cycle. * Ras Shamara: Ras Shamara is the modern name for the ancient city of Ugarit. Excavations of Ras Shamara gave light to Ugaritic culture, including the Baal Cycle. Hittites: The Hittites are an Indo-European people who ruled from 1700 to 1200BCE. Their mythology included over 600 gods and created the Kumarbi Cycle. * Hattians: The Hattians are a pre-Hittite people who resided in Anatolia. They were taken over by the Hittites and adopted a lot of their culture and syncretized some of their gods. * Hurrians: The Hurrians were a people who resided in northern, modern-day Syria who had an empire named Mittani. They were overtaken by the Hittites and syncretized some of their gods. * Hattusas: Hattusas is the capital of the Hittite empire.

This city is where the Illuyanka Myths were found written on cuneiform tablets. * Hattian Storm God: The Hattian Storm god has no name and was the chief god of the Hittites. In version 1 of the Illuyanka Myths, the storm god defeats Illyanka when she is drunk and tied up. * Illuyanka: Illuyanka is the serpentine dragon in the Hattian Iluyanka Myths. In the first version, Illuyanka is killed by the storm god himself, whereas in the second version, Illuyanka is killed by the storm god’s son. * Purulli Festival: The Purulli Festival is the festival celebrating the arrival of spring by the Hattians.

The Illuyanka Myths are associated with the Purulli Festival. * Inara: Inara is the daughter of the storm god in Hattian mythology. In the first version of the Illuyanka myths, Inara creates a feast for Illuyanka, and tricks the serpent into getting slain. * Hupasiya: Hupasiya is a mortal man who agrees to help Inara in the first version of the Hattian Illuyanka myths. In the myth, he ties up Illuyanka when she is extremely drunk and as a reward gets to sleep with Inara. * Kumarbi Cycle: The Kumarbi Cycle is considered a Hurrian literary work but is written in Hittite. These poems describe the Hurrian god of the Underworld, Kumarbi. Kumarbi: Kumarbi is the Hurrian god of the underworld. In the Hurrian Song of Kumarbi, he overthrows Anu and swallows his genitals, becoming pregnant with gods. * Alalu: Alalu is the king of the gods in Hurrian mythology and is the father of Kumarbi. In the Song of Kumarbi, he is dethroned by Anu. * Tessub: Tessub is the sky god in Hurrian mythology. In the Song of Ullikummi, Tessub battles Ullikummi. * Song of Kumarbi: The Song of Kumarbi is a succession myth in Hurrian mythology. In this myth, Kumarbi is ultimately overthrown by Tessub. * Song of Ullikummi: The song of Ullikummi is a succession myth in Hurrian mythology.

In this myth, Kumarbi attempts to overthrow Tessub by impregnating a three mile rock with a child named Ullikummi to storm the heavens. * Ullikummi: Ullikummi is the child of Kumarbi and a stone in the Hurrian Song of Ullikummi. In this myth, Ishtanu spots Ulikummi growing and tells Tessub of the plot; a battle ensues and Ullikummi is defeated by Tessub. * Istanu: Ishtanu is the sun god in Hurrian mythology. In the Song of Ullikummi, Ishtanu discovers Ullikummi growing and warns Tessub about the threat. * Ubelurri: Ubelurri is the supporter of the sky in Hurrian mythology, similar to Atlas’ role in Greek Mythology.

In the Hurrian Song of the Ulikummi, Ea goes to Ubelurri and cuts off Ulikummi with a cutting tool, removing Ulikummi from his hiding place * Musilis I: Musilis I is the Hittite king who was in charge of the raid of Babylon. This most likely resulted in the syncretism of the trickster god Ea in many Hittian myths. * Hattusilis I: Hattusilis I is the father of Musilis I. He was the king who founded the Hittian Empire in Anatolia. * Indo-European: The language of the Hittites which most likely originated in central Europe. This language is the ancestor to most modern day European languages. Mitanni: Mitanni is the capital of the Hurrian Empire north of Mesopotamia. Mittani is a cultural icon of the Hurrians which influence a lot of Hittite cultures. * Genesis: Genesis is the first book of the Torah and Bible which outlines two creation myths and a flood myth. This Israelite book is written in mostly prose which is drastically different than other myths of the time such as the Enuma Elish and the Baal Cycle. * Israelites/Hebrews: The Israelites are a culture who resided in Canaan and were monotheistic. They are responsible for constructing the book of Genesis. ‘elohim: ‘Elohim is the title of the Israelite god in Genesis. This name is similar to the Canaanite ‘el but is a title rather than a name. * Yahweh: Yahweh is the name of the Hebrew God. Yahweh is a name given to call God in the Hebrew Book of Genesis. * ‘adonay: ‘Adonay means lord and is the newer name people used to describe god after 538 BCE. This is because people believed that Yahweh was too holy for humans to speak. * monolatry: Monolatry is the acknowledgement that there are many gods; however, only one is worshipped. This was the view of the Hebrew culture. * monotheism: Monotheism is the belief that there is only one god.

This is the view of Hebrews after the Babylonian Exile in 536 BCE. * Leviathan: Leviathan is the sea creature that symbolizes evil in the Hebrew culture. In Genesis, Yahweh defeats the Leviathan, similar to Marduk defeating Tiamat. * Rahab: Rahab is another name for the sea serpent that Yahweh defeats. In Israelite mythology, the battle between Rahab and Yahweh is symbolism for the battle between order and chaos. * bereshith: Bereshith is the Hebrew word meaning “in the beginning. ” This name is a description of chapter 1 of Genesis because it describes the Israelite myth of creation. JEDP Theory: The JEDP theory is the modern theory describing the Hebrew Torah, which contains Genesis. The theory explains that there are many discrepancies because the author was compiling several stories into one which means there are four distinct authors to the Torah. * shemesh: Shemesh is Hebrew word meaning Sun. This word is used in Genesis to distinguish it from other cultures around the same time such as the Ugaritic sun god “Shapash,” because the author of Genesis didn’t want to create the impression that Yahweh was creating a binatural god. * yareah: Yareah is the Hebrew word meaning Moon.

This word is used in Genesis to distinguish it from other cultures around the same time such as the Ugaritic moon god “Yarikh,” because the author of Genesis didn’t want to create the impression that Yahweh was creating a binatural god. * tehom: Tehom is the Hebrew word meaning deep in Genesis. This word is used to refer to the primordial waters which are associated with chaos and disorder. * cosmocentric: Cosmocentric is used to refer that the creation of both the heavens and earth are created before humans. This idea is used in the first Hebrew creation myth in Genesis, Chapter 1. geocentric: Geocentric is a term used to refer to the creation of the earth, sea and plants. A geocentric creation is mentioned in the first creation myth of the Hebrew Genesis, which occurs on the third day. * anthropocentric: Anthropocentric is a term used to refer to creation of humans being the most important, followed by the Earth and other aspects. This concept is featured in the second creation myth of the Hebew Genesis. * Tree of Knowledge: The Tree of Knowledge is what the serpent in the second creation myth of the Hebrew Genesis lures the man and woman too.

The serpent, a trickster, promises the man and woman that eating from the Tree of Knowledge will make them God-like. * Tree of Life: The Tree of Life represents immortality in the Hebrew Genesis. Yahweh warns Adam and Eve to not eat from the Tree of Knowledge; when they disobey, he bans them from the garden so as to prevent them from eating of the Tree of Life and gain immortality. * ‘itsavon: ‘Itsavon is the Hebrew word meaning pain and toil. This word is mentioned in the second creation myth of the Hebrew Genesis to refer to the punishment that Yahweh bestows upon Adam and Eve for eating from the Tree of Knowledge.

For women, it means pain during childbirth and for men it means toiling in the soil. * ‘adam: ‘Adam is the Hebrew word meaning “man. ” This word is used as a pun on the word ‘adamah in Genesis because ‘adamah means clay and the first man is made from clay. * ‘adamah: ‘Adamah is the Hebrew word meaning clay. This word is used as a pun on the word ‘adam in Genesis because ‘adam means man and clay is used to create the first man. * Adam: Adam is the name given to the first created man in the second creation myth of the Hebrew Genesis. Adam is very obedient to Yahweh, but disobeys him when he accepts fruit from the Tree of Knowledge from Eve. Eve: Eve is the name given to the first created woman in the second creation myth of the Hebrew Genesis. Eve is tricked by the serpent into eating from the Tree of Knowledge and is punished by Yahweh. * Tanakh: Tanakh is the word given to describe the Jewish Bible. The first book of the Tanakh is the book of Genesis which outlines creation. * Israelite: An Israelite is an inhabitant of the ancient kingdom of Israel. Israelites were the first believers in monotheism and authored the book of Genesis. * Solomon: Solomon is the son of David, whose reign marks the high point of political power of Ancient Israel.

Solomon built a temple in Jerusalem to worship the one, Hebrew, god: Yahweh. * Babylonian Exile: The Babylonian exile is when the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BCE and deported the Israelites to Babylon. This exile marked the point in which the Israelites shifted from monolatry to monotheism. * Cyrus the Great: Cyrus the Great is Persian conqueror of Babylon in 538. He allowed the Israelites to return to their homeland and rebuild Jerusalem. * Hesiod: Hesiod is the Greek Poet who wrote the Theogony. In the beginning of the Theogony, Hesiod calls on the Muses to assist him in writing the myth. Theogony: The Greek Theogony is both a creation and a succession myth written by Hesiod around 700 BCE. This myth describes the creation of the universe and the succession of Kronos over Ouranos, and Zeus over Kronos. * proem: A proem is a short introduction in the opening lines of a poem that introduces a main theme. The Greek Theogony includes a proem in which Hesiod calls on the Muses for inspiration. * Muses: The Muses are goddesses that are believed in Greek mythology to inspire poets. In the Greek Theogony? the Muses inspire Hesiod to write the story of creation. * Helikon: Helikon is a mountain in Greece.

In Greek mythology, this mountain is believed to serve as the home for the Muses. * Chaos: Chaos is the first god created in the Greek Theogony. Hesiod describes the binatural god Chaos as a large void and gap of empty space. * Gaia/Ge: Gaia is the binatural goddess of the Earth. In the Greek Theogony, she is considered to be one of the first four primal gods. * Tartaros: Tartaros is binatural god of the area below underworld. Considered to be one of the primal gods in the Greek Theogony, Tartaros is considered to be a prison where the Titans were confined. * Eros: Eros is the Greek, binatural, goddess of sexual desire.

Eros is considered to be one of the primal gods in the Theogony. * Erebos: Erebos is the god of the underworld in Greek mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, Erebos is born as a result of pathogenesis and conceives Air and Day with Night. * Ouranos: Ouranos is the god of the sky in Greek mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, Ouranos mates with Gaia and gives birth to the titans, Cyclopes and the Hundred-handers. * Titans: The Titans are the children of Ouranos and Gaia in Greek mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, the Titans are defeated by Zeus and the Hundred-handers and are thrown into Tartaros. Cyclopes: The Cyclopes are the children of Gaia and Ouranos in Greek mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, Zeus frees the Cyclopes from Tartaros and they make his thunderbolts which are used to defeat the Titans. * Hundred-handers: The Hundred-handers are the children of Gaia and Ouranos in Greek Mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, the Hundred-handers help Zeus defeat the Titans. * Zeus: Zeus is the king of the gods in Greek mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, Zeus throws Kronos into Tartaros and becomes King of the Gods. * Kronos: Kronos is a titan in Greek mythology.

In Hesiod’s Theogony, Kronos stands up to Ouranos, castrates Ouranos with the sickle of adamant, and becomes the king of the gods until his son Zeus overthrows him. * sickle: A sickle is a weapon that Kronos uses to castrate Ouranos in the Greek Theogony. This sickle is given to Kronos by Gaia because she is furious that Kronos sent her children to Tartaros. * adamant: Adamant is a metal in Greek Mythology described as being the strongest metal in the world. Gaia gives Kronos a sickle made of this to castrate his father, Ouranos. * aphros: Aphros is the sea foam in Greek mythology from which Aphrodite is born.

This foam is created when Kronos castrates his father Ouranos and throws his genitals into the sea. * Aphrodite: Aphrodite is the goddess of beauty in Greek Mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, she is born from the aphros that are a result of Ouranos’ castrated genitals in the sea. * Rhea: Rhea is wife and sister of Kronos in Greek Mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, Gaia tells Rhea to hide Zeus on Crete because Kronos begins eating all of his children as they are born because a prophecy from Gaia and Ouranos states that Kronos would be overthrown by his son. Olympians: The Olympians are the children of Rhea in Greek Mythology. In Hesiod’s Theogony, the Olympians help wage war with Zeus against the Titans. * Titanomachy: Titanomachy is the part of the Greek Theogony that describes battle with the Titans. The titans are thrown into Tartaros by Zeus at the end of the Titanomachy. * Metis: Metis is the early mate of Zeus in Greek mythology. In the Theogony, Metis becomes pregnant and Zeus swallows her because a prophecy is known that Zeus’ son will overthrow the king of the gods. * Athena: Athena is the goddess of wisdom and cleverness in Greek mythology.

In the Theogony, Athena is born from Zeus’ head after swallowing the pregnant Metis. * Typhoios: Typhoios is the son of Gaia and Tartaros in Greek mythology. This 100 headed, fire-breathing dragon battles Zeus, loses and is thrown into Tartaros. * Apollodorus: Apollodorus is falsely ascribed as the Greek writer who compiled the Library. Apollodorus includes a different version of the battle between Zeus and Typhoios than what is written in Hesiod’s Theogony. * Library: The Library is a Greek mythological handbook written around the first or second century CE.

The Library is falsely attributed to Apollodorus, rather “Psuedo-Apollodorus” wrote the Library. * Delphyne: Delphyne is a dragon in Greek Mythology that guards the sinews of Zeus. These sinews were stolen from Zeus by Typhon. * Mt. Aitna: Mt. Aitna is the location in Apollodorus’ version of Zeus vs. Typhon in which Zeus attacks Typhon. Typhon is trapped under the mountain by Zeus and it subsequently becomes volcanic. * Phoenicians: The Phoenicians were a people living on the coast of modern-day Lebanaon. The Greeks adopted an alphabet script from them and created the Greek alphabet as a result. Ascra: Ascra is the city-state in which Hesiod is born. Hesiod is the author of the Greek Theogony. * Cyme: Cyme is the city in the Asia minor where Hesiod’s father left to move to Ascra. This city is important because living close to non-Greek cultures allowed Hesiod to learn many foreign myths, which most likely influenced his writing of the Greek Theogony * Atrahasis: Atrahasis is a Babylonian flood myth that describes Atrahasis, the king of the city of Shurupakk, survival. In the myth, Atrahasis builds a boat and survives the flood that lasts for seven days and seven nights. Ipiq-Aya: Ipiq-Aya is the author of the Babylonian flood myth Atrahasis. He wrote the poem on three tablets in cuneiform. * Ellil: Ellil is the gods’ boss in in Babylonian Atrahasis. The noise of the humans anger Ellil and he sends a plague, a famine, a drought and finally a flood to destroy humanity. * Mami/Nintu: Mami is the creator goddess in Babylonian mythology. In Atrahasis, Mami creates humans from the blood of Ilawela and clay, creating seven men and seven women. * Ilawela: Ilawela is a Babylonian god who is slain in order to create humans.

Mami uses the blood of the slain Ilawela to create humans to do the work of the gods. * Shuruppak: Shurupakk is the city in which Atrahasis is king. In the Babylonian Atrahasis, Ellil sends a plague to the city of Shuruppak to kill all humanity. * Namtara: Namtara is the god that the people of Shuruppak worship once the plague occurs. In the Babylonian Atrahasis, Namtara notices how all the people of the city are only worshipping him and he uplifts the plague to save humanity. * Adad: Adad is the god that the people of Shuruppak worship once the famine occurs.

In the Babylonian Atrahasis, Adad notices how all the people of the city are only worshipping him and he uplifts the famine to save humanity. * reed hut: The reed hut is mentioned in the Babylonian Atrahasis when Enki promises not to tell humans about the flood. Instead, Enki tells the wall of a reed hut that a flood will happen and Atrahasis overhears this message to the reed hut and acts on the advice. * Epic of Gilgamesh: The Epic of Gilgamesh is a popular work made up of 12 cuneiform tablets. On the eleventh tablet of the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, is where the flood myth with Utnapishtim is found. Utnapishtim: Utnapishtim is the king of the city of Shuruppak. In the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapistim is warned of a coming flood by Ea, survives and is granted immortality. * bitumen: Bitumen is the material used in making boats waterproof. In the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Utnapishtim uses bitumen to make his boat waterproof and survive the huge flood. * Mt. Nimush: Mt. Nimush is the mountain that Utnapishtim lands on at the end of the flood in the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. From this mountain, Utnapishtim releases the three birds, a dove, a swallow and a raven to see if there is land. Noah: Noah is the righteous man who evades the Flood in the Hebrew Genesis. God tells Noah to build a boat and to bring two of each animal with him. * cypress wood: Cypress wood is the wood that is explicitly stated by God to be used in the building of the boat. In the Hebrew Genesis, God gives Noah very specific direction on how to build the boat including that the wood must be cypress and even the exact dimensions. * Mt. Ararat: Mt. Ararat is the mountain in which Noah lands on at the end of the flood. In the Hebrew Genesis, Noah sends out a raven and doves from this mountain to see if there is land. berit: Berit is the formal agreement with life on Earth that he will never send any more floods. This agreement was made between God and Noah at the end of the Hebrew Genesis. * Ovid: Ovid is a roman poet who was exiled from Rome by Augustus. Ovid is the author of Metamorphoses. * Metamorphoses: Metamorphoses is a myth written by Ovid. This Greco-Roman myth explains the creation of the universe and a flood. * Augustus: Augustus is the Roman emperor around the time when Ovid wrote his Metamorphoses. Augustus sent Ovid out of Rome in exile for being critical of his rule. Stoic: Stoic is the architect god in Roman mythology. In the Greco-Roman Metamorphoses, there are two stoic doctrines present which describe the flood and conflagration. * Prometheus: Prometheus is one of the four possible creators of humans. In the Greco-Roman Metamorphoses, Prometheus uses earth and water to create humans. * Golden Age: The golden age is a time of peace and abundance in Greco-Roman mythology. This time was ruled by Saturn and is considered to be the best. * Saturn: Saturn is the Roman god who ruled over the Golden Age.

In Ovid’s Metamorphoses Saturn ruled and granted an abundance of peace of prosperity. * Silver Age: The silver age is the second age in the Greco-Roman Metamorphoses. This period Is ruled by the god Jupiter and is a time when men become more immoral. * Bronze Age: The Bronze Age occurs after the Silver Age in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. This age does not last very long as men are very warlike and kill each other quickly. * Iron Age: The Iron Age occurs after the Bronze Age in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. This age is considered to be our own age, in which technology is advanced, and humans have begun to sail and mine. Lycaon: Lycaon is the king of Arcadia (Greece). In the Greco-Roman, Metamorphoses, Lycaon is tested by the god Jupiter and is seen as a bad host. Lycaon is transformed into a wolf as a result. * xenia: Xenia is the Greek word meaning hospitality. Jupiter is the god of xenia as he punishes poor hosts. * xenos: Xenos is the Greek word meaning guest or host. In Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Jupiter is the xenos of Lycaon and Lycaon shows him poor hospitality by giving him human flesh to eat. * Arcadia: Arcadia is the region of Greece where Lycaon is king in the Greco-Roman Metamorphoses.

Arcadia is the place in which Jupiter disguises himself as a human and catches Lycaon’s poor hospitality. * ekpyrosis: Ekpyrosis is a Greek word meaning conflagration. Conflagration is one of the Stoic’s doctrines which describes an extensive fire that destroys a great deal of land. Jupiter considers ekpyrosis in Ovid’s Metamorphoses, but rejects the idea in fear that the flames might reach the heavens. * kataklysmos: Katakylsmos is a term describing a devastating flood. This stoic doctrine is the one chosen by Jupiter in the Greco-Roman Metamorphoses to punish humanity for being poor hosts. Neptune: Neptune is Jupiter’s brother in Greco-Roman Mythology. In Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Neptune aides Jupiter in sending the flood. * adynaton: Adynaton is a Greek word meaning impossible. This refers to the topsy-turvy world in the Greco-Roman Metamporphoses created after Jupiter’s flood, for example dolphins stuck in trees. * Deucalion: Deucalion is the son of Promethius in Greco-Roman Mythology. In Metamorphoses, he survives the flood with his wife * Pyrrha: Pyrrha is the wife of Deucalion and the daughter of Epimetheus in Greco-Roman Mythology.

In Metamorphoses, she survives the flood with Deucalion and prays to mountain gods, nymphs and Themis. * Epimetheus: Epimetheus is the brother of Prometheus in Greco-Roman mythology. In the Metamorphoses, the daughter of Epimetheus survives the flood. * Mr. Parnassus: Mt. Parnassus is the mountain where Deucalion and Pyyrha are swept during Jupiter’s flood in the Greco-Roman Metamorphoses. On this mountain, Deucalion and Pyyrha pray to the many gods during the flood. * Themis: Themis is the oracle that survives Jupiter’s flood in the Greco-Roman Metamorphoses.

In the text, Themis tells Deucalion and Pyrrha to throw the bones of your mother behind your back, which leads to creation of humanity. * Tomis: Tomis is the place that Ovid, the roman poet and author of the Greco-Roman Metamrphoses, was exiled to. Ovid wrote poetry in Tomis and sent it to his wife in Rome. * carmen et error: Carmen et error is a latin term that means “a poem and a mistake. ” Ovid, the author of the Greco-Roman Metamorphoses, uses this to refer to the reasons he was exiled from Rome. The poem was his guide to pick up women, Ars Amatoria, and his mistake was his sexual involvement with Julia, Emperor Agustus’ daughter.

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