Myers Chapter 9 – Memory

memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 349)
encoding
the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
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short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
storage
the retention of encoded information over time. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 352)
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 353)
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 354)
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 354)
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 355)
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 356)
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 356)
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 356)
visual encoding
the encoding of picture images. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 356)
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 358)
mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 358)
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 359)
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 362)
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 362)
long-term potentiation
an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 365)
amnesia
the loss of memory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 367)
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 367)
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called procedural memory.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 367)
hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 368)
recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 370)
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 370)
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 370)
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 372)
déjà vu
that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 373)
mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 374)
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 379)
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 379)
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 381)
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 383)
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 384)