mycology study guide

Microsporum audouini
produces antler and raquet shaped hyphae; fluorescent with woods lamp
trichophyton mentagrophytes
produce perpendicular peg-like invasion of hair shaft
rhizopus
produce rhizoids
aspergillus fumigatus
produce opportunistic infection in neutropenic patients
cryptococcus neoformans
turns brown on birdseed agar, budding yeast; capsules stained with india ink
histoplasma capsulatum
yeast cells may be seen within monocytes and macrophages
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microsporum gypseum
produce rough, thick walled, spindle shaped macroconidia; hair and skin infection
candida albicans
produce in germ tube in 3 hours. blastoconidia, hyphae, pseudophyphae.
epidermophyton floccosum
“Beaver tail” macrocondia
paracoccidiodes brasiliensis
produce “mariners wheel”, “lollypop” or “mickey mouse” budding yeast at 37 degrees C
sprothrix schenckii
“daisy head” flowerettes, rose gardeners disease, nodules along infected lymph ducts
fonsecaea
“cauliflower” like skin lesions, dark septte hyphae, primary, secondary, tertiary
coccidioides immitis
inhaled barrel shaped arthoconidia
trichophyton tonsurans
endothrix hair invasion
pseudallescheria boydii
hyaline, septate hyphae, produce cleistothecia (closed) sacs filled with ascospores
blastomyces dermiditis
yeast in tissue produce large double contoured walls
trichophyton rubrum
red pigment on potato dextrose agar
phialophora verrucosa
produce subcutaneous chromoblastomycosis
pneumocystis jiroveci
cyst cell walls found in bronchial samples stain black or fluoresce w calcofluor white
geotricum
from arthoconidia singly or in chains or branched
protozoa
eukaryotic and unicellular
protozoa multiply this way
binary fission
throphozoites are
motile, reproducing, feeding, lower GI tract; ID’d by nuclei, size, inclusions and motility
cyst stage is
non-feeding, non-motile, infectious stage; ID by nuclear structure, size shape, # of nuclei, inclusions
entamoeba histolytica causes
amebic dysentery
E. histolytica cysts have how many nuclei
1,2 or 4, cigar shaped chromatoid body are central and have bull-eye karysome
E. Histolytica trphozoites have how many nuclei
only one, may have residual red cell in nucleus
entamoeba hartmanni cyst have how many nuclei
1,2 or 4 with central karyosome, chromatoid body
Entamoeba coli cyst has how many nuclei
1-8 nuclei eccentric karyosome, splinter shape chromatin
Giardia lamblia trophozoite
2 nuclei, median body, suckling disk, 8 flagella, axonmes, falling leaf motility
giardia lamblia cyst
up to 4 nuclei
trichomonas vaginalis throphozites
single nuclei, 4 anterior flagella, axostyle, undulating membrane
trichomonas vaginalis cyst
no cyst form
trypanosoma cruzi causes
chagas disease, ruduviid bug bite, then infects with feces
diagnostic stages of T. cruzi in humans
amastigote stage in muscle and trypomastigote form in blood with terminal kinetoplast
plasmodium sp. (malaria)
members of sporozoa, from mosquitoes, obligate endoparasitic protozoa, non-motile, ID by trophozoites, schionts and gametocytes in blood, thick and think smears used
plasmodum vivax
48 hour paroxysmal cycle, schuffners dots, 12-24 merozoites, gamete fill cell
plasmodium falciparum
malignant malaria, irregular life cycle, small delicate, double chromatin dots, crescent shaped gametocyts
plasmodium malariae
72 hour cycle, band form of trophozoite, 8 “daisy-petal” merozoites in schizont
plasmodium ovale
red cell has fringed edge, schuffners dots, resembles P. vivax
toxoplasma gondii
reside in cats, dangerous if crosses placenta, crencent shaped bradyzoites in body fluid, inactive cyst in muscle
crytosopridum parvum
attatches to intestinal mucosa and invades host, small; confused with yeast or RBC, fluorescent staining, think milwaukee
cyclospora cayetanensis
important to differentiate from c.parvum, acquired from imported fruits and veggies, immature oocysts found in feces
dematiaceous hyphae
darkly pigmented due to presence of melanin in the cell wall
hyaline hyphae
non-pigmented or light
diamorphic fungi
either yeast or mold from depending on growth environment, mold room temp and yeast at 37 degrees C with CO2
class zygomycetes
mucor and rhizopus, aseptate, produce asexual sporangiospores or sexual zygospores
class ascomycetes
produce sexual ascopores, or asexual condida, includes; microsporum, trichophyton, and pseudoallescheria
class basidioycetes
mushrooms, puff balls; usually non-pathogenic; include crytpcoccus neoformans
class duteromycetes
imperfect; no sexual form, common human pathogen causing cutaneous, subcutaneous, and systematic disease
KOH prep
10% KOH on glass slide add heat, skin, nail, hair. breaks down keratin so fungi can be seen. add (dimethyl sulfoxide) no heat reaquired
calcofluor white stain
chitin, cellulose in cell walls of funi bind to calcoflur white stain; fluoresces blue-white to apple green under UV light
lacto-phenol cotton blue prep
lactic acid preserves fungal structures, phenol kills fungus, and gotton blue stains fungus
india ink prep
provides black background for encapsulated organisms, equal volume of stain and CSF, used on cyptococcus neoformans
sabourauds dextrose agar
w or w/out anibiotics, all purpose, high sugar and pH (5.7); cycloheximide addes to inhibit growth of environmental fungi, gentamicin/chloramphenicol inhibit bacteria
brain heart infusion agar with blood
used for fastidious fungi, room temp
potato dextrose agar
potato infusion with destrose, special media used for pigment production
cornmeal agar w/tween 80
chlamydospore formation by c. ablicans, use coverslip
chromogenic agar
C. albicans=green
C. tropicalis=metallic blue
C. krusei=rose
trichophyton agars 1-7
T1 agar- no thiamine
T4 agar- rich in thiamine
T. tonsurans requres thiamine to grow so no growth on T1 agar
media used to identify dermatophytes
potato dextrose agar
4 types diamorphic fungi
blastomyces dermatidis, paracoccidiodomysis brasilersis, histoplasma capsulatum and coccidiomycosis immitis