GCSE English Language Unit 3: Controlled Assessment Spoken Language Study Name:__________________ Teacher:_________________ Spoken Language Study 10% of final English Language grade Controlled Assessment January 9 hours of lessons; 3 hours of controlled assessment writing Assessment Objectives: 1.Understand variations in spoken language, explaining why language changes in relation to contexts 2.Evaluate the impact of spoken language choices in their own and others’ use Lesson 1: Spoken v Written Lesson 2: Contextual Factors and Social Attitudes
Key Words related to Speech Match the word to the correct definition.
1. Standard EnglishA The way you speak, depending on context and audience 2. Received PronunciationB Form of grammar and vocabulary accepted as the national norm 3. AccentC The grammar and vocabulary of a particular region. 4. DialectD The way someone pronounces individual words in a geographical region 5 Repertoire E A person’s individual style of speaking 6. IdiolectF The accent of Standard English, often seen as the proper way of speaking. 7.
Sociolect G The way you speak, depending on your particular social group 8. Contextual Factors H Factors that influence the way you speak, eg gender, etc |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 |6 |7 |8 | | | | | | | | | | Homework: Idiolect Study Read Michael Rosen’s account of his idiolect.
Write your own account of influences on the way you talk. Write a paragraph on each of the following: 1. How would you describe the way you speak? 2. What do you think the way you speak tells other people think about you? 3. Explain how you change your speech in different situations(e. g. talking to teacher, talking to family, asking questions in a shop, etc. ) 4. Have you ever been embarrassed or ashamed about the way you speak? Why? Why not? Extension: Try to use key words in your response Lesson 3: Non-Fluency Features and Transcripts
Read this transcript and complete your allocated feature in the following table |Non-Fluency Feature |Example |Effect/Reason this occurs | |repetition (of the same word) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |back-tracking (repeating the same idea in| | | |different words) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |fillers (sort of, y’know, em) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |longer pauses | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |minor sentences (incomplete sentences) | | | | | | | | | | | |contractions | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |slang | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Commenting on Effect or Reason for a Non-Fluency Feature occurring: – Thinking about an appropriate word or way to phrase something – Recalling a distant memory – Nervousness – Reflecting on feelings at that point – Any others? Commenting on how Contextual Factors affect Speech: |Place/setting |Where does the conversation/speech take place? | |Is it a formal or informal environment? | | |How might the speech be different if the setting changed? | |Age |How old are the participants? | | |Is there a difference in age? | | |How might the language choice be different if the ages changed? | |Audience |Who is the speech aimed at? | | |Is this a formal or informal audience? | | |How might the language choices be different if the audience changed? | |Gender |Is it a single gender or mixed gender conversation? | |How might the language choices be different if the genders changed? | |Formality |Is it formal or informal? | | |Is it spontaneous or scripted speech? | | |How might the language be different if the formality changed? | |Purpose |Why is this person speaking? | | |How might the language change if the purpose changes? | |Previous events |What happened before this speech? | | |How does it influence what the speaker includes? | | |How might it be different if we didn’t know what happened before? |Technology |Is the speaker using technology ? | | |Is there technology present, eg video, camera, microphone? | | |Does the speaker speak differently because of the presence of technology? | Lesson 4: Non-Fluency Features and Context PEE Paragraphs on Contextual Factors: 1. Does it clearly state what the contextual factor is? 2. Does it include examples from the transcript to support this? 3. Does it contain an explanation of how the examples show deliberate choice of language? Lesson 5: Conversational Features [pic] Use the glossary below to help you answer the questions about the transcript. 1.
Find an adjacency pair in the transcript. Copy it into your book and explain what kind of adjacency pair it is. 2. Find an example of a participant attempting a topic change. Can you explain what they are trying to do? 3. Find an overlap in the conversation. Explain whether you think it is a cooperative or an uncooperative overlap. 4. Find an example of a participant making a false start. Try to explain why the speaker re-starts his utterance. Glossary Adjacency pair – two speech turns made by different speakers one following the other. In an adjacency pair, the first part requires a particular kind of second part (e. g. question/answer, summons/response, invitation/response).
Back-channelling – sounds and words listeners make to encourage the speaker and show they are listening; they range in the amount of interest they suggest: “Hmm, yes, absolutely”, “I see”, “Excellent”. False start – when a speaker begins an utterance and then re-starts. Filler – sounds which fill up pauses in speech, such as ‘er’, ‘um’ etc. perhaps to create thinking time and prevent interruption. Interruption – when an utterance interferes with the flow of the conversation. It might suggest aspects of power. Overlap – a kind of interruption. But overlap can be co-operative and helpful, or uncooperative and an attempt to “take the floor”, i. e. to take a turn. Para-linguistic features – non-vocal facial and body movements use when talking, i. e. body language.
Prosody / prosodic features – the sound features of talk, such as intonation, rhythm, pitch, speed. Repair – the moves people make to correct what they think is a mistake (one they’ve made themselves or that the other person makes) Stylised speech – speech is natural; dialogue used in radio or TV plays is stylised speech. Topic change – refers to points in a conversation where one of the participants clearly changes the subject, usually for a reason, and so alters the direction of the conversation. Turn-taking system – the system that governs conversation. Silences or continuous overlaps interfere with the turn-taking system. Turn-taking is about speakers co-operating to carry the conversation forward.
Utterance – the words that are spoken. Extension: Write an analysis of the conversation, answering the question: How cooperative are the participants in the transcript? Lesson 6: Conversational PEE Language in the Workplace: The Orthodontist’s Surgery |1 |Orthodontist: |I want you to pop these on for me (1) that’s it (2) and (1) you have got a problem in | | | |the lower is it a problem in the lower left | | |Patient: |yeah | | |Orthodontist: |so (inaudible) up the chair (2. ) [laughter] it’s got a mind of its own this chair | |5 | |ugh | | |Patient: |it’s got a mind of its own this chair it just seems to do what it wants right so | | |Orthodontist: |(inaudible) (15) [ongoing activity and no talk] can I have a lace-back please (9) did | | | |your teeth hurt quite a lot after | |10 | |ugh ugh em pardon | | |Patient: |did your teeth ache a lot after your visit here last time | | |Orthodontist: |yeah | | |Patient: |yeah (3. 0) they have started to settle Ok now yeah | | |Orthodontist: |yeah I can feel the teeth moving around | |15 |Patient: |yeah they’re definitely moving (32) [ongoing activity] wha what’s happened is that um | | |Orthodontist: |you’re still chewing where your tooth used to be ok and now you’re straight into? | | | |(inaudible) flexible wire so this is quite a common problem um I’ve just put an extra | | | |support wire in it hasn’t upset your treatment progress or anything like that so it’s | | | |more of an irritation for you (1. um that should be you sorted out (4) and I’m | |20 | |thinking in anticipation of that happening on the other side we’ll do the same thing | | | |could we have another lace-back [technician passes lace-back] | | | |agh | | | |is that one sore | | | |yeah | |25 |Patient: |sorry | | |Orthodontist: |no don’t worry | | |Patient: |(2) still got some achy teeth | | |Orthodontist: |mm | | |Patient: |right | |30 |Orthodontist: |is that something that | | |Patient: |oh yeah | | |Orthodontist: |that happens in the beginning they shift around | | |Parent: |it actually works er like that all the way through treatment that you can have weeks | | |Orthodontist: |and weeks of not of not having any discomfort at all | |35 |Parent: |Mmm | | |Orthodontist: |then all of a sudden one tooth will um will give you grief for a few days 2) [patient| | | |in pain] I’ll try and be as gentle as I can (14) [ongoing activity] Ok then | | |Parent: |yeah | | |Orthodontist: |ooh [sound of compressed air escaping] excuse me | |40 | |sorry [short laugh] | | | |um a couple of silver (inaudible) (22) [ongoing activity] | | |Patient: | | | |Orthodontist: | | | |Technician: | | |45 |Orthodontist: | |
Lesson 7: Developing Ideas Analysing Spoken Language: Key Area Question Frame Social attitudes to different spoken language What attitudes do people have about this workplace/occupation? How may they expect to be treated (as an audience, in some cases)? What kind of language may they expect to hear (or use)? How context influences choice of spoken language What are the contextual factors here? How do the situation(s) or contextual factors affect the speakers’ word choices or fluency? Key features found in speech and/or dialogue What level of formality is conveyed by the speaker(s)? Why? What features of non-fluency are present? If none, why is this?
What features of idiolect, sociolect, dialect or accent are present? Is it a cooperative or uncooperative conversation? Do you think the conversation is a typical or abnormal example of a conversation in this type of workplace? Why/Why not? How does each person speak in the conversation? Analyse the turn-taking. Why do the participants speak like this in this situation? Homework: TV Chef Research Watch some videos on TV chefs on the internet and write down the names of the chefs you viewed clips of, in the table. Then complete the table. Make sure to make a note of names of the video clips you refer to, for later reference. Some specific chefs to look out for: Delia Smith |Rick Stein |Angela Hartnett | |Jamie Oliver |Keith Floyd |Richard Corrigan | |Nigella Lawson |James Martin |Paul Rankin | |Antony Worral-Thompson |Marco Pierre-White |Gino d’Acampo | |Gordon Ramsay |Sanjeev Kapoor |John Burton-Race | |Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall |Heston Blumenthal |Marcus Wareing | Homework Extension: Are there as many TV chefs in the US and other countries as there are in the UK? Are they similar or different to the UK chefs? Lesson 8: Planning 1 Issues to consider: • Age, gender, social class • Body language • Relationship to camera • Address to viewer • Formal or informal? • Specialist or non-specialist? • Kinds of words • Purpose & audience • Setting • Context • Ingredients & equipment • Speed of action & editing Chef 3: | | | | | |Chef 2: | | | | | |Chef 1: | | | | | |Question |SOCIAL ATTITUDES: |CONTEXTUAL FACTORS: |SPEECH: |DIALOGUE: | | |How do the public |How typical is this |Write down some features of the way he/she |Write down some features of the way he/she talks | | |view this chef? |talk of the way TV |talks . Focus on non-fluency features. Are |in conversation. Focus on conversational | | |Why? |chefs talk? What |these deliberate? |features. | | | |factors affect the way | | | | | |they talk? | | | | | | | | | ———————– SAMPLE PEE PARAGRAPH