music final

expressionism
exploration of the unconscious
often created in altered states of consciousness
commedia dell arte
A professional form of theatrical improvisation, developed in Italy in the 1500’s, featuring stock characters and standardized plots, acted by traveling companies
pierrot
collection of 21 miniatures for solo voice and orchestra
based on stock characters from commedia dell rate
arnold schoenberg
uses sprechstimme
sprechstimme
A vocal style developed by Schoenberg, in between singing and speaking
example in pierrot lunaire and columbine
atonality
Music that is not tonal (no major or minor), pitches sound random
ballet music
piece of music with a scenario
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ballets russes
russian ballet
polytonality and where its found
more than one tonality occurring at the same time
used in right of spring by igor stravinsky
ballet russes
ostinato
rhythmic pattern that is played over and over again
scenario
plot of a ballet
harlem renaissance
cultural and political movement led by a community of AA intellectuals in 1920s
proud of culture
attention to black folk songs spirituals
start of jazz and hybrid music styles
through composed
music for 3 stanzas is different
no section repeats
ex on songs of separation by william grant still
chromatic scale
uses all white and black notes
tonality
a key area that has an obvious sense of tonic and dominant
ex happy birthday ending
layering
found in ives music
we hear different melodies played together sometimes creating disonances
satire
ives music for example they are there
he was against the war movement
charles ives they are there
1917 when the US joined WWI
heavy emphasis on certain words
ameautor piano and voice
modernist
avant garde
ahead of their time
ex ruth crawford seeger part of avant grade group
piano study in mixed accents ex
ultramodernist
music in all realms looks for ways to go beyond the boundaries
ruth crawford seeger
mixed accents
piano study in mixed accents 1930
use of mixed irregular rhythms
contrast in range
not tonal
les six
group of 6 modernists
neoclassicism
returning to old forms and reviving them
a reaction to the 19th century romanticism
african american musics
bebop and blues
generally played in different social contexts than classical music
some it remained an oral tradition
beebop was intentionally oral
12 bar blues form
4 beats to each bar
12 bars and 48 beats
there are a series of chord changes on which a soloist will perform a melody
ex is terraplane blues
blues scale
several flattened notes that contribute to a distinctive sound
blues notes
flattened notes
race records
blues started being recorded on records
oral versus written traditions
bebop purposely oral
harder to transcribe oral music
bebop
originally conceived as an art form
not music for dancing or entertainment
modernist music
intentionally complex
inaccessible to mainstream
reactionary
anti authority
AA
head
first chorus that introduces the melody
used in bebop
charlie parker uses in ornithology
improvisation found in
repeated chorus in ornithology by charlie parker uses improv on different instruments
chord progression
A succession of chords moving forward in a purposeful fashion
modernist
pertaining to the present time
hyper aware of what was going on
attitude and commitment to being present
music dissonant
satires and parodies used
concerned with musical functions rather than sounds
populist
appeal to large audience
ex west side story and aaron comp land when he combines folk tunes and makes american music
rodeo
1942
ballet in 4 episodes
ex of one of Aaron Coplands popular works
cowgirl trying to win a cowboy
celebration of the american west
incorporates folk tunes
american broadway musical
borrowed techniques from opera
trying to appeal to a large audience
simple lyrics in the vernacular and dance numbers
additive form
ex in west side story
new layers are constantly added
west side story
1957
musical by leonard bernstein and jerome robbins and steven sondheim
adaptation of romeo and julet
takes place 1950s manhattan
tension between rival gangs the polish american and the puerto rican gangs
uses additive form
david tudor
performed the piano part of musique concrete in indeterminacy
musique concrete
use of electronic music like from a magnetic type
recordings of real objects like slinkys that are manipulated
indeterminacy
1959
played by David Tudor
90 short lectures each a minute long
both performers play independently of each other
combines spoken word and music played on piano and whistle and musique concrete and excerpts from fontana mix
chance operations
chance dictates a certain aspect of a performance
aleatoric music
same as chance operations
4′ 33″
written by John Cage
the entire thing is silence
the noise the audience makes becomes part of the performance
I Ching
book that allows people to pick random activities or events
John Cage used this to pick what musical elements he would incorporate each performance
minimalism
experimental music developed in the 1960s in the US
Philip Glass was part of the community of american composers
characterized by slow moving static chords that change slowly over time
in minimalism the changes..
are subtle but have a dramatic effect
minimalism has a
trance like effect
purpose of indeterminacy was to
challenge the idea of musics purpose
monophonic in piano concerto with mixed accents means that
both hands play same melody one octave above or below
what was very important to neoclassicism composers?
lightness and clarity in timbre and form
what type of music was reactionary and antiauthority
bebop
ostinatio can be found in
rite of spring by igor stravinsky
piano study in mixed accents is an example of
atonal
monophonic texture
ruth crawford seeger
the unanswered question is an example of
dissonance from layering
mix of atonality and tonality
charles ives
a black pierrot is an example of
song from the harlem renaissance
through composed
william grant still
the rite of spring is an example of
a ballet russe
polytonal
ostinato
igor stravinksy
what is the scenario for the rite of spring
pagan Russia
the mystery and surge of the power of Spring
adoration of earth and a sacrifice
columbine is an example of
sprechstimme
atonality
arnold schoenberg
tonight from west side story is an example of
additive form
leonard bernstein
indeterminacy is an example of
aleatory music or chance operations
electronic music or musique concrete
john cage
concertino for harp and orchestra finale is an example of
tonal harmony but with modern inflections
some parts that aren’t completely tonic
germaine tailleferre
an example of neoclassicism music is
concertino for harp and orchestra by germaine tailleferre
maple leap rag is an example of
ragtime music
syncopation
scott joplin
einstein on the beach is an example of
minimalism music philip glass
sergei diaghilev
founder of ballet russe
pentatonic scale
A musical scale having five notes. For example: the five black keys of a keyboard make up a pentatonic scale.