Music Appreciation Chapters 21-33

Theme
melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of a composition
Thematic development
musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm
Motive
short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit
Absolute music
music that has no literacy, dramatic, or pictorial program
Chamber music
ensemble music for up to about ten players, with one player to a part
String quartet
One of the most common chamber ensembles, made up of two violins, viola, and cello. The first violin has the melody and the other three instruments provide accompaniment.
Divertimento
classical instrumental genre for chamber ensemble or soloist, often performed as light entertainment
Serenade
classical instrumental genre that combines elements of chamber music and symphony, often performed in the evening or at social functions
Rocket theme
a quick, aggressively rhythmic theme rising from low to high register
Steam roller
effect from the use of drawn-out crescendos slowly gathering force as they rise to a climax
Cadenza
virtuostic solo passage in the manner of an improvisation, performed near the end of an aria or a movement
Sonata
instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble
Mass
central service of the Roman Catholic Church
Requiem mass
Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead
Oratorio
large-scale dramatic genre originating in the Baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; similar to opera, but without scenery, constumes, or action
Opera seria
tragic Italian opera (serious)
Opera buffa
Italian comic opera, sung throughout
Ballad
English comic opera, usually featuring spoken dialogue alternating with songs set to popular tunes; also called dialogue opera
Singspiel
comic German drama with spoken dialogue; the immediate predecessor of Romantic German opera
Opera comique
French comic opera, with some spoken dialogue
Strophic
song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza (stophe) of the poem
Through-composed
song structure that is composed from beginning to end, without repetitions of large sections
Modified strophic
song structure that combines elements of strophic and through-composed forms; a variation of strophic form in which a section might have a new key, rhythm, or varied melodic pattern
Lied
German for “song”; most commonly associated with the solo art song of the nineteenth century, usually accompanied by piano
Song cycle
group of songs, usually Lieder, that are unified musically or through their texts
Etude
study piece that focuses on a particular technical problem
Nocturne
“night piece”; common in the nineteenth century, often for piano
Prelude
instrumental work intended to precede a larger work
Polonaise
stately Polish processional dance in triple meter
Mazukra
type of Polish folk dance in triple meter
Shape-note
musical notation system originating in nineteenth-century American church music in which the shape of the note heads determines the pitch; created to aid music reading
Program music
instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the nineteenth century
Bel canto
“beautiful singing”; elegant Italian vocal style characterized by florid melodic lines delivered by voices of great agility, smoothness, and purity of tone
Music drama
Wagner’s term for his operas
Leitmotif
“leading motive,” or basic recurring theme, representing a person, object, or idea, commonly used in Wagner’s operas