Music 203-Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Date of birth/death
born: 1-27-1756 in Salzburg
died: 12-5-1791 in Vienna
Mozart’s travels: 1762
Munich and Vienna
Mozart’s travels: 1763-1766
Munich, Augsburg, Frankfurt, Cologne, Brussels, Paris
Mozart’s travels: 1764
London
Mozart’s travels: 1765
The Hague
Mozart’s travels: 1766
Amsterdam, Paris, Dijon, Lyon, Genf, Bern, Zurich
Mozart’s travels: 1767
Vienna, Olmütz
Mozart’s travels: 1769/71
Italy (first trip): Milan, Bologna, Rome, Naples
Mozart’s travels: 1771
Italy (second trip): Verona, Venice, Milan, Rome
Mozart’s travels: 1772-73
Italy (third trip): Milan
Mozart’s travels: 1773
Vienna
Mozart’s travels: 1774
Munich
Mozart’s travels: 1777-79
Augsburg, Mannheim
Mozart’s travels: 1778
Paris
Mozart’s travels: 1779
Paris, Salzburg
Mozart’s travels: 1780
Munich
Mozart’s travels: 1781
Vienna (to stay for good)
Mozart’s travels: 1787
Prague (2x)
Mozart’s travels: 1789
Dresden, Leipzig, Berlin
Mozart’s travels: 1790
Frankfurt
Mozart’s travels: 1791
Prague
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots
K. 35 (1767 Salzburg)
Oratorio (German, only part 1 by W.A. Mozart)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Apollo et HycinthusK.
K. 38 (1767 Salzburg)
Intermedium (latin)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Bastien und Bastienne
K.50 (1768 Vienna)
Singspiel (German)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: La finta semplice
K. 51 (1769) Salzburg
Opera seria (Italian)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Mitridate, Re di Ponto
K. 87 (1770 Milan) Opera Seria (Italian)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Ascanio in Alba
K. 111 (1771 Milan) Opera Seria (Italian)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Betulia liberata
K. 118 (1771 Salzburg) Azione sacra (Italian) text: Metastasio
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Il sogno di Scipione
K. 126 (1772 Salzburg) Azione sacra (Italian), Text: Metastasio
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Lucio Silla
K. 135 (1772 MIlan) Opera seria (Italian)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: La finta giadiniera
K. 196 (1775 Munich, 1780 Salzburg) Comic opera (Italian + German version)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Zaide
K. 344 (1781) FRAGMENT Singspiel (German)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Idomeneo
K. 366 (1781 Munich) Opera seria (Italian)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Die Entführung aus dem Serail
K. 384 (1782 Vienna) Singspiel (German)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: L’oca del Cairo
K. 422 (1783) FRAGMENT Dramma giocoso (Italian)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Der Schauspieldirektor
K. 486 (1786 Vienna, Schönnbrunn) Comic opera in one act (German)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Le nozze die Figaro
K. 492 (1786 Vienna) Comic opera (Italian), Text: Lorenzo Da Ponte after Beaumarchais
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Don Giovanni
K. 527 (1787 Prague) Dramma giocoso (Italian), Text: Lorenzo Da Ponte
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Cosi fan tutte
K. 588 (1790 Vienna) Comic opera (Italian) Text: Lorenzo Da Ponte
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: La Clemenza di Tito
K. 621 (1791 Prague) Opera Seria (Italian), Text: Metastasio
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Die Zauberflöte
K. 620 (1791 Vienna) Great opera in two acts. (German) Text: Emanuel Schikaneder
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Die Entführung aus der Serail (The Abduction from the Seraglio=Harem) 1782
Characters
Belmonte: Spanish nobleman (T)
Constanze: his English fiancee (S)
Blonde (Blondchen): her English maid (S)
Pedrillo: Belmonte’s servant and Blonde’s boyfriend (T)
Bassa Selim: owner of the seraglio (speaking role)
Osmin: harem overseer (B)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Le nozze di Figaro (Marriage of Figaro) 1786.
Characters
Counta Almaviva (Bari.)
Countess Almaviva (Rosina) (S)
Figaro: the Count’s valet=servant (Bari.)
Susanna: Countess’s maid and Figaro’s bride (S)
Cherubino: young page in love with all the females in the story (Mezzo-S)
Doctor Bartolo: The Countess’s former guardian (B)
Marcellina: The countess’s former governess (Mezzo-s.)
don basilio: music teacher
the gardener (B)
Barbarina: gardener’s daughter (S)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Don GIovanni 1787
characters
Don Giovanni: spanish nobleman (Bari.)
Leporello: his servant (Bari.)
Il Commendatore: spanish nobleman and officer (B)
donna anna: his daughter (S)
don ottavio: donna anna’s fiancee (T)
donna elvira: 1 of don giovanni’s former mistresses (S)
zerlina: country girl on her wedding day (S)
masetto: her bridegroom (B)
cosi fan tutte 1790
characters
fiordiligi (S)
dorabella, her sister (mezzo-s.)
guglielmo, dorabella’s finacee (bari.)
ferrando: fiordiligi’s fiancee (T)
don alfonso: eldery friend of theirs (Bari.)
despina: sisters’ maid (S)
Mozart’s Compositions for the Stage: Die Zauberflöte (Magic Flute) 1791
tamino: oriental prince
the queen of the night (high S)
pamina: kidnapped daughter (S)
papageno: her bird catcher (bari.)
papagena: his girlfriend-to-be (S)
three ladies working for the queen (SSA), 3 boys (SSA)
sarastro, high priest of isis and osiris (B)
monostatos, moor, working for sarastro (T)
A speaker (Bari.) and other high priests (male choir)
Wolfgang’s family
father: leopold
mother: Maria Anna
sister: Nannerl
all spoke german and french
Wolfgang’s age when his father noticed his talent
3, when he responded to his sister’s music lessons by picking out tunes on the harpsichord
Wolfgang’s public debut
court of Munich, Jan. 1762, 6 years old. Played for Empress Maria Theresa in Vienna.
The year Leopold, Wolfgang, and Nannerl set on a 3 year tour
1763.
Wolfgang’s 3 visits to Italy
started in 1769, picked up Italian style
got honor of “papal Order of the Golden Spur” (given after writing down from memory after two hearings Allegri’s “Miserere” that was only intended for the Vatican)
pope knighted him (Wolfgang then signed, occasionally, “Chevalier Mozart”)
The piece Wolfgang wrote two days before its premiere
Don Giovanni
the composer Wolfgang became close to in London 1764
Johann Christian Bach
Leopold’s post in Salzburg 1771
music director to prince-archbishop (this is when Hieronymus von Colloredo replaced him after his death)
Mozart’s career decision 1777
Left salzburg position of writing church music, ended up in Paris with his sick mother
Tragedy of 1778-79
Wolfgang’s mother died in 78, headed back depressed to Salzburg in 79
Mannheim 1779
stayed with the Weber family, courted and wrote arias for Alosia (prettiest and most talented of the 4) and Josefa (Josefa created the role of the Queen of the Night)
Alosia rejected Mozart
Wolfgang’s 2nd job in Salzburg
court and cathedral organist
Wolfgang’s first opera 1780
elector of Munich had Wolfgang write an opera (Idomeneo) [1st mature stage work] considered best opera seria
his favorite singer was male alto dal Prato nicknamed “mio molto amato castrato dal Prato”
Mozart’s “liberating fiasco”1781
his boss the archbishop got mad at him in vienna so wolfgang quit
Wolfgang and Constanze’s marriage in August 1782
just before marriage he composed The Abduction from the Seraglio, comic opera
2 noble ladies sold by pirates to a Turkish pasha
formed as a singspiel, which added to popularity
Antonio Salieri
head of the Vienna Opera, favorite composer of Emperor Joseph II
“nemesis of mozart”, but later considered his friend
Emperor Joseph II’s court
considered “brilliant”. had poet Lorenzo da Ponte: “half hack/half genius”, helped wolfgang by having the emperor lift the ban of “Figaro”
Wolfgang’s Figaro-plot
comedy
Figaro and Susanna battle Count Almaviva
although comedic, it raged at current social justice issues
Mozart’s and da Ponte’s collaborations
3 operas
Figaro written in 6 weeks in early 1786
lost popularity after 9 performances in Vienna, but really popular in Prague
Mozart’s decline in popularity in Vienna
caused by Spaniard Martin y Solor’s Una Cosa Rara, opera
1788-1790
Mozart began begging for loans from friends
denied personal responsibility for situation
constanze chronically ailing
became a freemason
emperor joseph had less money because of turkish war
mozart unwise with money
Mozart and Haydn
mozart dedicated 6 string quartets between 1782-85
3 of these Hayden Quartets played in Vienna 1785 with both of them (and mozart’s father) present
Prague’s response to “Figaro-mania”
had Mozart and da Ponte write another opera in 1787
revived Don Juan legend, wrote Don Giovanni
Casanova helped with technical details
Response to Don Giovanni
Vienna= unpopular, didn’t like the mix of opera seria/comic opera
selling out in Germany, Austria, and Prague
Date of Leopold’s death
May 1787
Mozart’s final 3 symphonies
nos. 39-41
written in 6 weeks in 1788
Mozart and Baron van Swieten
court librarian and musical amateur
both studied J.S. Bach’s “Well-Tempered Clavier” and “The Art of Fugue”
Mozart as a freemason
started in 1784
influenced the Magic Flute (so did Bach)
Mozart’s and da Ponte’s final collaboration
Cosi fan tutte “they all do it”
story of betryal
2 men subject their loves to a test of fidelity, both ladies fail the test
least popular-sufferings seen as “too real”
Mozart and Emanuel Schikaneder
actor, freemason, set tone for The Magic Flute (proposed the idea in march 1791), drinking buddies
personal revision of TMF: had sarasto become hero instead of villian
The Magic Flute’s two important elements
1. seen as antifeminist: Queen’s major sin was challenging authority of men
2. seen as a fairy tale for adults. moves effortlessly between “artless and popular” to “searching and profound”
The Clemency of Titus
written for a royal coronation in Prague, no popularity
1791
mozart knew he was dying
July 1791
began working on a Requiem for Count Franz von Walsegg who planned to use commission as his own, finished by his student Franz Süssmayr
ended up being played at Haydn’s funeral
Mozart’s last completed piece
Masonic cantata for opening of temple
Mozart’s date of death
12-5-1791, funeral held at Cathedral of St. Stephen
memorial service in Prague on December 14th
Antonio Salieri conducted memorial service in Vienna
Antonio Salieri’s students
Beethoven, Schubert, Liszt, Karl Mozart (wolfgang’s son)
Librettist Lorenzo da Ponte’s final stage of career
taught italian at columbia university, ran grocery store, bootlegged
cause of mozart’s death
constant treatments of bleeding & rheumatic fever
the number of piano concertos mozart wrote in vienna
17, 30 overall
orchestra, 3 movements (fast-slow-fast)
number of symphonies mozart composed
41, only 6 are standard repertoire
instruments wolfgang played:
violin, viola, piano, organ
constanze’s death
outlived mozart 51 years, 2 out of 6 children grew to be adults