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Muscular System: Muscle Metabolism

1.List the three roles of ATP in muscle contraction:

  • 1.Energize the power stroke of the myosin cross bridge.
  • 2.
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    Disconnecting the myosin head from the binding site on actin at the conclusion of a power stroke.

  • 3. Energizing the calcium ion pump.

2. The potential energy in ATP is released when the terminal high-energy bond is broken by a process called hydrolysis. Write the end products of this process: ATP (+ H2O) ( ADP

3. Rebuilding ADP into ATP with a new source of energy is carried out by a process called dehydration synthesis.

Write the equation for this process: ADP ( ATP (+ H2O)

4. List the three processes used to synthesize additional ATP when ATP supplies are low:

  • 1. Hydrolysis of creatine phosphate
  • 2. Glycolysis
  • 3. The Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation

5. An immediate source of energy is creatine phosphate (CP), but the supplies are limited and rapidly depleted. One molecule of CP produces one ATP.

6. Glucose is a major source of energy for synthesizing ATP. List the two sources of glucose:

  • 1. Glucose enters the muscle cell directly from the blood.
  • 2. Glucose is produced by hydrolysis of glycogen stored in the muscle cell.

7. Glycolysis is the process that breaks down glucose. Name two products of the breakdown of glucose:

  • 1. Two ATP molecules
  • 2. Pyruvic acid If oxygen is not available, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid, which is the end product of anaerobic respiration.

8. If oxygen is available, the process is known as ___aerobic_ respiration. Name two sources of oxygen:

  • 1. Oxygen enters the muscle cell directly from the blood.
  • 2. Oxygen is stored in myoglobin, an oxygen-binding protein.

The aerobic pathway consists of glycolysis + krebs cycle + oxidative phosphorylation. The net result of one glucose molecule is 36 ATP.

9. The process of restoring depleted energy reserves after exercise is called repaying the oxygen debt. Name four processes that occur during this time:

  • 1. Lactic acid is converted back to pyruvic acid, which enters the Krebs cycle, producing ATP.
  • 2. This ATP is used to rephosphorylate creatine into creatine phosphate.
  • 3. Glycogen is synthesized from glucose molecules.
  • 4. Additional oxygen re-builds to myoglobin.

10. Put the following characteristics under the correct fiber type in the table below:

Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylationuses glycolysis fatigue rapidlyhigh endurance few capillariesmany capillaries much myoglobinlittle myoglobin long-distance runnersprinter Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation uses glycolysis fatigue rapidly high endurance few capillaries many capillaries much myoglobin little myoglobin long-distance runner sprinter light in color, large diameter red in color, small diameter.

 

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