MU 100 master set 4

which of the following statements about the music heard in this audio section are correct
this short, thematic motive recurs fifth. short short long. fate knocking at the door
musical selection is a theme from a symphony composed
mozart
adult career mozart
left salzburg 25
popular in prague
friends with hadyn
which of the following statements describe what is heard in the music passage in this recording
when the music begins new tempo, broken octaves.
intro to first ends main theme begins
tempo changes suddenly from slow to very fast
rondo form
independent or the final movement such as a symphony or sonata,
abacaba
this musical selection is from mozart’s
symphony no. 40 in g minor
heard in this selection from the SECOND movement of beethoven’s fifth symphony
a lyric theme in the woodwinds becomes a loud theme in the brass instruments, short short long clarinets trumpets,
the development section of a movement in sonata form
contains modulations through several keys.
uses motives with new emotion meanings.
combines motives to create polyphony.
who is the composer of this audio recording and what is the title of the composition
lallardo
what is heard in this selection from the FIRST movement of beethovens fifth symphony
selection is part of the coda, descending violin melody introduces a new rising theme
which of the following best describes what is heard in the audio recording
minuet followed by the beginning of a trio
which of the following statements accurately describes this musical selection
rondo gypsy, rondo lively easy to remember
this musical selection is from which movement of mozart’s symphony no. 40 in G minor
first movement
which of the following statements best describes what is heard in this selection from the THIRD movement of Beethoven’s fifth symphony
a hushed mysterious theme is followed by the famous short-short-long rhythm introduced in the first movement
which of the following accurately describe what is heard in this selection from mozart’s symphony no. 40 in g minor
bass line new key.
entry of the lyric second theme in the exposition following the end of the bridge.
the conclusion of the bridge in the exposition of a movement in sonata form.
which of the following statements accurately describes this selection form mozart’s symphony no. 40 in G minor
trio section of the third movement comes to an end and the minuet returns
heard in beethoven’s fifth symphony (overall)
a bridge following the third movement connects with the fourth movement,
the trumpets proclaim the main theme of the final movement.
woodwinds and strings short short long
Pre-classical period
the transition from the baroque style to the full flowering of the classical
Two important pioneers were Bach’s sons
Carl Philipp Emanuel and Johann Christian
Style Galant
was applied to this light, graceful music, in music style gallant is comparable to the rococo style in art.
3 Artists who flourished from 1770-1820 and the world’s greatest composers
Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven
Contrast of mood
A classical composition will fluctuate in mood. Dramatic, turbulent music might lead into a care free dance tune.
Rhythm
A classical composition has a wealth of rhythmic patterns, whereas a baroque piece contains a few patterns that are reiterated throughout. Classical includes unexpected pauses, syncopation, and frequent changes from long notes to shorter notes.
Texture
Classical music is basically homophonic. Pieces shift smoothly or suddenly from one texture to another.
Melody
Composers usually borrowed popular tunes. Classical melodies tend to sound balanced and symmetrical because they are frequently made up of two phrases of the same length.
Dynamics and the piano
Classical composers interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change-crescendo and decrescendo. Composers did not restrict themselves to the terraced dynamics characteristic of baroque music. Crescendos and decrescendos were an electrifying novelty; audiences sometimes rose excitedly from their seats.
During the classical period, the desire for gradual dynamic change led to the replacement of the harpsichord by the piano.
The late 18th century piano called a fortepiano-weighed much less than the modern piano and had thinner strings held by a frame made of wood rather than metal.
End of the basso continuo
The basso continuo was gradually abandoned during the classical period. One reason was because it became obsolete was that more and more music was written for amateurs, who couldn’t master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass. Second reason is classical composers wanted more control, they preferred to specify an accompaniment rather than trust the judgement of improvisers.
Classical orchestra
It was a standard group of four sections: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
ex:
Strings-1st violins, 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses
Woodwinds-2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons
Brass-2 french horns, 2 trumpets
Percussion-2 timpani
The number if musicians was greater in a classical orchestra than in a baroque group.
Roles in classical orchestra
The strings were the most important section, with the first violins taking the melody most of the time and the lower strings providing an accompaniment. The woodwinds added contrasting tone colors and were often given melodic solos. Horns and trumpets brought power to loud passages and filled out the harmony, but they did not usually play the main melody. Timpani were used for a rhythmic bite and emphasis.
Classical forms
1. fast movement
2. Slow movement
3. Dance-related movement
4. Fast movement
Classical symphonies and string quartets usually follow this four-movement pattern, whereas classical sonatas may consist of two, three, or four movements.
Symphony
is written for orchestra
String quartet
is for two violins, viola, and cello
Sonata
for one or two instruments
Joseph Hayden
was the first, and was content to spend most of his life serving a wealthy aristocratic family.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
born 24 yrs later, couldn’t bear being treated as a servant. He broke from his court position and went to Vienna to try his luck as a freelance musician. He was very popular for several yrs, then his fame declined and he died in debt.
Ludwig van Beethoven
was able to work as an independent musician in Vienna. His success was gained through a wider middle-class market for music and a commanding personality that promoted the nobility to give him gifts and treat him as an equal.
Vienna
was one of the music centers of Europe during the classical period, and Hayden, Mozart, and Beethoven were all active there.
4th largest city in Europe
Divertimentos or Serenades
Haydn and Mozart wrote many outdoor entertainment pieces.
Sonata form or sonata-allegro form
refers to the form of a single movement. It should not be confused with the term sonata, which is used for a whole composition made up of several movements.
Sonata-form movement
consists of 3 main sections: the Exposition, where the themes are presented. The Development, where themes are treated in new ways. And the Recapitulation, where the themes return.
The three main sections are often followed by a concluding section, the coda (Italian for tail)
Exposition
sets up a strong conflict between the tonic key and the new key, and between the first theme and the second theme.
It begins with the first theme in the tonic key, or home key. Then comes bridge or transition, leading to the second theme, which is in a new key.
Development
is often the most dramatic section of the movement. Themes are developed, or treated in new ways. They are broken into fragments, or motives, which are short musical ideas developed within a composition.
Recapitulation
the beginning of it brings resolution, as we again hear the first theme in the tonic key. In the recapitulation the first theme, bridge, second theme, and concluding section are presented more or less as they were in the exposition, with one difference all the principal material is now in the tonic key.
Coda
rounds off a movement by repeating themes or developing them further. IT ALWAYS ENDS IN THE TONIC KEY.
Theme and variations
was widely used in the classical period, it is a basic musical idea-the theme-is repeated over and over and is changed in time.
Countermelody
in variations 1 and 3 the original melody is accompanied by a new one.
Minuet and trio or minuet
is often used as the third movement of classical symphonies, string quartets, and other works.
It originated as a dance, it was a stately, dignified dance in which the dancing couple exchanged curtsies and bows.
Is written for listening not dancing, it is in triple meter and usually in a moderate tempo, it is in A B A form.
the second dance was known as a trio because it was played by 3 instruments.
Da capo
from the beginning
Scherzo
Italian for joke
is usually A B A form and triple meter, but it moves quickly, generating energy, rhythmic drive and rough humor.
Serenade
a work that is usually light in mood, meant for evening entertainment. it is written for a small string orchestra or for a string quartet plus a double bass.
Rondo
features a tuneful main theme (A) that returns several times in alternation with other themes. common rondo patterns are A B A C A and A B A C A B A.
Sonata-rondo
contains a development section like that in sonata form and is outlined A B A- development section- A B A.
Symphony *
is an extended, ambitious composition typically lasting between 20 – 45 min. exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the classical orchestra.
Concerto
is a 3 movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra. It combines the soloist’s virtuosity and interpretive abilities with the orchestra’s wide range of tone color and dynamics.
has 3 movements: fast, slow, and fast. it also has no minuet or scherzo.
Cadenza
Italian for cadence
in the first movement and sometimes in the last movement, there is a special unaccompanied showpiece for the soloist.
indicated in the score by a fermata, a sign meaning pause, which is placed over the chord.
Chamber music
is designed for the intimate setting of a room in a home, rather than a public concert hall. it is performed by a small group of 2 or 9 musicians, with 1 player to a part.
Doesn’t need a conductor, so it is like a small jazz group.
String quartet*
is the most important form in classical chamber music, written for 2 violins, a viola, and a cello.
usually has 4 movements: fast, slow, minuet or scherzo, and fast.
Joseph Haydn
born in Austria, then played for rich families, died in 1809 at the age of 77.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart *
born in Salzburg, Austria, at the age of 8 he wrote a symphony, between the ages of 6 and 15 he was on tour. At the age of 25 he went to Vienna to be a freelance musician.
*Don Giovanni
is a blend of comic and serious opera making fun of the Spanish lover Don Juan.
Ludwig van Beethoven
born in Germany. at age 29 he felt the first symptoms of deafness.
Mozart, Symphony no. 40
high violins, dun dun dun dundunit, repeated, then slow and that tone is repeated.
Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G Major
sharp picked violins, 1st part repeated 3 times, then gets softer then a loud bang.
Mozart, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
two sharp fast strokes of violin then a drawn out tone, repeated, then gets quiet and returns to normal tone.
Beethoven, String Quartet in C minor
fast pitched strings of the violin, then dun dun dunnn and repeated, changes tones when a solo violin leads.
Mozart, Don Giovanni
pit orchestra of string instruments, starts then stops twice then softly plays, then a male opera signer comes in.
Mozart, Piano Concerto no. 23
soft violins, then a low viola, then a high pitched flute joins, then a fast past piano keys in the middle of the song.
Beethoven, Symphony no. 5
(clapping) loud dun dun dun dunn repeated, then soft playing and gradually gets louder.
“Classical” music
1750-1820, Haydn and Mozart, and early Beethoven.
Enlightenment
“The Age of Reason”, thinkers gave free rein to the pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws, formulated largely by Isaac Newton (1642-1727). French encyclopedists Voltaire (1694-1778) and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) espoused the principles of social justice, equality, religious tolerance, and freedom of speech. By the end of the eighteenth century, the Age of Reason gave way to the Age of Revolution.
Concert spirituel
(founded in 1725), the most successful Parisian concert series. at which the West’s first non-court orchestra played a regular schedule of performances. advertised its performances by means of flyers distributed in the streets. To make its offerings accessible to several strata of society, it instituted a two-tiered pricing scale for a subscription series (4 livres for boxes and 2 livres for the pit, roughly $200 and $100 in today’s money). Children under fifteen were admitted for half price. The “for profit” concert as we know it today dates from this time.
comic opera “opera buffa”
exemplified social change and championed middle-class values. Made use of everyday characters and situations; it typically employed spoken dialogue and simple songs in place of recitatives and lengthy arias; and it was liberally spiced with sight gags, bawdy humor, and social satire.
Don Giovanni (1787) – written my Mozart
the villain is a leading nobleman of the town
Le nozze di Figaro (1786) -The Marriage of Figaro
Written my Mozart
a barber outsmarts a count and exposes him to public ridicule. (So seriously did the king of France and the Holy Roman Emperor take the threat of such theatrical satire that they banned the play on which The Marriage of Figaro was based.)
pianoforte
soft-loud
antecedent and consequent phrases
are units that operate together: one opens, the other closes (again, “away”-“home” if you wish).
Neoclassicism
Many major artists of the eighteenth century journeyed to Rome to absorb the ancient classical style, and what they created in painting and architecture.
Angelica Kauffmann (1741 – 1807)
Englishwoman, in the Character of Design Listening to the Inspiration of Poetry (1782) shows classical balance (two women and two columns). Not coincidentally, the complementary figures in this painting function as do antecedent-consequent phrases in Classical music: they are somewhat different, but they balance each other.
triplet rhythm (groups of three)
To avoid a feeling of inactivity when the harmony is static, Classical composers invented new “filler” patterns for accompaniment. Sometimes they simply repeat the accompanying chord in a uniform
Alberti bass
named after the minor Italian keyboard composer Domenico Alberti (1710-1740), who popularized this figure. Instead of playing the pitches of a chord all together, the performer spreads them out to provide a continual stream of sound. Mozart used an Alberti bass at the beginning of his famous C major piano sonata (1788). The Alberti bass serves essentially the same function as both the modern “boogie-woogie” bass and the process of “tapping” on a guitar (made famous by Eddie Van Halen). It provides an illusion of harmonic activity for those moments when, in fact, the harmony is not changing.
Viennese School
The careers of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and the young Franz Schubert all unfolded in Vienna, and from Vienna radiated their powerful musical influence. For that reason, we often refer to them collectively as the Viennese School and say that their music epitomizes the “Viennese Classical style.”
Vienna
Was then the capital of the old Holy Roman Empire, a huge expanse covering much of Western and Central Europe. Vienna had a population of 215,000, which made it the fourth-largest city in Europe, after London, Paris, and Naples. Ruled by aristocratic gentry. Served as a cultural mecca.
Franz Joseph Hayden (1732 – 1809)
was the first of the great Classical composers to move to Vienna, and his life offers something of a “rags-to-riches” story. Haydn was born in 1732 in a farmhouse in Rohrau, Austria, about twenty-five miles east of Vienna. His father, a wheelwright, played the harp but could not read music. When the choir director of Saint Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna happened to be scouting for talent in the provinces, he heard the boy soprano Haydn sing and brought him back to the capital. Here Haydn remained as a choirboy, studying the rudiments of composition and learning to play the violin and keyboard. After nearly ten years of service, his voice broke and he was abruptly dismissed. For most of the 1750s, Haydn eked out a “wretched existence,” as he called it, much like a freelance musician or aspiring actress might in New York City today. But in 1761, Haydn’s years of struggle ended when he was engaged as director of music for the court of Prince Nikolaus Esterházy (1714-1790). For a period of nearly thirty years, Haydn served Nikolaus Esterházy at his remote court on what is today the border of Austria and Hungary. Here he composed symphonies, operas, and string trios in which the prince himself participated. 106 symphonies, about 70 string quartets, nearly a dozen operas, 52 piano sonatas, 14 Masses, and 2 oratorios. He began composing before the death of Bach (1750) and did not put down his pen until about the time Beethoven set to work on his Symphony No. 5 (1808). Thus, Haydn not only witnessed but, more than any other composer, helped to create the mature Classical style.
Esterhazy
Were wealthy aristocrats who wintered in Vienna and summered on their extensive landholdings to the southeast. Prince Nikolaus ruled much like a benevolent dictator. But the prince was an autocrat with a fondness for music, maintaining an orchestra, a chapel for singing religious works, and a theater for opera. As was typical of the period, the musician Haydn was considered a servant of his prince and even wore the garb of the domestic help, as can be seen in his portrait. As a condition of his appointment in 1761, Haydn signed a contract stipulating that all the music he composed belonged not to him, but to his aristocratic master.
London Symphonies
Hayden’s last 12 symphonies. In a series of concerts at the Hanover Square Rooms, a new public concert hall that catered to the growing middle-class demand for classical music.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791)
was born in 1756 in the mountain town of Salzburg, Austria, then a city of about 20,000 residents. His father, Leopold Mozart, was a violinist in the orchestra of the ruling archbishop of Salzburg and the author of a best-selling introduction to playing the violin. Leopold was quick to recognize the musical gifts of his son, who by the age of six was playing the piano, violin, and organ, as well as composing. In 1762, the Mozart family coached off to Vienna, where Wolfgang and his older sister Nannerl displayed their musical wares before Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780). They then embarked on a three-year tour of Northern Europe that included extended stops in Munich, Brussels, Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Geneva. In London, Wolfgang sat on the knee of Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) and improvised a fugue. And here, at the age of eight, he wrote his first two symphonies. Eventually, the Mozarts made their way back to Salzburg. But in 1768, they were off again to Vienna, where the now twelve-year-old Wolfgang staged a production of his first opera, Bastien und Bastienne, in the home of the famous Dr. Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), the inventor of the theory of animal magnetism, or hypnotism (hence, “to mesmerize”). The next year father and son visited the major cities of Italy, including Rome, where, on July 8, 1770, the pope dubbed Wolfgang a Knight of the Order of the Golden Spur. “The most universal composer in the history of Western music.”
Freemasons
an Enlightenment fraternity, which espoused tolerance and universal brotherhood. Many view Mozart’s last opera, Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute, 1791) as a hymn in praise of Masonic ideals.
How did composers treat melody during the Classical period?
short, balanced phrases create tuneful melodies; more vocal than instrumental in character
Identify the statement that correctly describes the harmonic style of the era.
the harmonic rhythm varies dramatically, creating a dynamic flux and flow; simple chordal harmonies made more active by “Alberti” bass
Which answer correctly describes the rhythm of Classical period music?
it becomes more stop-and-go; greater rhythmic variety within a single movement
The texture of Classical period music is generally
homophonic with a thin bass and middle range, hence it is light and transparent.
Phrases that are dependent upon each other to produce a complete musical idea are called ________ and ________ .
antecedent, consequent
Which definition is correct for “Alberti bass”?
instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound
What is a “comic opera”?
a genre of opera originating in the eighteenth century that portrayed everyday characters and situations, and used spoken dialogue and simple songs
The “pianoforte” is
the original name of the piano.
The new comic opera, called ________ in Italy, was the opera of the middle class.
opera buffa
During the Enlightenment, also referred to as the Age of Reason, thinkers gave free rein to the pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws.
True
Which idea did NOT emerge during the Enlightenment?
the importance of communicating passion no matter what sort of imbalance, contradiction, or formal inconsistency might result
Spurred on by economic self-interest and the principles of Enlightenment philosophers, the middle class of France and America rebelled against the monarchy.
True
Due to the physical power required to play the pianoforte, the most common players of the new instrument were professional male musicians.
False
Which aspect contributed to the dynamic mood of Classical music?
– the use of crescendos and diminuendos
– alternating the mood between themes
– quickly changing the texture from light and airy to dense and more contrapuntal
– rapid changes in rhythmic patterns
Identify the statement that does NOT apply to Vienna during the late eighteenth century.
It was the largest city in Europe.
Which statement does NOT apply to Haydn’s early years?
Because he displayed great musical talent as a child, his father forced the boy to practice at all hours with the intent of exploiting him as a child prodigy.
While Haydn toured Europe to acquire fame and fortune, what actually happened was that his compositions increased in breadth and substance because of his exposure to a wealth of musical styles.
False
Mozart was born in the town of ________ .
Salzburg
Which composers are representative of the Classical period?
Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, and Schubert
All of the following statements regarding the early years of Mozart are accurate EXCEPT this:
His father served as court composer to Joseph II of Austria, and later gave composition lessons to Beethoven
From 1781 until his death in 1791, Mozart lived almost exclusively in which city?
Vienna
Which statement about Mozart’s compositions and his childhood experiences touring Europe is WRONG?
as a result of his touring he acquired fame and fortune, and was court composer to Emperor Joseph II from 1780 until his untimely death in 1791
Which musical tradition was NOT influential in the development of Mozart’s musical style?
Spanish flamenco
Mozart found the system of aristocratic patronage irritating, and after several unpleasant scenes with his patron, he cut himself free and moved to Vienna, determined to make a living as a freelance musician.
True
Identify the INCORRECT statement regarding Mozart’s life in Vienna during the 1780s.
He was responsible for an orchestra that was never larger than twenty-five musicians and saw to it that all musicians appeared in uniform and followed instructions.
form
refer to that artifact’s external shape or to the way it is positioned in physical space. (same number of beats per bar and same number of bars per phrase)
canon
standard repertoire
ternary form (ABA)
the idea of statement-contrast-repetition is obvious (like twinkle, twinkle, little star)
minuet
a stately dance in triple meter, When the minuet appeared as a movement of a symphony or quartet, it came in pairs
trio
Because the second minuet of the pair had originally been played by only three instruments, it was called the trio (also performed in ternary form)
serenade
a light, multimovement piece for strings alone or small orchestra, one intended for an evening’s entertainment and often performed outdoors. (Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik – A Little Night Music – 1787)
sonata-allegro form
Sonata-allegro form is the most complex of all musical stories, and it tends to result in the longest pieces. A sonata is a genre of music usually involving a solo instrument; sonata-allegro, however, is a form giving structure to a single movement within any one of several genres: a sonata, string quartet, serenade, symphony, even a one-movement overture. from the fact that most sonatas employ this form in the first movement, and the first movement almost always goes fast, or “allegro.” four distinctive musical styles found in sonata-allegro form: thematic, transitional, developmental, and cadential (ending).
exposition
(thematic) – thematic passage has a clearly recognizable melody, often a singable tune
the composer presents the main themes (or musical personalities) of the movement. It begins with the first theme or theme group, which is always in the tonic key. usually concludes with a closing theme
transition, or bridge
(transition) – is full of motion, with melodic sequences and rapid chord changes.
which carries the music from the tonic to a new key, usually the dominant, and prepares for the arrival of the second theme. The second theme typically contrasts in character with the first; if the first is rapid and assertive, the second may be more languid and lyrical.
development – perhaps confusing; the harmonies shift quickly, and the themes, while recognizable, often pile one on top of another in a dense contrapuntal texture.
As the name indicates, a further working out, or “developing,” of the thematic material occurs here. The themes can be extended and varied, or wholly transformed; a character we thought we knew can turn out to have a completely different personality.
retransition
is tonal order restored, often by means of a stabilizing pedal point on the dominant note. When the dominant chord (V) finally gives way to the tonic (I), the recapitulation begins.
recapitulation
is not an exact, note-for-note repetition of the exposition, it nonetheless presents the same musical events in the same order. The only change that regularly occurs in this restatement is the rewriting of the transition, or bridge. Because the movement must end in the tonic, the bridge does not modulate to a different key as before, but stays at home in the tonic. Thus, the recapitulation imparts to the listener not only a feeling of return to familiar surroundings but also an increased sense of harmonic stability.
introductions
are, without exception, slow and stately, and usually filled with ominous or puzzling chords designed to get the listener wondering what sort of musical excursion he or she is about to take.
coda
(cadential passage) – coming at the end of a section or the end of the piece, sounds repetitive because the same chords are heard again and again in a harmony that seems to have stopped moving forward
indicates, this is a section added to the end of the movement to wrap things up. Like tails, codas can be long or short. no matter how long the coda, most will end with a final cadence in which the harmonic motion slows down to just two chords, dominant and tonic, played over and over, as if to say “the end, the end, the end, THE END.” The more these repeat, the greater the feeling of conclusion.
transformational imperative
The compulsion to endlessly reimagine a song, an object, or a grammatical phrase
theme and variations
occurs when a melody is altered, decorated, or adorned in some way by changing pitch, rhythm, harmony, or even mode (major or minor). The object is still recognizable but somehow doesn’t seem to sound the same.
binary form
a simple AB arrangement
rondo
must have at least three statements of the refrain (A) and at least two contrasting sections (at lease B and C). is typically light, quick, and jovial in nature.
finale
end
cadenaz
a passage of brilliant technical display by the soloist alone
Which statement about the trio is INACCURATE?
It utilized the same theme as the minuet, but with lighter scoring.
Which musical form was NOT important during the Classical period?
ritornello form
The most accurate statement about musical form during the Classical period is:
A few standard forms regulate much of the music.
Identify the INACCURATE statement regarding the recapitulation in sonata-allegro form.
The second theme is played in the dominant or relative major key.
Identify the form that began during the Classical period.
sonata-allegro
Which term best characterizes the B section in ternary form?
contrast
The “retransition” is
the end of the development section where the tonality often becomes stabilized on the dominant in preparation for the return of the tonic and the beginning of the recapitulation.
Identify the correct definition for “exposition,” as used in sonata-allegro form.
the principal section in which all thematic material is presented
“Sonata-allegro form” is
– perhaps the most popular form of the Classical era.
– a form that was invented during the Classical period.
– a form that has the potential for dramatic presentation, conflict, and resolution.
– a dramatic musical form that involves an exposition, development, and recapitulation.
What is the “coda”?
the final and concluding section of a musical composition
Identify the correct definition for “development.”
the centermost portion of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is developed and extended, transformed, or reduced to its essence
Which definition for “minuet” is correct?
a stately dance in triple meter, first developed in the Baroque period
Which section of sonata-allegro form is slow, stately, and filled with ominous or puzzling chords?
introduction
Which statement does NOT apply to Eine kleine Nachtmusik?
Mozart composed it for the outdoor wedding reception of a friend.
As a general rule, Classical composers restricted sonata-allegro form to the first movement of multi-movement compositions.
FALSE
About half the mature symphonies of Haydn and Mozart have brief introductions before the exposition begins.
TRUE
Which response is NOT an example of rondo form?
ABA
Which statement does NOT apply to Symphony No. 94, the “Surprise”?
The style conveys an introspective mood of tragedy and despair.
Which movement of a sonata, quartet, or symphony was typically in a slow tempo?
second
Mozart’s Variations on “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” are based on a(n)
French folksong.
In a Classical string quartet or symphony, the third movement is usually
– lively in tempo.
– a minuet and trio.
– in ternary form.
– light and elegant, and sometimes spirited in mood.
One of the ways Classical composers created variation within theme and variations form was by altering the length of the melody.
FALSE
Rondo and sonata-allegro were the only two forms invented during the Classical period.
FALSE
What is the unexpected occurrence in Haydn’s Symphony No. 94 that gave it the name “Surprise”?
a sudden fortissimo chord
In rondo form, the A sections are called
refrains
In Classical compositions, the rondo is typically light, quick, and jovial in nature.
TRUE
What were the trumpet and French horn lacking in Haydn’s day that is now “standard equipment” on modern instruments?
valves
Which movement in a sonata, quartet, or symphony tended to be in a lyrical and tender mood?
second
Sonata-allegro form was most often used in which movements of a string quartet or symphony in the Classical period.
first and fourth
Which movement of a string quartet or symphony was typically a bright, light-hearted, and sometimes humorous movement set in sonata-allegro, theme and variations, or rondo form?
fourth
Which movement(s) in a Classical period symphony is (are) nearly always in minuet and trio form?
third
genre
simply means the type or class of music to which we listen (ex: string quartet, opera aria, country music ballad)
In the age of Haydn and Mozart, there were five main genres of art music
the instrumental genres of symphony, string quartet, sonata, and concerto, and the vocal genre of opera.
symphony
is a multimovement composition for orchestra lasting about twenty-five minutes in the Classical period to nearly an hour in the Romantic era. By mid-century the symphony had assumed its now-familiar four-movement format: fast-slow-minuet-fast
sinfonia
The origins of the symphony go back to the late-seventeenth-century Italian opera house, where an opera began with an instrumental sinfonia (literally, “a harmonious sounding together”). Was a one-movement instrumental work in three sections: fast-slow-fast.
Köchel (K) number
To help us keep track of this enormous amount of music, a nineteenth-century musicologist, Ludwig von Köchel, published a list of Mozart’s works in approximately chronological order, assigning each a Köchel (K) number.
andante (second movement)
After the feverish excitement of the opening movement, the slow, lyrical Andante comes as a welcome change of pace.
menuetto: allegretto (third movement)
We expect the aristocratic minuet to provide elegant, graceful dance music (see Figure 8.2). But much to our surprise, Mozart returns to the intense, somber mood of the opening movement. This he does, in part, by choosing to write in the tonic minor key—a rare minuet in minor. This again demonstrates how the minuet had changed from “dance music” to “listening music.”
Allegro Assai (fourth movement)
The finale (last movement) starts with an ascending “rocket” that explodes in a rapid, forte flourish—and only carefully rehearsed string playing can pull off this orchestral special effect. The contrasting second theme of this sonata-allegro form movement is typically Mozartean in its grace and charm, a proper foil to the explosive opening melody. Midway through the development, musical compression takes hold: There is no retransition, only a pregnant pause before the recapitulation; the return dispenses with the repeats built into the first theme; and a coda is omitted. This musical foreshortening at the end produces the same psychological effect experienced at the very beginning of the symphony—a feeling of urgency and acceleration.
string quartet
typifies chamber music—music for the small concert hall, for the private chamber, or just for the enjoyment of the performers themselves. the string quartet normally has four movements, all unified by a common key. the string quartet features only one player per part: first violinist, second violinist, violist, and cellist.
sonata
(Italian for “something to be sounded”) is a genre of chamber music played on a solo instrument or a solo instrument accompanied by piano. The usual format was three movements (fast-slow-fast), and each movement might be in any one of the preferred Classical forms: sonata-allegro, ternary, rondo, or theme and variations.
concerto
Classical concerto, like the symphony, was a large-scale, multi movement work for instrumental soloist and orchestra intended for a public audience.
solo concerto
usually for piano but sometimes for violin, cello, French horn, trumpet, or woodwind. In the new concerto, a single soloist commanded all the audience’s attention.
triplets
(groups of three) that continue unabated from beginning to end
vocal ensemble
Which allows the plot to unfold more quickly. Instead of waiting for each character to sing in turn, three or more characters can express their own particular emotions simultaneously, singing together.
Singspiel
Style of German comic opera, is made up of spoken dialogue (instead of recitative) and songs.
diminished chord
a tension-filled chord comprised entirely of minor thirds.
Which definition accurately describes the term “sinfonia”?
a one-movement orchestral work in three sections (fast-slow-fast) that originated as an overture in seventeenth-century Italian opera
The best definition for “solo concerto” is:
a composition in which an orchestra and a single performer in turn present and develop the musical material in the spirit of harmonious competition
Which response accurately describes the term “sonata”?
a work, usually in three movements, for keyboard or other solo instrument
Identify the response that most accurately applies to “The Emperor’s Hymn.”
it was written to honor the Emperor and came to serve as the Austrian national anthem
Which response best describes the term “string quartet”?
– a genre of chamber music
– the genre of music, usually in four movements, composed for four string instruments
– an instrumental ensemble consisting of a first and second violin, a viola, and a cello
– a genre that was developed or “fathered” by Haydn
Which statement about Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in G minor is ERRONEOUS?
The sadness in the symphony reflects the composer’s difficult personal circumstances—the death of his father and children—during the period immediately preceding the composition of the work.
Which statement does NOT apply to Haydn’s String Quartet Opus 76, No. 3, The “Emperor”?
Haydn disliked composing patriotic music and was embarrassed by the popularity it achieved.
Which statement regarding Köchel (K) numbers is most accurate?
– It is a means of identifying Mozart’s compositions.
– Köchel numbers arrange Mozart’s works in approximate chronological order.
– It is a handy way of identifying multiple works of the same genre that are in the same key.
– Ludwig Köchel, a nineteenth-century musicologist, first published the list.
A “diminished chord” is
a chord made up entirely of minor thirds that produces a tense, unstable sound.
Who was Lorenzo da Ponte?
Mozart’s principal librettist during the 1780s
What is the correct definition for “Singspiel”?
a German musical comedy with spoken dialogue, tuneful songs, and topical humor
Identify the INACCURATE statement regarding Classical operas.
Recitatives are gradually replaced by arias.
Don Giovanni is implicitly critical of the aristocracy, and Mozart and da Ponte danced quickly to stay one step ahead of the imperial censor before production.
TRUE
Don Giovanni is not the kind of guy you would want your daughter to date.
TRUE
Which Mozart opera is a German Singspiel?
Die Zauberflöte
In Don Giovanni, the character of Leporello is
a faithful, though reluctant, servant.
Identify the answer that most appropriately describes the operatic “vocal ensemble.”
– an element derived from comic opera, it was especially favored at the ends of acts to help spark a rousing conclusion
– another manifestation of the democratic spirit, and better dramatic sense, of the late eighteenth century
– consists of three or more characters who simultaneously sing about their individual responses to the dramatic action
– allows the plot to unfold more quickly on stage
What type of chord accompanies the stabbing of the Commandant in Don Giovanni?
diminished chord
“Pathétique” Sonata.
A Classical sonata, as we have seen (Chapter 9, “The Sonata”), is a multimovement work for solo instrument or solo instrument with keyboard accompaniment. This particular sonata, for solo piano, is identified as Beethoven’s Opus 13, denoting that it is the thirteenth of 135 works that Beethoven published. —”Pathétique” (“Plaintive”)—underscoring the passion and pathos he felt within it. Its great drama derives in large part from the juxtaposition of extremes. There are extremes of dynamics (from fortissimo to pianissimo), tempo (grave to presto), and range (from very high to very low).
opus
latin for work
legato
long and lyrical
staccato
light and detached
cantabile
songful
Heiligenstadt Testament
In this confessional document for posterity, like a last will and testament, named after the Viennese suburb in which Beethoven penned.
“heroic” period
(1803-1813; also simply termed his “middle period”). His works became longer, more assertive, and full of grand gestures. Simple, often triadic, themes predominate, and these are repeated, sometimes incessantly, as the music swells to majestic proportions. When these themes are played forte and given over to the brass instruments, a heroic, triumphant sound results.
“Eroica” (“Heroic”) Symphony
epitomizes the grandiose, heroic style. More than any other single orchestral work, it changed the historical direction of the symphony. It assaults the ear with startling rhythmic effects and chord changes that were shocking to early-nineteenth-century listeners. It makes mountains of sound out of the simplest triads by repeating them with ever-increasing volume. Most novel, the work has biographical content, for the hero of the “Eroica” Symphony, at least originally, was Napoleon Bonaparte
thematic penetration
stripping away all extraneous material to get to the core of a musical idea.
scherzo
meaning joke. And while there is nothing particularly humorous about the mysterious and sometimes threatening sound of the scherzo of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5, it is very far removed from the elegant world of the courtly minuet. In ghost-like pizzicatos the conclusion disappears, rather than ends.
All of these statements about the “Pathétique” Sonata are correct EXCEPT for:
The title “Pathétique” was intended to suggest French manners and moods.
With Beethoven’s ________ , the genre moved from one played by amateur performers in their homes to become standard repertoire for professional musicians.
piano sonatas
Which statement about Beethoven’s Heiligenstadt Testament is most correct?
– Its name derives from the village where Beethoven wrote the document.
– It was written in despair over his impending deafness.
– It is part last will and testament, part artistic manifesto.
– In the document he admits that he considered suicide, but that his dedication to art (music) held him back from such a step.
Identify the phrase that does NOT apply to the “Eroica” symphony.
The Austrian emperor asked Beethoven to change the title from “Bonaparte” to “Eroica”; Beethoven complied, but demanded an extra fee.
The “heroic” period is when Beethoven
composed six of his nine symphonies
Which statement does NOT apply to Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5?
It is the first symphony to use theme and variations form as one of its movements.
Identify the response that does NOT apply to Beethoven’s early biography.
He toured northern Europe for three years and heard his first two symphonies performed in London when he was only eight years old.
Beethoven initially made his living in Vienna as a concert pianist, and in order to be acceptable to polite society he bought new clothes, found a wigmaker, and took dancing lessons
TRUE
Which statement does NOT apply to Beethoven’s style of playing the piano?
His career as a virtuoso was cut short due to an injury to his right hand, but he thereafter focused his attention on writing sonatas for left-handed pianists.
Which response does NOT describe Beethoven’s relationship with the Viennese aristocracy?
He served as court composer to Joseph II of Austria.
Which statement about Beethoven’s later years is WRONG?
He made two visits to London where he was treated as a celebrity and awarded an honorary degree from Oxford.
Identify the INCORRECT statement about Ode to Joy.
It is based on a text written by Voltaire, the Enlightenment philosopher.
All of the following statements are true about Beethoven’s legacy EXCEPT:
His music is inherently theatrical and perfectly suited to the genre of opera.
Which of the following statements is true about Beethoven’s music?
Beethoven embraced the use of Classical forms and genres in his music, but the spirit of his music is one that foreshadows the musical style of the Romantic era.
The evolution from the Renaissance style to the Baroque style occurred in music before the visual arts, and in northern Europe before southern Europe.
false
The Protestant Reformation led to a long period of religious conflict marked by all of the following except
the eventual settlement of the catholics in northern Europe and protestants in italy
The high emotions of the late Renaissance religious conflict coincided with the rise of a more emotional style in the arts.
true
The vivid, passionate expression of the _________-human emotions or “states of the soul”-led to the Baroque period.
affection
The transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque can be described as a change from a romantic emphasis on drama and personal expression to a more classical style that stressed balance, order, and repose.
false
Two famous artists whose work reflected the increased emotionalism prevalent during the transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque were Michelangelo and El Greco.
true
One of the many composers whose music exhibited both the Renaissance and Baroque styles was
carlo gesualdo
The practice of using all the notes-both in and out of the mode-to create complex and dissonant effects is called
chromaticism
Gesualdo employed chromaticism in his madrigals to
increase tempo
The church of St. Mark in Venice, Italy, designed in the plan of a cross, became the center for the performance of __________ music, festive music performed by several choirs of voices and/or instruments.
polychoral
All of these were particularly significant characteristics of the Venetian polychoral style except
contrasting sonorities of various voices and instruments did not appeal to the baroque imagination
An underlying concept of the Baroque style, the contrasting sonorities of various voices and instruments, was known as the _______________ principle.
concertato
___________ was a famous Italian organist, teacher, and composer who wrote many compositions for St. Mark’s in Venice.
giovanni gabrieli
A piece to be played or sounded upon instruments rather than sung was called a
sonata
Contrasting dynamic levels became an important characteristic of Baroque music.
true
The Florentine Camerata was centered in __________, Italy.
none of the above
The Florentine Camerata was
a group of intellectuals who discussed and promoted changes in artistic style
One of the most significant contributions of the Florentine Camerata was a new type of solo singing called
monody
The Florentine Camerata found the existing vocal forms unsuitable for the clear and dramatic expression of a text for all of the following reasons except
the combination of melodic lines in the polyphonic madrigal made it too easy to understand the words
Aware of the ideals of the ancient Greeks, the members of the Florentine Camerata envisioned a style of melody that would approximate the dramatic declamation of a text
true
Both monody and the Venetian polychoral style implied a new texture of music eventually known as
homophony
Musicians date the Baroque period from about _____ to about ____.
1750
The term baroque means distorted or irregular
true
eighteenth century artists described seventeenth century art as “baroque” because they found it to be
strange and impassioned
all of the following ideas are characteristic of the Baroque period except
lack of interest in religion
Handles career as an opera composer made him more dependent on
the support of the public
The quality and quantity of Bach’s secular concertos, suites, toccatas, and fugues reflect the increasing importance of secular music in the Baroque period.
true
During the seventeenth century, there were great strides made in scientific research, yet superstition was rampant and the belief in witchcraft, alchemy, and astrology firm.
true
The long and terrible religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries left central Europe largely Protestant and the northern countries largely Roman Catholic.
false
In England, the Anglican church harassed the Puritans, who fled to Holland and then sailed to the New World in 1620 to become America’s Pilgrims.
true
the first book printed in america in 1640 was a psalter, the…
bay psalm book
The great artist Michelangelo died in 1564 on the same day that the scientific man of reason, ______________, was born.
Galileo
galileos father was an influencial member of the florentine camerata
true
galileos discoveries about the solar system
all of the above
on the day in 1642 when galileo died, who was born
isaac newton
newton was fascinated like galileo except for
the invention of the metronome in 1816
the art of the baroque is filled with each of the following except
peace
all of the following are characteristics of the Baroque art except
buildings project a sense of repose and stability
Seventeenth-century painters shared with contemporary scientists a fascination with the properties and effects of
light
the following are all famous baroque artists except
hals
Although the Church, the courts, and the city-state governments remained their primary employers, Baroque composers resisted submission to the taste and will of their patrons
true
baroque musical style was affected by each of the following except
homophonic texture becoming more important than polyphony
all of the following were baroque-era multimovement works exceot
the fugue
According to the doctrine of affections, only one mood was to be expressed within one composition or within one movement of a multimovement work.
true
During the Baroque period, the Renaissance style of four or more melodic lines was replaced by the preference for a melody in the highest voice or voices, supported by a strong bass line, with the disposition of the inner voices left largely to improvisation.
true
During the Baroque period, composers developed the ___________ system, in which every note of the major or minor scale bears a specific relationship to every other note
tonal
In the Baroque system of tonality, all of the pitches of a major or minor scale were specifically related to the first note of the scale, or the
tonic
The increasing use of the triad, built upon all the degrees of the scale, gave a sense of stability and harmonic direction to tonal music not inherent in modality.
true
At the beginning of the seventeenth century, composers found Palestrina’s polyphonic style more suitable for secular songs rather than church music.
false
During the Baroque, the old style of writing (Palestrina’s polyphony) and the new style (monody) were used for different purposes.
true
The composer who suggested that the old and new styles represented the “first” and “second” practices of music was
claudio monteverdi
For thirty years, Monteverdi was choirmaster at St. Mark’s in Venice, where __________ had composed and performed great works in the Venetian polychoral style
giovanni gabrieli
Monteverdi shared __________ taste for dramatic and emotional settings of madrigal texts, using dissonance for expressive purposes
carlos gesualdos
During the Renaissance period, dissonances could only be approached and resolved according to strict rules.
true
Monteverdi allowed the __________ of his songs, rather than the prevailing rules of music theory, to determine his use of dissonance.
text
The “first practice” of music, as identified by Monteverdi, is described by all of the following except that
all of the voices are nearly equal in importance
The “second practice” of music, as identified by Monteverdi, is described by all of the following except that
the texture is usually homophonic
In the first practice, the established rules of music theory were observed; in the second practice, the rules might be broken for the purpose of better expressing the words.
true
All of the following are characteristics of Monteverdi’s madrigal compositions except
he used the old stile antico for madrigals recognizing certain tonal principles
In the sixteenth century, short but spectacular music dramas called __________ were often performed between acts of a play.
intermedii
__________ sometimes constituted “mini” music dramas, with different voices or combinations of voices answering each other in dialogue form.
Madrigals
It was the Florentine monodists who introduced a new type of vocal writing eminently suited for dramatic recitation; thus, the earliest operas consisted almost entirely of monody.
true
The text of an opera is called a(n)
libretto
Early opera librettos were
all of the above
Composers recognized two distinct types of solo singing, each implied but not achieved by monody: the recitative and aria.
true
The invention of monody was important to Western music because it demonstrated that
a solo singer could combine beautiful music with dramatic text expression
All of the following are characteristics of a recitative except
the melody of a recitative unnatural inflections
All of the following are characteristics of an aria except
an aria has unmetered rhythm
In 1607, Claudio Monteverdi composed the opera Orfeo.
true
__________ was the first composer to realize the successful music drama requires a skillful blending of the literary, visual, and lively arts.
claudio monteverdi
Monteverdi’s “Tu se’ morta” is an example of a(n) __________ from the opera Orfeo.
recitative
The first public opera house opened in __________, Italy, in 1637.
venice
The term __________ is Italian for “beautiful singing.”
bel canto
All of the following are characteristics of late Baroque, bel canto opera except
close attention to the recitatives and the dramatic integrity of the story
Although castrati were admired for the extreme range and power of their voices, a taste for women’s voices developed during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
true
Another name for a virtuoso female singer is a
prima donna
By the end of the Baroque era, professional opportunities for women to direct court or church ensembles were still largely denied.
true
By the 1720s, audiences were tiring of the highly stylized Baroque opera, so a new dramatic form, the __________ opera, became popular in England.
ballad
In 1728, English poet and playwright __________ wrote the Beggar’s Opera, ridiculing some of the more obvious limitations of Baroque opera.
robert gray
The epitome of the Baroque composer, __________, was born in Germany, spent considerable time in Italy, and eventually became a British citizen.
George Frideric Handel
Although the oratorio shares many characteristics with the opera, its most important difference is its
religious subject matter
Like an aria, an oratorio chorus has formal design, metered rhythm, and an orchestral accompaniment; it may be either homophonic or polyphonic and often includes sections of both textures.
true
The world’s best-known and best-loved oratorio is Handel’s
messiah
The date of __________ death (1750) is generally accepted as the end of the Baroque period.
Johann Sebastian Bachs
Johann Sebastian Bach wrote two large choral works called __________, oratorios based upon the events leading to the crucifixion of Christ.
passions
Since Bach was Catholic, he wrote the Mass in B Minor to attract the favorable attention of an influential Catholic Elector.
false
Bach wrote nearly 200 dramatic religious vocal works called __________, which are short oratorios.
cantatas
The term cantata originally meant a piece to be
sung
Baroque composers of instrumental music were set back by changes in instrumental styles and techniques during the Renaissance.
false
The Baroque period was the first time that instrumental music became virtually equal, both in quantity and quality, with vocal music.
true
All of the following were characteristic of Baroque music except
the lute continued to increase in popularity and importance
During the Baroque era, the __________ replaced the lute in popularity, and many lute pieces were played on this instrument instead.
harpischord
The __________ had the ability to produce a variety of timbres, dynamic levels, and pitches, making it suitable for the Baroque taste for drama and contrast.
organ
A distinctive feature of Baroque music was the abrupt change of dynamic levels called __________ dynamics.
terraced
The organist was able to achieve terraced dynamics and various sonorities by using any of the following methods except
covering the pipes with dampers
Although more pedals and different stops have been added, the organ has not been “improved” upon since the early eighteenth century.
true
The __________ is an imitative polyphonic composition with three to five melodic lines or “voices.”
fugue
Since the fugue was originally developed on keyboard instruments, it was never successfully adapted for other instrumental or vocal combinations.
false
The fugue entrances alternate between the tonic and dominant keys, with those in the dominant called the
answer
The opening section of a fugue, in which the subject entrances are stated, is called the
exposition
A __________ is a relatively short keyboard piece which may be an independent composition or an introduction to another piece or set of pieces.
prelude
Preludes were often paired with more structured works such as the toccata during the late Baroque period.
false
One of Bach’s greatest legacies was a set of two volumes of twenty-four preludes and fugues called the __________, which included one prelude and fugue in each major and minor key.
well-tempered clavier
In music, the term well-tempered refers to a method of tuning keyboard instruments.
true
The German word clavier is a general term for
keyboard
A religious keyboard composition based upon the melody of a Lutheran chorale is a chorale
prelude
A __________, or “touch piece,” is a showy keyboard piece that exploits the technical brilliance or virtuosity of the performer.
toccata
The toccata was frequently followed in performance by a(n)
fugue
A favorite melodic device of the Baroque period was the use of __________, the repetition of a melodic phrase at different levels of pitch.
ostinato
The short sets of stylized dance pieces for lute or keyboard popular during the Renaissance were expanded in the Baroque to multimovement works consisting of several dance pieces, called
suites
The strong bass voice that sounded continuously throughout Baroque ensemble compositions was called the
drone bass
Nearly all Baroque music, except for solo lute and keyboard pieces, was accompanied by two or more instruments that performed the bass line and that were called the
continuo
Keyboard players improvised the inner parts according to the rules of tonality, completing the triad built upon each bass note unless the composer indicated otherwise by using a system of musical shorthand called
figured bass
When keyboard players improvised the completed harmonies above the figured bass, they were __________ the figured bass.
realizing
What types of instruments were made by the Stradivari and Guarneri families?
violins
Baroque violins differed in several respects from the viols of the Renaissance; new methods of construction and new bowing techniques produced a louder sound, pleasing to the romantic taste of the Baroque music lover.
true
The trio sonata was written on three lines of music, but it required at least __________ performers, because of the basso continuo.
four
__________ was famous in his own time as a virtuoso violinist and as an outstanding composer of trio sonatas.
corelli
A concerto grosso is a composition in three movements (slow-fast-slow) for a small group of solo instruments.
false
The three movements of a concerto grosso are arranged
fast-slow-fast
The group of solo instruments in a concerto grosso is called the tutti; the larger orchestral group is called the concertino.
false
The ________ principle of contrasting sonorities formed the basis of the Baroque concerto
concertato
The most prolific composer of Baroque concertos, including solo concertos as well as concerto grossi, was
Vivaldi
__________ was ordained a priest, but spent most of his life as a professional musician.
Vivaldi
The transitional style which combined Baroque and Classical characteristics in early eighteenth-century France was known as all of the following except
the expressive style
All of the following are characteristics of Rococo visual arts except
ornamentation became even more ornate
The music of the Rococo was generally light and entertaining rather than serious and dramatic.
true
The French aristocracy moved away from the formal and austere court at Versailles to the intimate __________ salons and comfortable country lodges.
paris
Which of the following best describes the social life of the French aristocracy during the reign of the Duke of Orleans
France was a secular, materialistic, society marked by loose morals and the pursuit of pleasure.
All of the following are characteristics of Rococo art except
furniture was beautifully made but uncomfortable and of little use.
One of the finest composers of the Rococo period was Antoine Watteau.
false
In Rococo music, more than one melody was frequently introduced within a piece or movement, in contrast to the Baroque inclination to present one melodic idea, one mood or “affection,” at a time.
true
The texture of Rococo music was generally
homophonic
In France, the most important composer of the Rococo period was
francis couperin
In Italy, the most important composer of the Rococo period was
domenico scarlatti
Both Domenico Scarlatti and Francois Couperin were well known as composers of
keyboard works
Germany introduced a style similar to the French Rococo-the __________ style.
expressive
Unlike the French Rococo, the German expressive style represented __________ taste.
middle class
The most famous composer in the German expressive style was
carl philipp emanuel bach
From about __________, democratic, republican, and revolutionary causes affected every phase of European life and art.
1750-1825
Although the late eighteenth century was marked by democratic revolution and profound social change, it was also a period of classical restraint in the arts.
true
The two outstanding Classical composers of the late eighteenth century were
Hayden and Mozart
The musical center of the Classical style, and the city where Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven all lived and worked was
Vienna
The term classical is an ambiguous word that has acquired all of the following meanings except
referring to a work of art that is new, innovative, and sure to become popular.
Which of the following characteristics of the late eighteenth century’s artistic style renders the term Classical particularly applicable to the period?
all of the above
The goals of the Enlightenment included all of the following except
to encourage mystic, supernatural, and religious beliefs.
It was the French who articulated and defended the ideas that led to the Age of Reason, but they freely acknowledged their debt to the English for pointing the way toward the intellectual movement called the
enlightenment
The members of the Enlightenment were concerned with mistreatment of the upper classes, and they initiated significant humanitarian reforms to correct these injustices.
false
Proponents of the Enlightenment believed that knowledge is universal, truth absolute, and reason the pathway to Enlightenment.
true
The frivolous, aristocratic art of the Rococo was well suited to expressing the enlightened, democratic, and revolutionary views of the late eighteenth century.
false
The greatest painter of mid-eighteenth-century France was
J.B.S. Chardin
Jacques-Louis David was a __________ artist whose revolutionary sympathies imbued his later works with romantic characteristics.
neoclassic
The English artist __________ was a moralist, but he tempered his visual sermons with satire and caustic wit.
William Hogarth
One of England’s greatest painters during this period, __________, preferred to paint the rich and the elegant, stressing line over color in the classical manner.
Sir Joshua Reynolds
Who made the likenesses of Franklin, Jefferson, and Washington on United States coins?
Houdon
Although Houdon made his living from portraiture, he made every effort to produce accurate rather than flattering portrayals.
true
In literature, the eighteenth century was an age of __________ more than poetry.
prose
During the eighteenth century, the __________ theater was of unprecedented importance.
english
During the eighteenth century, concerts became more common and the public’s appreciation for music increased.
true
During the late eighteenth century, a significant number of women became professional musicians, braving criticisms of impropriety and often winning recognition for their accomplishments.
true
Which Classical composer accepted the social and artistic restrictions of court employment?
Hayden
All of the following were characteristics of Classical music except
composers embraced Baroquw intensity of religious feeling
During the Classical period, the predominant texture was
homophony
During the Classical period, although Italy continued to dominate the world of opera, the main centers of musical activity moved north to the following cities except
Paris
Instrumental music finally surpassed vocal music in both quantity and quality during the Classical period.
true
the overall design of a work is called its
form
The three outstanding composers of the Classical period were
Mozart, Hayden and Beethoven
The concept of form in music was of serious concern to all of the composers of the Classical period.
true
Among instrumental forms, the __________ experienced the greatest development and offered composers the widest field for creativity during the mid-1700s.
symphony
Classical composers changed the orchestra in all of the following ways except
narrowing the Baroque conception of the orchestra
In the middle of the eighteenth century, the German city of __________ developed an outstanding orchestra which attracted attention throughout western Europe.
mannheim
The Mannheim orchestra achieved all of the following except
terraced dynamics
__________, an early master of the symphonic form, was employed as a court composer by the same noble family for nearly thirty years.
Franz Joseph Hayden
Haydn was a vain man who called himself the “master of all” composers.
false
The Classical composers expanded the Baroque concept of multimovement compositions by
standardizing the number of movements for certain types of works.
A __________ is a multimovement work played by an orchestra and originally based on the Italian overture consisting of three movements (fast-slow-fast).
symphony
Classical composers expanded the sections and added a fourth movement to the symphony, organizing each “movement” according to the principles of a chosen instrumental form.
true
After the Baroque period, the concerto grosso declined in importance and was replaced by the Classical concerto for orchestra and one soloist.
true
A Classical concerto usually has __________ movements.
three
A Classical concerto usually had at least one passage, called a __________, which was improvised by the soloist alone.
cadenza
Where does the cadenza usually occur in a concerto?
toward the end of a movement
The orchestra prepares for a cadenza by playing a long decrescendo that ends quietly on the tonic chord.
false
The end of the improvised solo passage in a concerto is often indicated by a __________, which summons the orchestra to join in bringing the movement to a close.
trill
Since the nineteenth century, composers have written cadenzas for their concertos and have even published cadenzas for earlier concertos, including those written by Haydn, Mozart, and their contemporaries.
true
Music performed by a relatively small number of people in a small room is called _________ music.
chamber
In a chamber music performance, each player must be an accomplished performer since each is responsible for one line of music.
true
The Classical period’s appreciation for clarity of thought, purity of sound, and emotional restraint made chamber music one of the favorite means of expression.
true
Most Classical chamber ensembles consisted of several instruments belonging to
the same family
The most popular Classical small ensemble was the
string quartet
The Classical string quartet consisted of
two violins, viola, and cello.
In a Classical string quartet, the person playing __________ serves as the leader of the group.
first violin
A Classical string quartet usually consists of __________ movements.
four
Another Classical multimovement composition to be “sounded” by one or two instruments is called a
sonata
In a sonata for two instruments, such as a violin and a piano, each of the instruments is of equal importance.
true
All of the following were common forms in the Classical period
toccata-allegro form.
The Classical sonata-allegro form was generally conceived as a three-part structure.
true
The three main sections of the Classical sonata-allegro form are the
exposition, development, and recapitulation.
The most significant difference between the exposition and the recapitulation in sonata-allegro form is that
the exposition changes key but the recapitulation does not.
An extended closing section in the Classical sonata-allegro form is called the
coda
Unlike Baroque composers, who typically confined one section of a work to one mood or “affection,” Classical composers often considered the two tonal areas of the sonata-allegro exposition an opportunity to present two melodies of a contrasting nature.
true
Classical sonata-allegro form has been nicknamed the “fourth movement form” because it has been used as the fourth movement for so many symphonies, concertos, sonatas, and string quartets.
false
The third movement of many Classical symphonies, sonatas, and string quartets is a
minuet and trio
The minuet was a stately dance introduced at the seventeenth-century court of Louis XIV.
true
The Classical rondo form was used for any multimovement work, but often seemed particularly appropriate for the last movement.
true
One form of a Classical rondo is
ABACA
Although the Classical period produced much more vocal than instrumental music, very few operas and very little vocal religious music was composed during this time.
false
Born in a German state and educated in Prague and Vienna, __________ spent four years studying and composing operas in Italy and was responsible for the reform opera.
Christoph Willibald Gluck
Gluck proposed to __________ serious opera by imposing classical restraint upon it.
reform
Gluck was impressed by a famous French Baroque composer, Jean-Philippe Rameau, who attempted with some success to integrate __________ into the drama of his works.
ballet
Gluck wrote the first reform opera, which was
Orgeo and Euridice
In his reform operas, Gluck did all of the following except
including many da capo arias because of their intense dramatic quality.
The introductory orchestra piece of an opera is called the
overture
Gluck responded to a statement made by __________ that the French language was entirely unsuited to singing by effectively setting a French libretto to music.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Due in large part to Gluck’s efforts, French replaced Italian as the language of serious opera all over Europe in the eighteenth century.
false
Light in mood and concerned with everyday characters and events, __________ operas developed in several countries during the eighteenth century.
comic
Audiences appreciated the fact that comic operas were written in their own, local language and that all comic operas (except the Italian form) used spoken dialogue instead of recitative.
true
In Italy during the early eighteenth century, short comic episodes interspersed between acts of a serious opera became so popular that composers used them as the basis for a new style of opera.
true
The first comic opera was __________, written by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi.
La Serva Padrona
The opera buffa introduced the ensemble __________ to bring an act or an opera to a musically and dramatically exciting close.
finale
One of history’s most tragic figures, __________, began his performing career as a child prodigy.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Although Mozart had a short life that was marked by financial difficulties
Although Mozart had a short life that was marked by financial difficulties
All of the following are TRUE about Mozart’s operas except
classical restraint and proportion are often abandoned.
Mozart’s opera buffa, The Marriage of Figaro, was based upon a politically volatile play by the French writer, Pierre Beaumarchais.
true
In The Marriage of Figaro one of the main characters is a nobleman who is outwitted and humiliated by his own servants.
true
Although the Classical period was primarily a secular age, the Church remained a strong influence in some areas of Europe; however, very few composers contributed to the repertoire of religious music.
false
The following were all TRUE of Classical religious music except
expressive passages in homophonic texture were used.
After Bach and Handel, Protestant music declined because the music was supposed to be a functional part of the service rather than “art for art’s sake.”
true
When Haydn was criticized for writing religious music that was too “happy,” he replied that he did not believe the Lord minded cheerful music.
true
Just before he died, Mozart composed a __________, the Mass performed for funeral or memorial services.
requiem
the french revolution began in
1789
Initially, the goals of the French Revolution included all of the following except
a powerful monarch to rule the country by divine right.
Napoleon Bonaparte was the political and military leader who eventually achieved the goals and reforms of the Enlightenment.
false
Napoleon was defeated in
1815
The French intellectual, called the “father of Romanticism,” who turned from a rational to an emotional approach to life and art was
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Around the turn of the nineteenth century, painters turned from classical subjects and styles to a subjective and highly emotional artistic expression.
true
The artist who was called the Great Romantic but considered himself a classicist was Eugene Delacroix.
truw
All of the following were TRUE regarding the Romantic period around the turn of the nineteenth century
even as music performance moved from the private chamber to the public concert hall, the quality and quantity of music remained unchanged.
The orchestra used in the first performance of Haydn’s Creation in 1798 had _____ pieces.
180
Because Beethoven’s piano music was lighter and more refined than that of Mozart, the Viennese piano was redesigned to be quieter in the early nineteenth century.
false
Between 1800 and 1830, metal braces were added to the piano to increase the amount of tension the strings could bear, and a cast-iron frame was added, making the piano essentially like our modern instrument.
true
During the early nineteenth century, the harp was improved, acquiring “double __________,” that allowed it to play flat as well as sharp notes.
action
In the transition from the Classical to the Romantic periods, the role and number of wind instruments was greatly reduced to make room for the expanding brass section.
false
The effort to increase the capacity of the various brass instruments to produce rapid changes in pitch led to the addition of __________, which greatly enhanced their melodic capabilities.
valves and pistons
The __________ was invented in 1816, enabling composers to indicate exactly the tempo they desired for any composition.
metronome
__________ was one of the first major composers to use metronome markings.
Franz Schubert
Beethoven and his younger contemporary, Schubert, inherited all of the following musical traditions except
less precise notation than was used previously.
Like Mozart before him, Beethoven was a talented prodigy who received a careful and thorough musical education.
false
Beethoven developed a close relationship with Haydn because their personalities were so closely matched.
false
__________, who had the reputation of being the best pianist in Vienna, was afflicted in his late twenties with an ear disease that eventually led to total deafness.
Ludwig van Beethoven
Although Beethoven mastered the forms of the Classical style, he also altered them by
all of these
For the third movement of his symphonies, Beethoven often replaced the traditional minuet and trio with the lighter, faster __________, altering the tempo and mood of the movement while preserving the three-part design.
scherzo and trio
Beethoven made frequent use of the sonata-allegro design, and he always kept its traditional proportions.
false
Beethoven liked to combine forms: the __________ retains the key relationship of the sonata-allegro but alternates themes in the fashion of a rondo.
sonata rondo
All of the following are TRUE of Beethoven’s music except
his music shows a lack of sudden mood changes, to the point of being static.
It is customary to divide Beethoven’s work into _____ periods.
three
Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony has a choral fourth movement based upon Schiller’s “Ode to Joy,” that continues to thrill audiences today.
true
__________, a transitional figure who composed in both the Classical and Romantic styles, was the only “Viennese” composer who was actually from Vienna.
Franz Schubert
Schubert absorbed the Classical appreciation of __________, and his chamber pieces are beautifully organized according to Classical principles.
form
When Schubert died in 1828, he was just 31 years old and not widely known as a composer.
ture
The term universally applied to German art songs is
lieder
Some of Schubert’s most effective songs are included in song sets or song __________, which had texts by the same poet.
cycles
An outstanding trait of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony is the use of the
chorus and orchestra
In the “Erlkönig” Schubert uses the piano to suggest
the galloping horse
Many contemporary musicians define music as
organized sound
The characteristic tone quality of a sound is determined by the voice or instrument which produces it.
true
The highness or lowness of a sound is called its
pitch
The loudness or softness of a pitch is called its __________ level.
dynamic
Composers use changes in pitch and dynamic levels in their music to
both of these
Changing the size of a vibrating medium causes it to produce a different pitch.
true
A faster rate of vibration causes a higher pitch, and a slower rate of vibration causes a lower pitch.
true
The rate of vibration of sound waves is called
frequency
Moving from the left side to the right side of a piano produces tones relatively __________ in pitch.
higher
Inside a grand piano, the strings that are shorter and thinner produce lower tones than the strings that are longer and thicker.
false
We refer to specific pitches or tones with letter names, using the letters __________ of the alphabet.
A through G
Each key of the keyboard represents one tone, and each of the seven different white keys bears one of seven letter names.
true
A C-sharp note is __________ in pitch than a C note.
higher
A B-flat note is __________ in pitch than a B note.
lower
Written music is said to be
notated
A musical staff has
five lines and four spaces
The sign placed at the beginning of the staff to fix the position of all of the pitches on the staff is the
clef
The treble clef is also called the ______ clef.
G
The bass clef is also called the _______ clef.
F
The musical term referring to the distance between two tones is
interval
Intervals have number names.
true
The interval from C to D is a(n)
second
The interval from C to E is a(n)
third
The interval from one C note to the C note eight tones above or below is called an eighth, or a(n)
octave
The two notes of an octave
all of the above
The higher tone of an octave is produced at three times the rate of vibration of the lower tone.
false
forte
loud
pianissimo
very soft
fortissimo
very loud
mezzopiano
moderately soft
the term piano means a soft level of volume
true
mezzoforte is a very loud volume
false
diminuendo
becoming softer
crescendo
becoming louder
A change in dynamic level during the performance of a composition may be achieved in two ways: the instruments or voices may simply play or sing louder or softer; and/or
a number of instruments or voices may be added or taken away.
music always has rhythm
true
rhythm refers to the arrangement of
long and short sounds
rests indicate
measured silence
Rhythm notation indicates all of the following except
rate of speed
The rate of speed of a musical composition is its
tempo
The __________ is an instrument that helps composers indicate the tempo of a composition.
metronome
Verbal tempo indications are
all the above
Meter refers to the organization of rhythm into
metrical patterns called measures
Music is never static, but continually moves in
time
Musical sounds vary in intensity as well as in duration.
true
One example of unmetered music is a
march
The rhythms in unmetered music may be compared with
literary prose
The rhythms in metered music may be compared with
poetry
Metered music is notated in units called
measures
In metered music, tones may occur on, before, or after the beats.
true
Duple meter has __________ beats per measure.
two
Triple meter has __________ beats per measure.
three
Quadruple meter has __________ beats per measure.
four
In metered Western music, it is customary to accent the first and fourth beats of each measure.
fasle
When there are more than three beats per measure, a secondary accent cannot occur.
false
Accents may be achieved each of the following ways except
supposition
Accented notes occurring in unexpected places create the rhythmic effect called
syncopation
One way to achieve rhythmic variety in metered music is to avoid syncopation.
false
Syncopation is used in jazz and in __________, a precursor of jazz.
ragtime
The melodic sections in ragtime are called
strains
The note that usually equals two beats:
half note
The note that usually equals one beat:
quarter note
The note that usually equals four beats:
whole note
The note that usually equals one-half beat:
eight note
There is usually no reference to tempo on a printed program.
false
The conductor bears little responsibility and has only limited control over a performance.
false
The conductor brings his arm up on the first beat of the measure, which is normally the strongest.
false
The last beat of a measure, which is usually the weakest, is called the
upbeat
Conducting patterns should coincide with the
true
A melody is a succession of tones logically conceived so as to make musical sense.
true
A melody consists of one or more parts that are called
phrases
The stopping points that “punctuate” melodic phrases are called
cadences
The melodic form of “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” is:
a b
The melodic form of the “Jingle Bells” refrain is:
abab modified
The melodic form of “Deck the Halls” is:
aaba modified
A written melody forms a linear pattern on the staff called the
contour
When the pitches of a melody lie close to one another on the staff, the melodic line is smooth or
stepwise
When the pitches of a melody occur in wide intervals, the melodic line is angular or
disjunct
A sequence is the repetition of a melodic phrase at the same pitch level.
false
All cadences convey the same degree of arrival or finality.
false
A melodic and/or rhythmic pattern that is repeated many times is a(n)
ostinato
An example of a melodic sequence occurs in the beginning of
three blind mice
An example of motivic repetition occurs near the beginning of
jingle bells
Rhythmic patterns, phrase structure, and contour are some of the qualities that distinguish one melody from another.
true
A melody is sometimes referred to as a
tune
A short melodic idea that sounds fragmentary is a
motive
A melody with a songlike character is
lyrical
A recurring melody in a movement, a section of a movement, or an entire composition is called a
theme
The distance from any note on a keyboard to its nearest neighbor in either direction is a(n)
half step
Two half steps comprise one whole step.
true
The smallest interval traditionally used in Western music is the
half step
A scale is an ascending or descending pattern of half and whole steps with the range of one octave.
true
The most commonly used scales in Eastern music are major and minor.
false
Major and minor scales each contain
five whole steps and two half steps
The scales in Western music are referred to as
diatonic
The ascending major scale pattern is
WWHWWWH
The ascending minor scale pattern is
WHWWHWW
The first and last note of either the major or minor scale is called the
tonic
The tonic note of the scale upon which a composition is based is also the name of the __________ in which the piece is written.
key
The whole-tone scale divides the octave into eight whole steps.
false
The chromatic scale divides the octave into
half steps
Melodies based on the major or minor scales always lead to and conclude on the
tonic
The whole-tone scale has no leading tone.
true
A five-tone scale within the range of an octave is called the
pentatonic
One melody that can be played on the black keys of the piano is
merrily we roll along
There are an unlimited number of possible scale patterns.
true
When a song consists of two or more verses that are set to the same music, it is said to be in _______ form.
strophic
A recurring section of text and melody that follows each verse of a song is called a
refrain
In music, two or more different tones sounded together produce harmony.
true
In music, harmony signifies a pleasant or desirable condition.
false
In music, dissonance implies a negative or undesirable situation.
false
In music, the opposite of dissonance is
consonance
When two or more simultaneous pitches create a sense of tension and drive, they are said to be
dissonant
Consonance and dissonance are relative rather than absolute terms, meaningful only when compared to each other.
false
The most consonant interval is a
octave
The standard by which sounds are labeled “consonant” and “dissonant” remains constant through time but differs from culture to culture.
false
Three or more pitches sounding simultaneously to form a whole comprise a
chord
The relationship between dissonance and consonance in tonal music may be summarized as:
dissonance resolves the tension created by consonance.
Chords may be constructed upon the following intervals:
all of the above
The most common interval used in chord construction in traditional Western music is
thirds
When two or more simultaneous pitches create a sense of stability or rest, they are said to be
tonal
Although melody is consecutive and “linear” while harmony is simultaneous and “vertical,” the two concepts are in fact interrelated, and work closely together.
true
The system of harmony that has been prevalent in the West for nearly three hundred years is called the __________ system.
tonal
Tonality refers to the dominance of the dominant note over other pitches in the major or minor scale.
false
The fifth step of a diatonic scale is called the
dominant
The dominant triad seems to lead toward the tonic.
true
The fourth step of a diatonic scale is called the
subdominant
The subdominant triad provides a somewhat weaker sense of drive toward the tonic chord than the dominant triad.
true
The strongest harmonic relationship or “pull” in the tonal system is
none of the above
Melodic lines, used singly, combined with one another, or accompanied by harmony, form
texture
A single, unaccompanied melodic line has a type of texture called
monophony
A texture that involves melody used in two or more lines simultaneously is called
polyphony
When a primary melody is accompanied by other, subordinate voices that produce harmony, the texture is called
homophony
A round is an example of __________ texture.
polyphonic
A hymn sung with accompaniment is an example of ___________ texture.
homophonic
Because polyphony consists of simultaneous, independent melodies, it can not produce harmony.
false
The modern concept of tonal harmony based on major and minor scales was accepted in the
1600’s
Harmony is an essential element of non-Western music.
false
The quality of sound that is characteristic of a particular voice, instrument, or ensemble is called its
timbre
Timbre in music is often compared to color in art, and different instrumental or vocal sounds may be described as having different “colors.”
true
Timbre is largely determined by the shape of the sound waves produced by a voice or instrument.
true
Timbre can be affected by
all of the above
The range of “colors” or timbres in music is not nearly as great as the range of colors in the visual arts.
false
Modern composers have expanded the range of acceptable, “musical” timbres to include both mechanical and natural sounds.
true
A contralto’s voice is often lighter and thinner than a soprano’s.
false
A high baritone may sing in the tenor range, but the timbre of the baritone’s voice is richer or “darker” than a tenor’s.
true
The four families of instruments within an orchestra are the
French horns, violins, drums, and pianos.
The instruments in the string family may be played in any of the following ways except
by blowing gently into the soundhole.
The stringed instrument in the orchestra that is always plucked is the
harp
The stringed instruments that are normally not included in the orchestra include the
all of the above
The woodwind family includes the piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, __________, and bassoon.
clarinet
Included in the brass family are the trumpet, ____________, trombone, and tuba.
french horn
The brass instruments have cupped mouthpieces and flared “bells.”
true
Percussion instruments that produce definite pitches include the timpani, the chimes, and mallet instruments such as the
xylophone
Percussion instruments that produce indefinite pitches include the tambourine, triangle, __________, and drums.
cymbals
All keyboard instruments produce their sound through vibrating strings that are either plucked or struck when the player presses down on a key.
false
When the key of a harpsichord is depressed, a small piece called the ___________ plucks one of the strings.
plectrum
The tones of a harpsichord last longer than those of a piano.
false
The harpsichord was of great importance during the
sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.
The damper pedal of the piano allows the pianist to
sustain tones after the keys have been lifted.
Compared to the harpsichord, the piano allows the performer to play
with a wider range of dynamic levels.
The organ is a keyboard instrument whose tones are produced by wind going through sets of pipes of various lengths and materials.
true
The “king of instruments” is the
pipe organ
The adjusting levers, buttons, or handles on an organ are called
stops
An electronic instrument that can produce an unlimited variety of sounds as well as modify sounds produced by other sources is the
synsthesizer
The advent of electronic composition has allowed some composers to completely bypass the uncertainties of live performance.
true
MIDI is a recently developed system that allows musicians and composers to control synthesizers, sound modules, and drum machines from a computer.
true
The best and most satisfying way to experience music is
hearing a live performance
Some of the elements that can differ in every performance are
all of the above
Both performing and listening to music are highly subjective experiences.
true
Listening repeatedly to the same recording helps the listener discern the difference between the quality of the performance and that of the composition.
false
Listening to different recordings of the same work
Listening to different recordings of the same work
Shortly before an orchestral performance is to begin, the first violinist, known as the ____________, enters the stage.
concertmaster
The assistant to the conductor calls the orchestra to attention and then gestures to the _________ to play a tuning pitch.
oboist
The pitch to which the orchestra and band tunes is
A
If a keyboard instrument is included in the ensemble, the other instruments must tune to it, since the tuning of a piano or organ cannot be quickly adjusted.
true
The last person to enter the stage, just before the concert begins, is the
conductor
The size of the orchestra can vary according to the style of music being performed.
true
During the nineteenth century, several new instruments were added to the orchestra, making the orchestras bigger than eighteenth-century orchestras.
true
A twentieth-century trend toward restraint and control of resources has led many composers to write for ___________ ensembles.
smaller
Formal design in music is based on the principles of
repetition and contrast
In order to understand and appreciate the form of a musical work, a listener must
In order to understand and appreciate the form of a musical work, a listener must
A multimovement orchestral work is called a
symphony
Because a symphony is conceived as a whole, it is seldom appropriate to applaud between the movements of a symphony.
true
A multimovement work that exploits the contrasts between a soloist and the orchestra is called a
concerto
Music based upon a literary or extramusical subject is called _____________ music.
program
A printed program provides the title and composer of each composition, as well as the __________, mood, or title of each movement of a multimovement work.
tempo
A band consists of instruments from the woodwind, ___________, and percussion families.
brass
Composers now write music specifically for symphonic band.
true
Classical Period stuff
-Philosophers & writers considered it the “Age of Enlightenment.”
-Ideals of human equality and freedom grew
-American and French Revolution took place.
Late Baroque Music is characterized by ______ texture and classical music is ______ texture
Polyphonic; Homophonic
Basso Continuo became obsolute during the classical era b/c…
More and more music was written for amateurs who couldn’t master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass.
Influence of muddle class taste on classical music
-EARLY composers wrote pieces that were easy for amateurs to play.
-Composers wrote more COMIC operas, some w/ plots that ridiculed the aristocracy.
-Composers used FOLK SONGS as theres an instrumental music and composed melodies w/ a rustic (country) flavor.
Balance & symmetry in melody of classical era having the for AA’
A phrase w/ an INCONCLUSIVE followed by a phrase w/ a CONCLUSIVE ending.
Imitation is a characteristic of _______
Polyphony
Rhythm in classical era..
-Change in rhythm within MOVEMENT
-Change from one rhythmic pattern to another might be SUDDEN or GRADUAL
-Has unexpected PAUSES & SYNCOPATION
Orchestra
-FRENCH HORNS & CLARINET began to be used.
-Used STRINGS, WIND, BRASS, AND PERCUSSION instruments.
ORCHESTRA or STRING QUARTET, the tempos of the 4 movements typically followed the pattern…?
Fast/slow/dance-related/fast
3 masters of this era
Mozart
Haydn
Beethoven
Composers shaped the expression of mood in music by…
-Emphasizing BALANCE through unity & logic w/ a wide emotional range
-Firmly controlled changed of mood in music, however abrupt or extreme the change may be.
Career of Mozart
-Left position as court musician in early life
-Worked as a freelance musician
-Fell into debt after his popularity w. musical public declined:(
Middle Class enjoyed music by…
-Bought tickets to see orchestras and shows
-Paid for family to take musical lessons
-Bought instruments & printed music for use in home
Instruments in the orchestra of Haydn or Mozart
Strings
Woodwinds
Brass
Flexibility of was a characteristic of classical style
Rhythm
MELODY in the classical era
-Folk or popular style
-Easy to remember
-Tuneful
MOOD in classical era compared to baroque
-From DRAMATIC to CAREFREE moods
-Multiple themes
-Contrasts within themes
TEXTURE in classical era compared to baroque
-Can shift flexibly from one texture to another
-More HOMOPHONIC than POLYPHONIC
MOVEMENT of music in classical era
-Have CONTRASTING SECTIONS with different themes and tonalities
-Balance & release of tension would be achieved by the end of the movement
Composers did NOT employ one type of instrument in place of another (t/f)
TRUE
Who worked in Vienna during the classical period
Beethoven
Mozart
Haydn
Composer characteristics of this era
-Use 2 or more THEMES in ONE MOVEMENT
-Have music pause to signal the entrance of new theme
-Contrast themes vividly
Functions of instrumental sections in the orchestra
-FRENCH HORNS & TRUMPETS strengthened loud passages but could play more quietly to fill out the harmony
-1st VIOLINS usually played the MELODY, and LOWER STRINGS played the ACCOMPANIMENT.
-The WOODWINDS provided tone colors that contrasted w/ that of the violins & even played the melody.
Change in artistic styles in 18th C
Monumental baroque–>Graceful rococo–>neoclassical
Haydn
-Spent most of his life working for an aristocratic family.
-Composed music ordered by his employer
-Status was a skilled servant
2 sequences best represent musical developments in Europe in period 1750-1820
1. Polyphony –>Tuneful melody & simple harmony–>contrasts of mood & theme–>balance & clarity
2. Baroque –>preclassical–>style galant(rococo)–>classical
Beethoven
-Many nobility treated him as their equal
-Enjoyed success thanks to a growing middle class audience
Vienna Importances
-Aristocrats sometimes accompanied musicians, including Empress Maria Therera & Empire Joseph II.
-Street musicians could perform profitably there & be hired to play for outdoor garden parties
-Aristocrats from all over the Holy Roman Empire spent the winter there, bringing their private orchestras with them.
Which two of the following statements best illustrate how classical composers shaped expression mood in their music?
Composers emphasized balance thru unity and logic in music with a wide emotional range. Composers firmly controlled changes of mood in their music, however abrupt or extreme the change might be.
Beethoven gave his Piano Sonata in C Minor OP. 13 the title Pathetique because of its passionate character.
Pathetique
One reason that basso CONTINUO became obsolete during the classical era?
More and more music was written for amateurs who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass.
True statements about orchestra of the classical period
Clarinet began to be used. Its used string, wind, brass and percussion instruments.
Balance and symmetry in a typical melody of the classical era having the form AA
A phrase with an inconclusive ending followed by a phrase with a conclusive ending
In the theme and variations form of the classical period
Each variation is usually about the same length as the theme
Mood in classical era music particularly in contrast to baroque music
The element of music that sounds loud or soft (quiet) is
Dynamics
Occurred during the classical period
Philosophers and writers considered it an “age of enlightenment.” The ideals of human equality and freedom grew in prominence. American and French Revolution took place.
Minuet and trio form
Minuet-trio-minuet
Master composers of the classical era?
Beethoven, Mozart, and Haydn
Flexibility of rhythm was NOT a characteristic of the classical style
FALSE. Flexibility and rhythm adds variety ot classical music
Haydn’s musical style
Robust, direct and with a sense of optimism and humor, it was influenced by folk music and his love of nature.
Changes in artistic styles in the eighteenth century
monumental baroque – graceful rococo – neoclassical
In a classical era work for orchestra or string quartet the tempos of the four movements typically followed which of the following patterns?
Fast/slow/dance-related/fast
Rondo form?
A rondo can be an independent movement or the final movement of a multi-movement work such as a symphony or sonata. Rondo pattern A B A C A B A the C theme may be replaced by a development section to create a sonata-rondo.
Beethoven’s musical style
Using the classical forms and techniques of Morzart and Haydn, Beethoven added innovations that bridged the classic and romantic areas. Beethoven’s music has strong tension and dissonances, wide ranges of pitch and dynamics, and titanic climaxes. Composed long movements yet used various means of unity to give his works cohesion.
Late baroque music was characterized by Polyphonic texture whereas classical music is basically in Homophonic texture.
Polyphonic, homophonic
Franz Joseph Haydn Career
Composed music ordered by his employer. Spent most of his life working for one aristocratic family. Haydn’s status was that of a skilled servant.
A work for string quartet in the classical era had the same pattern of movements as a symphony except that?
Sometimes the minuet and trio is the second movement and the slow movement is the third
Characteristics of the second movement of a classical symphony
Is in a key other than the tonic key of the other movements. Slow tempo and song-like theme. May be in sonata (sonata-allegro) form or theme and variations form.
Middle class public of classical era enjoyed music
They purchased instruments and printed music for use in the home. They bought tickets to public concerts of symphonies and concertos. The paid for music lessons for family members.
Beethoven’s symphonies
Finale movement of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony calls for four vocal soloists and choir. Beethoven completed nine symphonies. They are entirely instrumental except the Ninth symphony. Beethoven’s odd numbered symphonies are powerful and assertive his even numbered symphonies are calm and lyrical.
Rondo form
A tuneful main theme returns in alternation with other themes (as in the form ABACA)
Cadenza in most classical concertos
The point in the movement when the cadenza is to be played is indicated by a fermata. The orchestra momentarily stops playing while the soloist plays dazzling scale passages and broken chords. Cadenzas were originally improvised but later were written out by the composer.
Influence of the middle class tastes on classical music
Early classical composers wrote pieces that were easy for amateurs to play. Classical composers used folk songs as themes in instrumental music and composed melodies with rustic (country) flavor. Classical composers wrote more comic operas some with plots that ridiculed the aristocracy.
Beethoven’s Symphony No 5
The finale is a triumphant climax to the work. Finished in 1808
Typical sequence of events in a movement in sonata-allergro (sonata) form
Exposition-development-recapitulation-coda
Beethoven’s fourth movement differs from those of Haydn and Mozart
Beethoven’s fourth movement tended to be more triumphant in character.
Characteristics of the first movement of a classical symphony
It may have a slow introduction, it is usually in sonata form, it has fast tempo and dramatic mood
Mozart’s operas techniquess
Ability to bring characters to life through music by drawing on his inexhaustible gift for melody. Keen sense of theater with humorous and serious characters in his comic opera plots. Coordination of music and stage action.
Unlike earlier composers classical composers did NOT readily employ one type of instrument in place of another such as an oboe for a violin
TRUE
Typical ensembles that played chamber music in the classical era
Violin, cello and piano. Two violins, viola and cello. violin and piano
Musical passage that the piano begins in this audio selecion
Cadenza
Adjectives summarize or typify the music of Mozart
Innovative harmonies contrasting with song like lyricism. Balance, restraint, and proportion. Ease, grace and spontaneity.
Which of the following statement about this audio selection are true
The selection is an operatic ensemble in which several led characters are heard singing different words simultaneously. The selection is form Act 1 Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni
Mozart’s final years and premature death
The failure of the opera Don Giovanni in Vienna led to a decline in Mozart’s popularity
What is the work in this audio recording and who composed it
Piano sonata in C Minor Op 13 movement I by Beethoven
Beethoven’s piano sonatas
Beethoven’s 32 piano sonatas benefited from the expanded capabilities resulting from advances in the manufacture of the piano. Experimented and tested new ideas in his piano sonatas some of which were then used in his string quartets and symphonies.
Musical development in Europe in the period 1750 – 1820
Polyphony-tuneful melody and simple harmony-contrasts of mood and theme- balance and clarity. Baroque-preclassical-style galant (rococo) – classical
Mozart excelled
String quartets, piano concertos, and symphonies
Mozart and Don Giovanni
The character leporello is a comical servant who dreams of being in his master Don Giovanni’s place. Cemetery statue of military officer whom Don Giovanni murdered miraculously come to life. The libretto combines elements of comic opera (slapstick humor) with serious opera (violence and immorality)
First movement of a classical concerto
First movement is in sonata allegro form with two expositions. Begins with only the orchestra playing. There is no modulation to a new key until near the end of the second exposition.
Identifies the composer, work and character
Mozart, Don Giovanni, Act I Aria by Leoporello
As an alternative to the minuet and trio form for his third movement, Beethoven often used the
Scherzo
Haydn’s Early Career
Skilled servant, Entered the service of the Esterhazy family for whom he worked for almost thirty years. Haydn composed a vast amount of music in many forms.
Beethoven’s final years
used ear trumpets and in conversations people had to write their questions comments in notebooks. After 1818 out of total deafness Beethoven composed magnificent piano sonatas, string, quartets and the Ninth Symphony. After age 44 he was so deaf he could not perform piano in public and his conducting was ineffective.
Haydn in his later career
His music became popular all over Europe. He composed twelve symphonies for performance in London in the 1790s. Choruses and orchestras were formed solely to perform his oratories, the Creation and The Seasons.
Vienna in the era of classical music
Aristocrats in Vienna were sometimes accomplished musicians including the Empress Maria Theresa and the Emperor Joseph II. Aristocrats from all over the holy roman empire spent the winter there bringing their private orchestras with them. Street musicians could perform profitably in Vienna and be hired to play for outdoor garden parties.
Example of music theme and variations forms
The 2nd movement of Haydn’s Symphony No 94 in G Major
Composers worked in Vienna during the classical period
Haydn, Beethoven, and Mozart
Audio Recording title
Haydn, Trumpet Concerto in E flat Major Third Movement
String Quartet in C Minor Op 18 No 4 Fourth movement Rondo (Allegro)
This is a rondo theme in the style of a Gypsy violinist playing a folk dance. Like many rondo themes this one is lively and easy to remember
Beethoven’s fifth symphony
Woodwinds and strings play the short-short-short-long rhythmic idea that unifies the symphony.
A Bridge following the third movement connects the fourth movement. The trumpets proclaim the main theme of the final movement.
2nd movement of Beethoven’s fifth symphony
A lyric theme in the woodwinds becomes a loud theme in the brass instruments.
Mozart’s Symphony No 40 in G Minor
Entry of the lyric 2nd theme in the exposition of a movement in sonata from following the end of the bridge. Conclusion of the bridge in the exposition of a movement in sonata form. A bass line that emphasizes the arrival at a new key.
Mozart’s Music
Ease, grace, and spontaneity. Innovative harmonies contrasting with song like lyricism. balance, restraint and proportion.
Europe in the period 1750-1820 best represent musical development
Polyphony-tuneful melody and simple harmony-contrasts of mood and theme-balance and clarity. Baroque-preclassical-style galant (rococo)-classica
Characteristics of rhythm in music of the classical era
A change from one rhythmic pattern to another might be sudden or gradual. Had changes in rhythmic within a movement. Unexpected pauses and syncopation.
Mozart’s piano concerto in A major K. 488
Written Oct 1785 to May 1786. The lyrical and elegant mood of this concerto and its key of A major is shared by a love duet in Don Giovanni and the clarinet concerto in A major. Mozart wrote that this concerto was one of “the compositions I keep for myself.”
Beethoven gave his Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13, the title ______ because of its passionate character.
Pathetique
Which of the following adjectives summarize or typify the music of Mozart?
– innovative harmonies contrasting with song-like lyricism
– balance, restraint, and proportion
– ease, grace, and spontaneity
One reason that basso _______ became obsolete during the classical era was that more and more music was written for amateurs who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass.
continuo
A work for string quartet in the classical era had the same pattern of movements as a symphony, except that
sometimes the minuet and trio is the second movement, and the slow movement is the third.
Which of the following are true statements about the career of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart?
– he fell int debt after his popularity with the musical public declined
– he left his position as a court musician in early life
– he worked as a freelance musician
Which of the following are common characteristics of the first movement of a classical symphony?
– a slow introduction may precede a fast tempo for the rest of the movement.
– it is usually in sonata (sonata-allegro) form.
– it has fast tempo and dramatic mood
The element of music that sounds loud or soft (quiet) is
dynamics.
Which of the following techniques summarize Mozart’s operas?
– ability to bring characters to life through music by drawing on his inexhaustible gift for melody
– coordination of music and stage action
– keen sense of theater, with humorous and serious characters in his comic opera plots.
Late baroque music was characterized by a ______ texture, whereas classical music is basically ______ in texture.
polyphonic; homophonic
Which two sequences best represent musical developments in Europe in the period 1750-1820?
– polyphony > tuneful melody and simple harmony > contrasts of mood and theme > balance and clarity
– baroque > preclassical > style galant (rococo) > classical
In the theme-and-variations form of the classical period,
each variation is usually about the same length as the theme.
In a classical-era work for orchestra or string quarter, the tempos of the four movements typically followed which of the following patterns?
Fast/slow/dance-related/fast
Which of the following are true statements about the cadenza in most classical concertos?
– Cadenzas were originally improvised but later were written out by the composer.
– The orchestra momentarily stops playing while the soloist plays dazzling scale passages and broken chords.
– The point in the movement when the cadenza is to be played is indicated by a fermata.
Which of the following were sections (groups) of instruments in the typical orchestra of Haydn or Mozart?
– woodwinds
– strings
– brass
Which of the following sequences accurately represent minuet and trio form?
minuet > trio > minuet
Who were the tree master composers of the classical era?
– Beethoven
– Haydn
– Mozart
Which of the following best describes the balance and symmetry in atypical melody of the classical era having the form A A’?
A phrase with an inconclusive ending followed by a phrase with a conclusive ending
Which of the following are true statements about the classical concertos?
– There are many ways of combining the soloist and orchestra, such as the soloist accompanying the orchestra when it has the theme.
– The classical concerto combines the wide range of dynamics and tone colors of the orchestra with the curiosity of the soloist.
– the classical concerto is a three-movement work for instrumental soloist and orchestra.
Which of the following best describes the rondo form?
A tuneful main theme returns in alteration with other themes (as in the form ABACA).
True or false: Flexibility of rhythm was not a characteristic of the classical style.
False
Which of the following lists best describes changes in artistic styles in the eighteenth century?
monumental baroque > graceful rococo > neoclassical
Which of the following statements about the three style periods into which Beethoven’s works are usually divided?
– Beethoven’s first style period (up to 1802) showed Beethoven’s unique style emerging from the influence of Haydn and Mozart.
– During his third style period (1814-1827), Beethoven wrote fugues and surprisingly “modern” music that was difficult the play.
Which of the following are true statements about the first movement of a classical concerto?
– The first movement begins with only the orchestra playing.
– The first movement is in sonata (sonata-allegro) form with two expositions.
– There is no modulation to a new key until near the end of the second exposition.
Which of the following accurately describe mood in classical-era music, particularly in contrast to baroque music?
– A classical era movement had contrasts within themes.
– Classical music fluctuated from dramatic to carefree moods.
– A classical-era movement had multiple themes.
Which of the following are accurate assessments of Haydn’s musical style?
– It was influenced by folk music and his love of nature.
– It often had a sense of humor.
– It was robust, direct, and with a sense of optimism.
Which of the following statements accurately interpret the influence of middle-class tastes on classical music?
– Classical composers wrote more comic operas, some with plots that ridiculed the aristocracy.
– Early classical composers wrote pieces that were easy for amateurs to play.
– Classical composers used folk songs as themes in instrumental music and composed melodies with a rustic (country) flavor.
Which of the following statements about Beethoven’s musical style are correct?
– Beethoven composed long movements, yet used various means of unity to give his works cohesion.
– Using the classical forms and techniques of Mozart and Haydn, Beethoven added innovations that bridged the classic and romantic eras.
– Beethoven’s music has strong tension and dissonances, wide ranges of pitch and dynamics, and titanic climaxes.
Which of the following sequences correctly represents the typical sequence of events in the exposition of a classical-era sonata form?
first theme > bridge > second theme > closing section > repeat from the beginning
Which of the following are accurate characterizations of Haydn’s technique of composing?
– Variety was created from many changes in texture, key, rhythm, dynamics, and orchestration.
– Haydn was prone to modifying rules of composition and experimenting with the new methods or forms.
– Haydn’s themes are often humorous, achieved by unexpected pauses and sudden shifts in tempo, dynamics, or pitch.
Which of the following statements describe how the middle-class public of the classical era enjoyed music?
– They bought tickets to public concerts of symphonies and concertos.
– They paid for music lessons for family members.
– They purchased instruments and printed music for use in the home.
Which of the following are true statements about Beethoven’s piano sonatas?
– Beethoven’s 32 piano sonatas benefited from the expanded capabilities resulting from advances in the manufacture of the piano.
– Beethoven experimented and tested new ideas in his piano sonatas, some of which were then used in his string quartets.
– Beethoven experimented and tested new ideas in his piano sonatas, some of which were then used in his symphonies.
Which of the following are characteristics of rhythm in music of the classical era?
– In classical music, a change from one rhythmic pattern to another might be sudden or gradual.
– Classical music has unexpected pauses and syncopations.
– Classical music had changes in rhythm within a movement.
Which of the following are accurate statements about Beethoven’s symphonies?
– Beethoven completed nine symphonies. They are entirely instrumental, except the Ninth Symphony.
– The Finale movement of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony calls for four vocal soloists and a choir.
– Beethoven’s odd-numbered symphonies are powerful and assertive; his even-numbered symphonies are clam and lyrical.
As an alternative to the minuet-and-trio form for his third movements, Beethoven often used the
scherzo.
Which of the following are true statements about rondo form?
– In the rondo pattern A B A C A B A, the C theme may be replaced by a development section to create a sonata-rondo.
– A rondo can be an independent movement or the final movement of a multimovement work such as a symphony or sonata.
Which of the following changes in European culture took place between the baroque era and the classical era?
– Voltaire and other philosophers believed in progress.
– Political and economic power shifted from the aristocracy to the middle class.
– Human conduct was increasingly guided by reason rather than custom or tradition.
Which of the following statements indicate significant aspects of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488?
– This concerto was written in a period (October 1785 to May 1786) when Mozart composed a number of important concertos, operas, and other music.
– The lyrical and elegant mood of this concerto and its key of A major is shared by a love duet in Don Giovanni and the Clarinet Concerto in A Major.
– Mozart wrote that this concerto was one of “the compositions I keep for myself…”
Which of the following statements about Mozart’s final years and premature death are accurate?
The failure of the opera Don Giovanni in Vienna led to a decline in Mozart’s popularity.
True or false: Unlike earlier composers, classical composers did not readily employ one type of instrument in place of another, such as an oboe for a violin.
True
Which of the following are true statements about Beethoven’s final years?
– After 1818, out of total deafness, Beethoven composed magnificent piano sonatas, string quartets, and the Ninth Symphony.
– Beethoven used ear trumpets, and in conversations, people had to write their questions and comments in notebooks for him to read.
– After age 44, Beethoven was so deaf he could not perform piano in public, and his conducting was ineffective.
Which of the following are true statements about Beethoven’s adult career?
– Soon after arriving in Vienna, Beethoven became popular with the public and nobility alike.
– Beethoven began to go deaf in his late twenties but found new determination to be a composer in his Heiligenstadt Testament (1802).
Which of the following composers worked in Vienna during the classical period?
– Beethoven
– Mozart
– Haydn
Which of the following are true statements about Haydn in his later career?
– He composed twelve symphonies for performance in London in the 1790s.
– His music became popular all over Europe.
– Choruses and orchestras were formed solely to perform his oratorios The Creation and The Seasons.
Which of the following correctly represent the typical sequence of events in a movement in sonata-allegro (sonata) form?
exposition > development > recapitulation > coda
In the classical symphony, how did Beethoven’s fourth movements differ from those of Haydn and Mozart?
With Beethoven, the fourth movements tended to be more triumphant in character.
Which of the following are true statements about Beethoven’s childhood and youth?
– As an adolescent, Beethoven impressed Mozart with his performance skills.
– Before he was a teenager he had several piano pieces published.
– He was born in Bonn, Germany, into a musical family.
Which of the following are true statements about Mozart’s child and youth?
– He learned the characteristic music of each country and city he visited, such as opera in Italy.
– He was a child prodigy who toured throughout Europe, performing before the public and before Louis XV of France and other royalty.
– He could improvise fugues at age 6, compose symphonies by age 8, and wrote an opera at age 12.
Which of the following are true statements about Haydn’s early career?
– Haydn entered the service of the Esterhazy family, for whom he worked for almost thirty years.
– Haydn composed a vast amount of music in many forms.
– Haydn was given the rank of skilled servant.
The crucial aspect of the recapitulation in a sonata movement is that
the bridge between the first and second themes does not modulate, and the second theme is in the tonic key.
Which of the following is an example of music in theme-and-variations form?
The second movement of Haydn’s Symphony No. 94 in g Major
Which of the following are true statements about Haydn’s childhood and youth?
– Haydn was born in an Austrian village.
– For a time, Haydn was a poor street musician.
– Haydn served as a choirboy in Vienna.
What is the approximate dates which encompasses musical Classical period
1750-1820
Define and date the stylistic phases
1. Pre classical
2. Classical
Preclassical : the transition from Baroque style to the full flowering of the classical, roughly 1730-1770.
Classical: Refer to Greek or Roman antiquity; 1750-1820
Describe the following stylistic traits of the Classical period:

A) Style Galant

A style of light, graceful music, comparable to the Rococo style.
B) Mood Contrasts
May change gradually or suddenly, expressing conflicting surges of elation and depression
C) Rhythmic Flexibility
Adds variety, includes unexpected pauses, syncopation and frequent changes from long notes to shorter notes
D) Varieties of Texture
Home phone, treated as flexibly as rhythm, can change from a homophonic to a polyphonic
E) Melodic Traits
Ground balanced and symmetrical because they are frequently made up of 2 phrases of the same length 2nd may begin like the 1st but end more conclusively
F) Dynamics
Crescendo and decrescendos were an electrifying novelty with gradual change not restricting
G) End of Basso Contimuo
More and more music was written for amateurs and classical composers wanted more control
Summarize the evolution of the classical instruments:

Piano

Because the Piano was not as interesting during the Baroque period the classical period brought it into their music and the way it was presented it took off.
The Orchestra
Standard group of four sections: strings, Woodwinds, brass, and percussion
Describe the following Classical forms:

Sonata Form:

A form of 1st movement; consisting of 3 main sections: 1- Exposition: theme are presented; 2- Development: themes are treated in new ways; 3- Recapitulation: themes return
Theme and Variation
Theme: is repeated overs and over and Is changed each time variation will change ABCD
Variation: about the same length as the theme, is unique and may differ in mood from the theme.
Rondo
Tuneful theme returns several times in alternation with other themes like ABCA & ABACABA; lively, pleasing and simple to remember
Sonata-rondo
Is a combination of elements from sonata form to produce a sonata-rondo ABA – development section -ABA
Describe the following Classical formats:
2,3 and 4 movement patterns
2 slow movement
3 Dance related movement
4 Fast movement
Minuet and trio
Minuet- Written for listening, it is a triple meter ((3/4) , usually in a moderate tempo, movement is in ABA form
Trio- is usually quieter, requires fewer instruments, contains woodwind solos
Define the following Classical genres:
Sonata
Whole composition make up of several movement
Symphony
Is an extended, ambitious typically lasting between 20-45 minutes, exploiting the expanded twanged of tone color and dynamics of the classical orchestra. Has 4 movements which has a wide range of emotions
Divertimento (serenade)
Light in mood, meant for evening entertainment. Written for small orchestra or for a string quartet plus a double bass
Concerto
Is a 3 movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra
Cadenza
Italian for Cadence. Near the end of the movement, the orchestra suspends forward motion by briefly sustaining a dissonant chord
Chamber music
Is designed for the intimate setting of a room (chamber) in a home or palace, performed by a small group of 2-9 musicians with 1 player to a part
String quartet
Written for 2 violins, a viola, and a cello
Identify the following, give their birth and death dates, and name 3 significant compositions by each:
Haydn
1732-1809; was the pathfinder for the classical style, a pioneer in the development of the symphony and string quartet. Composed The Creation; The Seasons; Symphony 94
Mozart
1756-1791; was among the most versAtile of all composers: he wrote masterpieces in all the musical forms of his time. He composed; The Marriage of Figaro; Don Giovanni, and Cost Fan Tutte-All women Behave Like This.
Beethoven
1770-1827, opened new realms of musical expression that profoundly influenced composers throughout the 19th century. Composed Piano Sonata, Symphony No 5 , and Symphony No 6
The final section of a sonata-allegro movement, which rounds it off with a vigorous closing cadence, is:
the coda
Which of the following best describes the opening of the first movement of Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik?
It has a march like character
The minuet was originally a Baroque court dance.
True
The overall form of a minuet and trio is best described as:
A-B-A
The Trumpet Concerto in E-flat is Haydn’s only concerto
False
Mozart was able to complete so many masterworks due to his ling career
False
In his third compositional period, Beethoven:
used more chromatic harmonies
Beethoven gave his Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, No. 2 the designation:
quasi una fantasia
Beethoven was unable to compose music after he became deaf
False
Beethoven achieved much acclaim during his lifetime and died a famous and revered composer.
True
The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, the development, and the:
recapitulation
Mozart is remembered today as:
the most gifted child prodigy in the history of music.
Mozart dies while writing his:
Requiem
In the first movement of a classical concerto, there is usually a double exposition.
True
The typical first movement of a Classical concerto begins with:
the orchestra
Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, No. 2 was subtitled Moonlight by:
the poet Rellstab shortly after the composer’s death
The trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, composed in 1796, was Haydn’s last orchestral work.
True
The first movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op. 27, No. 2:
is in a modified song form
The dreamy first movement of the Moonlight Sonata features:
all of the above
Mozart’s personal feelings are often evident in the works he composed
False
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik is probably the best known of Mozart’s serenades.
True
W.A. Mozart was born and lived in the early part of his life in
Salzburg
Mozart wrote his piano concertos primarily for his own public performances.
True
Mozart’s financial circumstances depended largely on the popularity of his
Operas
Mozart was highly successful in composing
All of these choices
eine kleine Nachtmusik:
is German for “A Little Night Music.”
Mozart was consistently supported by Vienna’s most important patrons.
False
Mozart’s melodies are simple, elegant, and songful.
True
Leopold Mozart was W.A. Mozart’s
father
Mozart was a child prodigy, already composing music by the age of five.
True
When he was 8 years old, Mozart traveled to London to study with
J.C. Bach
W.A. Mozart lived and worked most of his adult life in
Vienna
All of Mozart’s operas were in Italian.
False
Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik is an example of:
a serenade
The instrument which Mozart played and for which he wrote many concertos was:
the piano
Which statement is NOT true about Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart?
He dies at the age of 65
At the time of his death, Mozart was working on this piece which was completed by one of his students.
a Requiem mass
How many movements does Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 have?
four
With which symphony did Beethoven begin to expand the possibilities of the genre?
No. 3
The rigid conventions of opera seria were shaped largely by:
Metastasio
During the classical era, the prevalent form of the opera, which contained many recitatives and arias designed to display virtuosity, was called:
opera seria
Comic opera generally was sung un the language of the audience, or the vernacular
True
The tone of the Catalogue Aria from Mozart’s Don Giovanni is:
comic
Mozart’s Requiem was:
his last work, incomplete at his death
Oratorios primarily drew their stories from:
the Bible
The Dies irae is a poem in three-line rhymed verses
True
The Dies irae from Mozart’s Requiem includes solo voices
True
Beethoven was born in
Bonn, Germany
Although Beethoven received support from music-loving aristocrats and other admirers, he functioned primarily as a freelance, composer
True
Beethoven’s music often features dramatic contrasts
True
W.A. Mozart was born and lived the early part of his life in
Salzburg
Beethoven was best known during his life as a virtuoso violinist
False
Along with J.S. Bach’s Mass in b minor, this piece is considered the most significant Mass setting of the common practice era
Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis
Fidelio deals with the topics of
All of the above
Which of the following best describes the role of women in nineteenth-century music?
The piano provided women with a socially acceptable performance outlet
The most importnant keyboard instrument of the Romantic period was the:
piano
The poem Elfking was written by Heinrich Heine
False
A song in which the same melody is repeated with every stanza of the text is in strophic form
True
Which of the following was a noted woman composer of the Romantic era?
Clara Schumann
Nineteenth-century society saw a few women make careers as professional musicians
True
A song form in which the same melody is repeated with every stanza of text is called:
strophic
Chopin composed works in all of the following genres EXCEPT the:
symphony
Schubert’s Lied Elfking is through composed
True
The favorite subjects of the Romantic poets were:
love, longing, and nature
Which of the following composed the piano cycle The Year?
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
What is vernacular music?
popular songs sung in a country’s native language
Schubert’s song Elfking is a setting of a ballad written by:
Goethe
Chopin’s Mazurka in B-flat minor, Op. 24, No. 4 is in duple meter
False
Which of the following does NOT describe American popular music of the nineteenth century?
The composers were always well known
Chopin spent his early years in:
Poland
Nineteenth-century composers of the short, lyrics piano piece included:
all of the above
Chopin spent most of his productive life in:
Paris
A group of Lieder unified by a narrative thread or by a descriptive or expressive theme is called:
a song cycle
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel’s cycle The year is her only symphonic poem
False
Approximately how many songs did Schubert compose?
more than 600
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel is known for her large-scale orchestral compositions
False
Schubert composed over 600 Lieder
True
Despite her gender, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel was encouraged by her family to pursure a career in music
False
___ was NOT an important composer of the nineteenth-century Lieder
Heinrich heine
Many Romantic piano works are in short, free forms.
True
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel wrote her cycle The year for:
piano
Schubert composed Elfking just before he died
False
Stephen Foster composed all of the following sings EXCEPT:
When Johnny Comes Marching Home
The pianist/composer Fanny Mendelssohn was Felix Mendelssohn’s:
sister
Founded during the nineteenth century, the Leipzig Conservatory became a model for music schools all over Europe and America. Its founder and director was:
Felix Menddelssohn
Nineteenth century composers of the short, lyrics piano piece included”
all of the above
Chopin is credited with creating:
the modern piano style
titles such as Prelude, Impromptu, and Intermezzo are used for:
short, lyric piano pieces
Nineteenth century musicians continued to be viewed by society as glorified servants
False
One of the prime traits of Romantic artists was their emphasis on intense emotional expression
True
This Romantic composer founded “The New Journal of Music” in the nineteenth century
Robert Schumann
This noted Romantic Era musician conducted the premier of Schubert’s Great C Major Symphony a decade after the composer’s death
Felix Mendelssohn
the Dies Irae is:
a chant from the Mass for the Dead
Which of the following compositions is LEAST likely to be an example of program music?
String Quartet in B-flat Major
Which of the following composers was the first to use the term symphonic poem?
Liszt
Music written for plays, generally consisting of an overture and a series of pieces to be performed between acts, is called:
incidental music
The “Mighty Five” were composers from:
Russia
What scene is depicted in Smetana’s symphonic poem the Moldau?
all of the above
How many movements does a typical Romantic symphony contain?
four
By the Romantic era, concerts had moved from:
the aristocratic palace to the public concert hall
Brahms maintained a lifelong, close relationship with:
Clara Schumann
Which of the following does NOT characterize Brahms’s Symphony No. 3?
programmatic images
Brahms eventually settled in what city?
Vienna
Brahms was the leading master of German opera in the nineteenth century
False
Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique is an example of:
a program symphony
Hector Berlioz was born and spent most of his career in:
France
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the music of Berlioz?
Typical of French music, the emotions are restrained
Berlioz was one of the boldest musical innovators of the nineteenth century
True
A one-movement piece of program music for orchestra that, though several contrasting sections, develops a poetic idea or suggests a scene or mood is called:
a symphonic poem
Smetana was a leading figure of the “Mighty Five” in Russia
False
Nationalism found natural expression in music, among other arts
True
The standard four-movement structure of a Romantic symphony is:
fast-slow-dance-fast
Which young composer did Robert and Clara Schumann take into their home
Brahms
Brahms wrote ___ symphonies
four
Brahms’s symphonies use a Romantic harmonic idiom but are Classical in form
True
The librettist for Verdi’s Rigoletto was:
Piave
Women achieved prominence during the Romantic era as opera singers
True
In his Ring of the Nibelung, which characteristic of traditional opera did Wagner eliminate
separate arias
Like Berlioz, Debussy won the coveted Prix de Rome during his compositional studies at the Paris Conservatory
True
Which of the following choral genres was NOT originally intended for performance in church
part song
Wagner did not wish to change the prevaling form of opera in the nineteenth century
False
The Dies irae from Verdi’s Requiem is performed a capella
False
Choral music offered the public an outlet for its creative energies
True
Impressionist composers avoided ninth chords because they were prohibited in the Classical system of harmony
False
The French movement in poetry that revolted against traditional modes of expression is called:
symbolism
Who dies at the end of Rigoletto
Gilda, Rogoletto’s daughter
The ensemble that follows “La Donna e mobile” in Act III of Rigoletto is a(n)
quartet
Which of the following does NOT characterize Singspiel
It featured elaborate recitatives and arias
In Rigoletto, Verdi turns away from tuneful melodies to heighten the dramatic action
False
Wagner’s operas employ the supernatural as an element of drama and glorify the German land and people
True
The focal point of Wagnerian music drama is the voice
False
Which of the following statements best characterizes Verdi’s Requiem?
The Requiem was dedicated to the memory of the poet Manzoni.
Verdi’s Requiem was intended for performance in church.
False
The Symbolist movement began in England.
False
Impressionist artists abandoned the grandiose subjects of Romanticism.
True
The goal of impressionistic music is sensuousness.
True
Verdi’s most popular non-operatic composition is
The Manzoni Requiem
Verdi is arguably the most popular opera composer of all time.
True
Wagner’s only comic opera was
Die Meistersingers von Nuremburg
Oratorios and settings of the Mass made their way into the concert hall by the nineteenth century.
True
Wagner railed against
all of the above
The leading composer in the Impressionist school was Claude Debussy.
True
Although born to a Jewish family, this composer produced several remarkable oratorios.
Felix Mendelssohn
Wagner’s crowning achievement was a set of 4 operas know collectively as
The Ring of the Nibelung
Wagner eventually married the daughter of
Franz Liszt
Wagner’s operas evolved into what he referred to as
music dramas
Oratorios and settings of the Mass made their way into the concert hall by the nineteenth century.
true
Impressionistic music has no equivalent in the visual arts.
false
Verdi’s Ave Maria from his “Four Sacred Pieces” is based on the
enigmatic scale
Wagner’s operas have elements of
all of the above
The opera that first brought fame and recognition to Verdi was
nabucco
Wagner’s most ardent supporter and patron was
King Ludwig II of Bavaria
Wagner called the art form that he developed
music dramas
Which of the following was the Paris-based Russian ballet impresario who commissioned Stravinsky to write several ballets?
Diaghilev
Which of the following best describes the form of a blues text?
A-A-B
William Grant Still moved to Los Angeles and composed music for television.
True
Stravinsky enlarged the orchestra for The Rite of Spring by increasing the number of wind and percussion instruments.
true
The Russian composer Igor Stravinsky lived for many years in France and eventually became a U.S. citizen.
true
Louis Armstrong was also known as:
Satchmo
What is a bent, or “blue,” note?
a note whose pitch drops slightly
Which instrument did Louis Armstrong play?
trumpet
Stravinsky’s ballets all achieved immediate popularity with their audiences.
false
Stravinsky’s greatest contribution to the art music of the twentieth century is thought to be his development of the twelve-tone method.
false
The Rite of Spring is subtitled
“Scenes of Pagan Russia”
Stravinsky lived and worked for nearly 20 years in France.
true
A young man of European heritage who spent his early years in New Orleans and later wrote music that reflected his observations of the rhythmic traditional African-American music practiced there was
Louis M. Gottschalk
The instrumentation of William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony calls for tenor banjo.
true
What American city could be considered the birthplace of jazz?
new orleans
Stravinsky eventually settled in Canada and become a Canadian citizen
false
The leading female vocalist of the Swing Era was
billie holliday
Duke Ellington was noted as a
all of these
_____________ was an important city in the development of jazz.
all of these
The following is regarded as the MOST influential pioneer by today’s jazz trumpeters.
louis armstrong
Which American jazz composer was also a pianist and a master of orchestration for big bands?
Duke Ellington
William Grant Still was the most important musical voice to emerge from the Harlem Renaissance.
true
William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony uses only traditional harmonic practice.
false
Each movement of William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony has an epigraph, suggesting the emotions expressed in that movement.
true
This form of jazz was the popular music in America during the 1930’s & 1940’s.
swing
What kind of jazz is Duke Ellington known for?
swing
Stravinsky’ early ballet scores, The Firebird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring were strongly nationalistic.
true
Because most musicals now seem dated, revivals have been largely unsuccessful.
False
Summertime is a lively song that suggests the excitement of summer.
False
Which of the following composers invented the prepared piano?
John Cage
George Gershwin’s folk opera ___________ was far ahead of its time.
Porgy and Bess
Irving Berlin’s first hit song was:
Alexander’s Ragtime Band
Which of the following works by John Cage has no musical content and can be performed by anyone on any instrument?
4’33”
John Cage’s Sonatas and Interludes evoke the sounds of:
the Javanese gamelan
George Gershwin is recognized as one of the first American composers to:
incorporate African American blues and jazz styles into his compositions.
Prior to each performance for John Cage’s prepared piano, materials are inserted between the strings entirely at random.
False
Revueltas’s mature compositional style features:
complex rhythms, including polyrhythms and ostinatos.
Aaron Copland studied with Nadia Boulanger in Paris
True
Porgy & Bess was set in
Charleston, South Carolina
In his piece, Black Angels, Crumb calls for a number of percussion instruments in addition to the string quartet.
true
Copland is generally recognized as America’s nationalistic composer.
true
Ira Gershwin was George Gershwin’s
C & D
Recordings of commonplace sounds that are modified electronically and organized into an electronic composition are referred to as
musique concrete
In his music, George Crumb explores alternative forms of notation.
true
An early pioneer in the field of Experimental Music was
Edgard Varese
The dates for the post-modernist period are
none of the above
Copland’s “Fanfare for the Common man” was written in response to
the entry of the United States into WWII.
The librettist for Doctor Atomic is:
Peter Sellars
Williams’ Raiders March is in standard march form.
True
Most Hollywood films use music to establish an overall mood, not to reflect the emotional content of a given scene.
false
Jennifer Higdon’s performance background is as a flutist.
true
The term tintinnabulation refers to:
the ringing of bells
Pärt’s Cantate Domino canticum novum uses a psalm for its text.
true
In film, music that can be heard by a character on the screen is called underscoring.
false
Bob Dylan has performed his songs with guitar accompaniment throughout his career to pay homage to the tradition of folk music.
false
Which of the following characterizes the career of John Williams?
all of the above
Higdon chose the title blue cathedral as a tribute to:
her brother
Which nineteenth-century composer was the inspiration for unity in film music through the use of leitmotifs ?
Wagner
John Adams won a Pulitzer Prize for On the Transmigration of Souls.
true
Which of the following compositions by Corigliano received an Academy Award?
the red violin
After Arvo Pärt emigrated to the West, he devoted his compositional output to:
religious choral music
Music that is performed on screen and is part of the drama itself is called:
source music
Who wrote the opera Nixon in China?
John Adams
Minimalism has been assimilated by some “nonclassical” musicians.
true
Tintinnabulation is associated with the music of John Corigliano.
false
Arvo Pärt is a member of what religion?
russian orthodox
Which of the following characterizes the career of John Williams?
all of the above
The term tintinnabulation refers to:
the ringing of bells
Jennifer Higdon currently teaches at her Alma Mater, the Curtis Institute.
true
Unlike many contemporary works, melody is an important element in a Jennifer Higdon composition.
true
“Fur Alina” was one of Arvo Pärt’s earliest compositions in his later minimalist style.
true
“Short Ride in a Fast Machine” by Adams is an example of what compositional style?
minimalism
Arvo Pärt was born in:
estonia
Repetition is an important element of minimalism.
true
A simple and more familiar type of canon is called
round
Meter is an organizing principle shared by music and poetry
true
Traditional music of the Far East is largely
monophonic
Most large musical ensembles use a conductor in order to perform together
True
A short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern repeated throughout a musical work is called an ostinato
True
Which of the following terms describes a concordant or agreeable combination of tones
consonant
The smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-rhythmic unit is called
motive
A musical form based on statement, departure, and a restatement of the first idea is called binary form
false
Describe the organ
Sound is created when air flows through pipes controlled by the organist, Some organs have more than one keyboard, including one played by the feet The sound of an organ can be imitated by electric keyboards and synthesizers
Ternary form is best outlined as A-B-A
true
The procedure in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restated in another is called
Imitation
A heterophonic texture frequently occurs in music involving improvisation, such as jazz
true
Which of the following would be classified as an unpitched percussion instrument
bass drum
The striking emotional effect created by the high point in a melodic line is called
The climax
When a piece of music begins on the last beat of a measure, it is said to begin with
an upbeat
Which marking is appropriate for a slow tempo
adagio
The percussion family is comprised of a variety of instruments that are made to sound by
striking or shaking:
The trumpet is the lowest in pitch of the brass family
False
The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra by Britten is based on a dance tune by Beethoven
False
Meter is the measurement of musical time
True
A melody combined with an ornamented version of itself, often heard in jazz, produces a texture known as
heterophony
Harmonic movement is generated by motion toward a goal or resolution
True
Disjunct motion describes melodies that skip in disjointed intervals
True
The special effect produced on a string instrument by plucking the string with the finger is called
pizzicato
The guitar is most likely of African origin
False
Flutes and whistles are classified as idiophones
False
Most compositions use one type of texture exclusively
False
Which of the following is a double reed instrument
the oboe
Forms are fixed molds into which composers force their material
False
Which of the following songs is in compound meter
Rock-a-bye Baby
Which historical event did NOT take place in the Renaissance
the writing of the Magna Carta
The singing leader in Jewish religious services is called
the cantor
A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate
True
The Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instruments
True
The term a cappella refers to choral music performed_______ .
without any instrumental accompaniment
The texts for madrigals are generally drawn from the fixed poetic meters
False
The raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending forms
True
Which religious figure is praised in the text of Hildegard’s Alleluia, O virga mediatrix
the Virgin Mary
Who is the Greek god of music?
Apollo
Women poet-musicians in southern France were called Minnesingers
False
The overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay’s L’homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-A
True
The upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices
True
The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved
True
The three most important triads used in diatonic harmony are
I, IV, and V
The Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the Magnificat
False
Instruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal line
True
The raga, or scale pattern Bhimpalasi, varies in its ascending and descending forms
True
Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion
Palestrina
Renaissance painters preferred symbolism to realism
False
The service in the Roman Catholic Church that symbolically reenacts the sacrifice of Christ is
the Mass
what does NOT describe Gabrieli’s O quam suavis:
a cappella performance
The High Middle Ages witnessed
the building of great cathedrals,the founding of universities, and the rise of the bourgeoisie
In addition to composing music, Hildegard of Bingen is known for:
visions that foretold the future, founding her own convent and writing religious poetry
The value we place on music today is part of our ancient heritage
True
The vivid depiction of the text through music, known as word painting, is a hallmark of
the madrigal
Although feudal society was male-dominated, the status of women was raised by prevailing attitudes of chivalry and devotion to the cult of the Virgin Mary
True
Which of the following characterizes Monteverdi’s madrigal Ecco mormorar l’onde
careful musical pictorialization of specific images
Which was NOT a function of secular music in medieval court life
devotional services
Claudio Monteverdi’s career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periods
True
A key refers to a group of related tones with a common center, a tonic, toward which the tones gravitate
True
The dominant is an example of an active chord, which can cause tension in music until resolved
True
A sharp will lower the tone by a half step
False
Which of the following does NOT make frequent use of pentatonic scales
Western art music
Mout me fu grief/Robin m’aime/Portare has three voices, each with the same text
True
After the Protestant revolt of the early sixteenth century, the Roman Catholic Church responded with a movement to recapture the loyalty of its people
This was known as: the Counter-Reformation
Which of the following was a lively circle or line dance, often performed outdoors
ronde
In Western music, the octave is divided into how many equal intervals
twelve
During the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing was
St: Mark’s of Venice
Secular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musicians
False
What characterizes the minor scale
It has a lowered third degree
A setting of plainchant with many notes per syllable is called syllabic
False
What characterizes humanism
thinking centered on human issues and individuality, inspiration from the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome, and independence from traditional and religion
Instruments participated in the performance of madrigals, either by doubling or by substituting for a vocal line
True
The earliest operas took their plots from
Greek mythology
The overall form of the Kyrie to Du Fay’s L’homme arme Mass is ternary, or A-B-A
True
Bach wrote his Musical Offering for
Frederick the Great:
Dido’s lament from Purcell’s Dido and Aeneus is a da capo aria
True
The three main keyboard instruments of the Baroque were the harpsichord, organ, and piano
False
The libretoo for Handel’s oratorio Messiah is a compilation of verses from the Bible
True
Bach completed just over one hundred cantatas in his lifetime
False
The French rondeau led directly to the rondo of the eighteenth century
True
The Renaissance saw the growth of solo instrumental music, especially for lute and keyboard instruments
True
What Baroque genre was the direct ancestor of the symphony
sonata da camera
During the late sixteenth century, the principal center for polychoral singing was
St: Mark’s of Venice
Which of the following is noted as a reformer of eighteenth-century opera
Gluck
The approximate dates of the Baroque period are
1600-1750
Which does NOT characterize an oratorio
elaborate scenery
The expansion and reworking of a theme within a composition is called thematic development
True
All of the following are fast, lively dance types EXCEPT
the sarabande
Religion remained a driving force behind power struggles in the Baroque era
True
Johann Sebastian Bach lived a short, unhappy life and had no children
False
An early American polyphonic setting of a psalm or hymn in an imitative style is called
a fuging tune
The upper voice parts of the Pope Marcellus Mass were sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices
True
In earlier times, a composer’s choice of key for a piece depended largely on the capabilities of the instruments for which it was intended
True
Vivaldi lived and worked in
Venice
Bach’s passions are musical setting of the account of the Crucifixion by one of the four Evangelists
True
As a reaction to the grandiose gesture of the Baroque, the Rococo style was a miniature and ornate art aimed at enchantment of the senses
True
The harpsichord is different from the piano because
it usually has two keyboards, rather than one, its strings are plucked rather than struck, it is not capable of a wide dynamic range
During the Baroque era, some boy singers were castrated to preserve the high register of their voices, allowing them to sing high-pitched operatic roles
True
The term trio sonata refers to the number of parts, or musical lines, rather than the number of players
True
Jean-Joseph Mouret died a celebrated, wealthy artistic hero
False
A theme may be fragmented by dividing it into smaller units called_____
motives
Late in life, Handel turned his efforts from opera to
the oratorio
It was through the musical innovations of the __________ that opera was born
Florentine Camerata
Which composer responded to the reforms of the Council of Trent in an exemplary fashion
Palestrina
The group of early Baroque writers, artists, and musicians whose aim was to resurrect the musical drama of ancient Greece was known as
The Florentine Camerata
Secular music in the Renaissance was performed only by professional musicians
False
Claudio Monteverdi’s career spanned both the Renaissance and Baroque periods
True
In the Baroque era, music centered on frequent changes of mood
True
Which best describes how Baroque musicians made a living
as servants to royalty or nobility, as members of the church, and as employees of a free city
Which two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo in the Baroque era
cello and harpsichord
A fugue is a form exclusively for solo keyboard performance
False
What is NOT a major choral work by Bach
Messiah
The Baroque era was an age of political freedom and democracy
False
A sinfonia is a short instrumental passage that facilitates scene changes
True
In London, Handel composed operas in Italian
True
In opera, the lyric melodies that release emotional tension are called recitatives
False
A short phrase repeated over and over in the bass is called
a ground bass
What is the typical form of a Scarlatti sonata
one-movement binary form
The opening movement of Bach’s cantata A Mighty Fortress Is Our God is best described as
a fugal chorale
The orchestra plays a prominent role in the second movement of Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No
2: False
Which best describes the form of the final love duet in The Coronation of Poppea
A-B-B-A, with ground bass
The French overture is composed in three sections
False
What is the form of the individual movements in a suite
binary
Barbara Strozzi was probably trained as a courtesan, in singing, lute playing, and writing poetry
True
What does NOT characterize Vivaldi’s concertos The Four Seasons
They avoid ritornello form
While playing the basso continuo, musicians in the Baroque era improvised on the figured bass
True
The chaconne is a variation form based on a repeated succession of harmonies
True
The role of the chorus was especially important in the oratorio
True
The Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead is the Magnificat
False
Purcell’s opera, Dido and Aeneus, was composed for
a girls’ school production in Chelsy:
Corelli’s trio sonatas served as models for the establishment of the church and chamber sonata
True
In a fugue, the areas of relaxation where the subject is not heard are called
episodes
The only basic rule of theme and variations form is that the theme must always be easily heard
False
The instrument which Mozart played and for which he wrote many concertos was
the piano:
The American Declaration of Independence reflects the intellectual climate of the Classical era
True
Mozart is remembered today as________
the most gifted child prodigy in the history of music
Which best describes the form of the first movement of Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik
sonata-allegro
In the nineteenth-century symphony, the minuet was often replaced by the scherzo
True
The classical attitude toward art is considerably more objective than the Romantic
True
Modern scientists have shown that listening to Mozart
helps with solving math problems
The famous four-note figure at the beginning of Beethoven’s Symphony No 5 is best described as
a motive
Ancient people (the Greeks and Romans, especially) believed that music had no effect on the body
False
A string quartet consists of
2 violins, viola, and cello
The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, development, and
recapitulation
The Classical string quartet literature follows the same basic formal design as the symphony and sonata
True
What best describes the opening of the first movement of Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik
a march-like character
Romantic elements can be found in the late works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven
True
In sonata-allegro form, the section that features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay is called
the development
Mozart was consistently supported by Vienna’s most important patrons
False
The harmony of the Classical-era composers was largely chromatic
False
The term multimovement cycle is applied not only to sonatas and chamber music but also to concertos and symphonies
True
The percussion section of a modern orchestra includes a number of instruments of Turkish origin
True
The first movement of a Classical concerto features sonata-allegro form with
a double exposition
In the first movement of a Classical concerto, there is usually a double exposition
True
Beethoven, like Mozart, wrote music very quickly and with great ease
False
Mozart’s Symphony No 40 in G minor can be viewed as Romantic in spirit
True
Beethoven opposed democracy in favor of the rule of a strong leader
False
The third movement of a Classical symphony is most frequently in
minuet and trio form
How many movements were typical of pre-Classical symphonies
three
In Haydn’s time, the trumpet had not yet advanced beyond the natural form of the instrument with no valves
True
In Haydn’s The Creation, the soloists include three archangels Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael
True
Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op27, No: 2, was subtitled “Moonlight” by______
the poet Rellstab shortly after the composer’s death
How is the melody of Schubert’s Lied The Trout used in the quintet of the same name
It is the basis of a theme and variations movement
The __________ accompanies the baritone voice in the Tuba mirum section of Mozart’s Requiem
trombone
A trouser role is sung by a man in eighteenth-century opera
False
The Trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, composed in 1796, was Haydn’s last orchestral work
True
Turkish percussion instruments can be heard in Beethoven’s Symphony No_____
9
Mozart’s Requiem was sung in a worldwide memorial for the victims of the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States
True
Which character in Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro is best described as a young, innocent man who is in love with love
Cherubino
Who was Haydn’s principal patron
Prince Esterhazy
The music of which composer inspired Haydn to write an oratorio
Handel
In the Classical era, the sonata was intended for professional musicians only
False
Haydn’s orchestras in London were smaller than his earlier ensembles
False
The career of Joseph Haydn spanned the years from the formation of the Classical style to the beginning of Romanticism
True
The Janissary band was
a Turkish military ensemble
Mozart wrote his piano concertos primarily for his own public performances
True
The text of the Ode to Joy, set as the finale of Beethoven’s Symphony No 9, is by
Schiller
The last movement of Mozart’s Sonata in A major, K 331, is inspired by music from which country
Turkey
The first movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in G major, K 453, is monothematic
False
Of the following, which characterizes Maria Theresa Paradis
woman virtuoso pianist, student of Mozart, blind since birth
Unlike Mozart, Beethoven used sketchbooks to work out musical ideas
True
Mozart’s librettist for The Marriage of Figaro was
Lorenzo da Ponte
In depicting “Chaos” at the beginning of The Creation, Haydn
composes a dramatic C-minor overture
Beethoven belonged to a generation of artists who were influenced by the full impact of:
the French Revolution
Beethoven’s famous Moonlight Sonata has _______ movements
three
The early Classical symphony was characterized by quickly ascending themes with a strong rhythmic drive
These are known as: rocket themes
In the nineteenth century, the Mass was performed only in church
False
The first movement of a symphony is usually in
sonata-allegro form
During the Classical era, the prevalent form of opera that occupied itself mainly with the affairs of nobility and Greek legends was
opera seria
A typical feature of a concerto is a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment called
the cadenza
Comic opera was generally in the language of the audience or in the vernacular
True
Beethoven and Mozart wrote duo sonatas that treated the two instruments as nearly equal partners
True
What is the form of the last movement of Mozart’s Piano Concerto in G major, K 453
sonata
The fourth movement of a Classical symphony is usually quicker and lighter than the first movement
True
Beethoven’s Battle Symphony pays tribute to
Wellington’s victory over Napoleon:
What is unusual about Beethoven’s Symphony No 5
There is no break between the third and fourth movements
The text for the Dies irae is a poem in 3-line rhymed verses
True
Rapid-fire, talky singing whose primary function is to advance the plot in an opera is called
recitative
The terzetta, or trio, from Act I of The Marriage of Figaro is in rondo form
False
Opera buffa was typically serious in tone, with plots dealing with historical or legendary figures
False
In the Classical concerto, the marking of andante or adagio would most likely apply to the third movement
False
Using material from an earlier movement in a symphony is called
cyclical form
Schubert set his Trout Quintet in the standard four-movement structure
False
The form of the first movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in C-sharp minor, Op 27, No 2
is a modified song form
In the latter part of the eighteenth century, new opera types were devised that featured naturalness and simplicity
True
Beethoven achieved much acclaim during his lifetime and died a famous and revered composer
True
The establishment of a four-movement cycle for the symphony is generally credited to the London school of composers
False
The sonata is an instrumental work in one movement for one or two solo instruments
False
Beethoven was unable to compose music after he became deaf
False
Who wrote Kyrie,” from the L’homme Armé Mass
Guillaume Du Fay
What year was Guillaume Du Fay born
1397
What year did Du Fay die
1474
What is the significance of Kyrie
This movement, which is the opening movement of the mass, is divided into three sections based on the text. Each section begins with 3 of the 4 voice parts; the tenor
joins later and has the slower moving fixed tune (cantus firmus)
cantus firmus
“fixed melody”, usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the Renaissance
Who wrote “Gloria,” from Pope Marcellus Mass
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
What year was Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina born
1525
What year did Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina die
1594
What is the significance of Gloria
Monophonic chant opening, Changes of density and texture set in various registers, A cappella performance, Clearly audible text set syllabically, Alternation of homorhythmic and polyphonic textures, Full, consonant harmony
polyphonic
all parts sing different notes or rhythms at the same time
monophonic
single melodic line without supporting harmonies
homorythmic
where all the voices move in the same rythm
Who wrote Fair Phyllis
John Farmer
What year was John Farmer born
fl 1591
What year did John Farmer die
1601
Who wrote A Mighty Fortress is our God or Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott
Johann Sebastian Bach
What year was Bach born
1685
What year did Bach die
1750
What is significance of Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott
imitative treatment of the familiar tune in all voice parts and in the trumpets. Dense polyphonic texture created between chorus and orchestra for each line of text, Canon on chorale tune heard in the instruments , played in augmentation
Cannon
Same sequence as someone else but one beat after.
Augmentation
the statement of a theme in notes of greater duration (usually twice the length of the original)
Who wrote “Spring” from the Four Seasons
Antonio Vivaldi
What year was Antonio Vivaldi born
1678
What year did Antonio Vivaldi die
1741
What is the significance of Spring from the four seassons
Musical pictorialization of images of spring, based on the poem, Virtuosity of solo violin part, with fast-running scales and trills. Recurring theme
ritornello
short recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
trill
a note that alternates rapidly with another note a semitone above it
Who wrote Water Music in D Major
George Frideric Handel
What year was Handel born
1685
What year did Handel die
1759
What is significant about Spring from The Four Seasons
tenary form, section with dotted rhythms, followed by a return of the opening material, Fanfare-like opening with quick exchanges between brass and strings. Percussion (timpani) added to orchestra.
ternary form:
3 part form. The piece divides into 3 parts of which the 3rd is an exact repeat, or almost so, of the first part
binary form
a musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other
fanfare
a short lively tune played on brass instruments
Who wrote String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth Movement
Joseph Haydn
What year was Joseph Haydn born
1732
What year did Hayden die
1809
What is the significance of String Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2 Quinten), Fourth Movement
Folklike character, with strongly syncopated dance rhythms, Opening theme introduced by first violin, stated in 2 parts, each repeated (A-A-B-B), First violin dominates the melody throughout, Shift from opening minor key (D minor) to brighter, major key (D major)
minor key
a piece of music based in the minor scale, with a sad or haunting sound
major key
a piece of music based in the major scale, Scale built on thee formula of two whole steps, one half step, three whole steps, one half step.
syncopation
temporary irregularity in musical rhythm
Who wrote Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
What year was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart born
1756
What year did Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart die
1791
What is the significance of Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music)
Sonata-Allegro form, Intimate string chamber music style. Quick-paced movement with 3 themes, sonata-allegro form Overall homophonic texture. First theme is disjunt, marchlike, and ascends quickly (rocket theme); second theme, graceful and conjunct.
Sonata Allegro
Classical period, dramatic musical form involving exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda
Rocket theme
quickly ascending rhythmic melody used in Classical-era instrumental music; the technique is credited to the composers in Mannheim, Germany
Homophonic
musical texture which focuses on a single melody with accompaning harmonies (mainly chordal)
Disjunct
progressing melodically by intervals larger than a major second
Conjunct
melody that moves in stepwise motion without major skips and leaps between the intervals, Smooth, connected melody that moves principally in stepwise motion,
pitch
the highness or lowness of a particular sound
Frequency
number of vibrations per second.
Amplitude
volume or loudness of sound
Melody
the tune in music, a sequence of moving pitches that create thought
Range
span of pitches
Contours
general shape of a melody.
Intervals
distances between any two pitches of a melody.
Phrase
a unit that makes up a melody
Counter melody
a melody accompanied by a second melody
Cadence
the point where the musician takes a deep breath, the punctuation for music.
Rhythm
the movement of music in time.
Beat
the basic unit of rhythm.
downbeat
first beat of any patter
upbeat
the last beat of a measure
offbeat
a weak beat
meter
the organized pattern of rhythmic pulses
Duple meter
a simple marching meter (left-right-left-right)
Triple meter
a simple meter that has three beats to a measure and is often used for waltzes
Quadruple Meter
a simple that has four beats to a measure with the primary accent on first beat and second strongest on the third
Compound meters
a meter where the beat is divided into three
Measure
what marks of meter, contains a fixed number of beats
Harmony
a term used to describe simultaneous events in music, also the movement of one chord to the next
Chord
three or more notes all sound together at once.
Octave
interval of eight notes
Scale
group of eight pitches arranged in ascending and descending order
Triad
a combination of three notes or tones
tonic note
the first note of a scale or key, also called a keynote
Dsonance
a combination of tones that are dcordant
Dcordant
a combination of tones that need to be resolved
Consonance
The resolving of dsonance, notes are pleasing to the ears
Drone
the sustained sounding of one or more tones for harmonic support, common in Asian and folk music
Counterpoint
the combination of two or more simultaneous melodic lines
strophic form
melody repeated with each stanza
Grave
solemn or very, very slow.
Largo
broad or very slow
Adagio
quite slow.
Andante
a walking pace.
Moderato
of course moderate.
Allegro
a fast or cheerful pace.
Vivace
a lively pace.
Presto
very fast.
Molto
very.
Meno
less.
Poco
a little.
Non troppo
not too much
Piansimo (pp
very soft.
Piano (p)
very soft
Mezzo piano(mp)
moderately soft
Forte(ff)
loud
Mezzo forte(mf)
moderately loud.
Fortsimo(ff)
a very loud piece of music.
Sforzando
to accent a single note or cord
Aerophones:
instruments that produce sound by using air., horns, bagpipes, whistles and accordions.
Chordophones:
produce sound from vibrating sting that is stretched between two separate points, Violins, sitars, guitars, harps and Chinese yangquins
Idiophone
instrument that produces sound by vibration of materials they are made of
Membranophone
instrument that makes sound when its stretched membrane is struck or rubbed