MTEL History 06

Algonquian, help early english settlers survive harsh winters by teaching them native methods of planting corn, squash and pumpins
Algonquian, famous liason with John Smiths Plymouth Colony in 1607
Shoshon, was hired by Lewis and Clark as a guide in 1805
Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
led Sioux and Cheyenne troops in the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876 defeating George Armstrong Custer
Chief Joseph
leader of Nez Perce who supported peaceful interaction with white settlers, attempted to relocate his tribe to Canada
Easter US, lived in Wigwams. Hunting and gathering
Eastern US, lived in rectangular long houses
Plains Tribes
lived between Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains
consisted of tribes: Sioux, Cheyenne, Comanche and Blackfoot
Nomadic Tribes
lived in Teepees and followed Buffallo herds
Pueblo Tribes
Soutwest Deserts in homes made of stone or adobe. Domesticated animals and cultivated corn and beans.
consist of: Zuni, Hope and Acoma
Pacific Coast Tribes
Lived on fish, deer, native berries and roots. Rectangular homes housed large famlies. They used totem poles.
Consist of: Tlingit, Chinook and Salish
Far North Tribes
Lived in Skin tents or igloos. Talented fisherman, built Kayaks and Umiaks. Hunted cribou, seals, whales and walrus.
Consist of: Aleuts and Inuit
Age of Exploration aka Age of Discovery
begun early 15th century and cont into 17th century
-navigation advances, mapmaking and shipbuilding
-expanded European exploration from Portugual, Spain, France and England seeking new routes to Asia
-led to discovery of new lands and colonization of India, Asia, Africa and North America
Advancements In Navigation and Seafaring Tools
– Compass, magnetic one used by Chinese
– Astrolable, came to Europe from Arab navigators
– Portuguese developed a ship called Caravel in 1400’s that incorporated navigational advancements that led to long sea journeys
– Portuguese discovered sea route from Europe to Asia in 1498
Christopher Columbus
– 1492 Genoan explorer got finacial support from King Fedinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to seek route to Asia.
– 3 ships, Nina , Pinta and Santa Maria
– Discovery of America’s
French Colonists
– Fur traders
– Plantations in Lousiana
– brought slaves
Spanish Colonists
– Came to look for wealth and convert natives to Christianity
– desire for gold led to mining
– others established large ranches
Dutch Colonists
– fur traders
– imported slaves
British Colonists
– some looking for additional income
– others fleeing Britain to escape religous persecution
New England Colonies
– NH, CT, RI, MA
– founded by escape from religous persecution in England
– Puritans migrated in 1600’s
– numerous harbors and dense forests
– rocky terrain and short growing seasons
– economy centered around: fishing, shipbuilding and trade. some small farms and lumber mills
– centered around large towns and cities (Boston)
Middle Atlantic Colonies
– NY, NJ, PA, DE
– colonists were from Netherlands, Holland and Sweden
– fertile land. major producers of crops; rye, oats, potatoes, wheat and barley
Southern Colonies
– MD, VA, NC, SC, GA
– VA was first of the permanent English colony and GA last
– warm climate and rich soil, long grow season
– tobacco, rice, indigo
– economy based on labor intensive plantations
– large slave population- first slaves arrived in VA 1619
French and Indian Wars
– British defeat Spanish Armada in 1750 led to decline of Spanish power in Europe
– led British and French into many battles that lasted several years 1689-1748
King Williams War / The 9 Years War
– 1689-1697
– Fought largely in Flanders
The War of Spanish Succession / Queen Anne’s War
– 1702- 1713
War of Austrian Succession / King Georges War
– 1740-1748
The French and Indian War
– fought mostly in North American territories
– ended France’s reign as a colonial power in N.A
– Strong leadership of William Pitt led British to victory
– costs incurred during war sparked American Revolution
Navigation Acts
– 1651 the Navigation Acts were an attempt by Britain to dominate international trade
– aimed mostly at the Dutch
– banned foriegn ships from transportting goods to British colonies and to Britain from Europe
Higher Taxes after the French and Indian War
– the war caused the British a need for more venue
– need to pay off war debt
– need for funds to defend expanding empire
– need for funds to govern Britains 33 fr flung colonies including American Colonies
– British felt they should tax American colonies because they protected them, this led to protest and violence
Triangular Trade
– started in colonies with ships going to Africa w/ rum
– in Africa rum was traded for gold or slaves
– then went to West Indies and traded slaves for sugar, molasses or money
– complete triangle ships returned to colonies with sugar and molasses to make more rum
– triangle trade violated the Molasses Act of 1733
– colonists ignored the act and the British gov adopted a policy of salutary neglect by not enforcing
Molasses Act 1733
– required colonists to pay high duties to Britain on molasses aquired from French. Dutch and Spanish colonies
Effects of New Laws on British- Colonial relations
– New laws after 1763 req colonists to pay money back to Britain
– the british felt this was fair since colonists were British subjects and debt occurred while protecting the colonies
– colonists felt this was unfair and illegal
Developement of Local Government in America
– gave colonists different view of the structure and role of government
– made it difficult for British to understand colonist’s protests againgst what British thought was fair
Increasing Discontent in the American Colonies
– more colonists had been born on American soil decreaing kinship to far away British rulers
– led to new ideas of government with strong feelings of being seperate from Britain
– colonist could self govern in domestic issues but Britain controlled international issues
– colonists were able to form local governments
– threats during French and Indian War led colonists to call for unification in order to protect themselves
Colonial Government
– new towns and other legislative districts developed in the Americas
– colonists began to practice representative government
– Colonial Legislative bodies were made up of elected representatives chosen by male property owners.
– these individuals represented the districts in which they were elected
British Government
– the Britain Parliament represented the entire country
– parliament was not elected to represent individual districts
– they represented specific classes
4 major Acts of British Parliament
1- The Quartering Act 1765: required colonists to provide acommodations and supplies for British troops. colonists were prohibited from settling West of the Appalachians until given permission from Britain
2- The Sugar Act 1764: required taxes on Molasses. Gave British officials the right to search the homes of anyone they suspected of violating
3- The Stamp Act 1765: taxed printed materials such as, newspapers and legal documents.(Protests led this to be repealled in 1766 which led to the Declaratory Act ;stated that Parliament had the right to govern the colonies)
4- The Townshed Acts 1767: taxed papers, paint, lead and tea. (protests and boycotts, samuel and John Adsams organized resistance against British rule)
Boston Massacre
– 9 colonies met in NY to repeal Stamp Act
-protest arose in New york, Philly and Boston
– violence often target British officials
– Townshed Act 1767, also brought more protests
– British sent troops to Boston and Ny
– march 5 1770 protesters taunted troops with snowballs and the troops fired into the crowd
– 5 deaths and 8 injuries
Tea Act and Boston Tea Party
– 1773 the Tea Act was passed
– Allowed East India company to sell tea for lower prices ,bypass American distributors, sell direct to shopkeepers
-Colonial tea merchant saw this as assualt on their business
– Dec 1773, 150 merchants boarded ships in Boston Harbor and dumped 342 chests of tea in sea to protest new laws
4 Coercive Acts
– 1774 passed by Britain to punish Massachusetts for defying British Authority
1- Shut down ports in Boston until the city paid back the value of the tea destroyed during the Boston Tea Party
2- Required that local government officials in Mass be appointed by the governor rather than being elected by the people
3- Allowed trials of British soldiers to be transferred to Britain rather than being held Mass
4- required locals to provide lodging for British soldiers any time there was a disturbance, even if lodging required them to stay in private homes
First Continental Congress in Philadelphia
– Coercive Acts led to this
– Sept 5, 1774
– Goal was to achieve a peacful agreement w/ Britain
– 55 Delegates met representing 12 of the American colonies
– sought compromise with England over Englands inreasingly harsh efforts to control the colonies
– George III of Britain declared that American colonies must submit or face Military action
– April 19 1775 British Military was ordered to disperse a meeting of the Massachusetts Assembly
– battle on Lexington common as the armed colonists resisted.
– battle of lexington/concord 1st of revolutionary war
Second Continental Congress
– Philedelphia May 10 1775, month after lexington
– disscussions centered on defense of American colonies
– discussed declaring independence from Britain
-est army and on June 15 named George Washington as commander in chief.
– congress drafted Declaration of Indepence July 4 1776
5 Battles of the Revolutionary War
1- Battle of Lexington and Concord: April 1775, first part of war
2- Battle of Bunker Hill: June 1775 bloodiest, American troops w/drew. In Aug British declared American colonies in offical state of rebellion
3- Trenton NJ, Dec 26 1776, first victory for colonies. Washington crossed Delaware River on Xmas and suprised attack Hessian and British troops
4- Battle of Saratoga: ended a plan to seperate the NE colonies from southern parts. Turning point in war when surrender of British Gen John Burgoyne led to France joining as allies of Americans
5- Battle of Yorktown VA : Oct 19, 1781, Gen Cornwallis surrendered ending Rev War
Declaration of Independence
Penned by Thomas Jefferson and signed on July 4 1776,
King George III violatede rights of colonists and was est Tyrranical reign.
Many of Jeffersons ideas and rights were from philosopher John Locke
Jefferson focus on natural rights, people rights, life, liberty and pursuit of happiness
Treaty of Paris
-signed Sept 3 1783, official end to Rev war
-Britain officially recognized The United Stated of America as an independent nation
-est Mississippi river as countrys western border
-restored Florida to Spain
– France reclaim african and carribean colonies siezed by British
– Nov 24 1783 last British troops left USA
Articles of Confederation
– represented first attempt of new colonies to est basics of independent government
– Continental Congress passed Articles on Nov 15, 1777
– Went into effent Mar 1 1781
– prevented central gov from gain too much power
– power given to congressional body made up of delegates from all 13 13 states
– Final authority given to individual states
– this proved weak and led to constitution
– delegates from 12 states ( no RI) met in Philly May 1787 to revise articles of confederation
– realized revision was not enough and kept secret until new document was complete
Structured of Proposed Government
– delegates agreed new nation required a stron central government, with limited overall power
– various branches of gov should have balanced power so no group could control another
– final power belong to citizens who voted officials in office
Virginia Plan
– Virgina Governor of VA Endmond Randolph felt representation in congress should be based on state population
New Jersey Plan
-William Paterson proposed each state have equal representation
Connetticut Compromise aka Great Compromise
– Roger Sherman proposed
– familiar to structure we have today
– Each state has equal representation of 2 senators in the senate
– number of representatives in the House of Representatives based on pop( Bicameral Congress)
– Both houses may draft bills but finacial matters must originate in the House of Reps
Three Fifths Compromise
– debate on Constitution North and South disagreed on how Slaves should be counted when determining Reps and taxes
– result was to count 3/5 of slave population
Commerce Compromise
– North/south disagreement
Congress recieved regulatory power over all trade
Objections against the Constitution
– 9 states needed to make Constitution official
– Concerns:
1) Lack of Bill of Rights to protect the rights of inds
2) states felt too much power handed over to cent gov
3) Voters wanted more control over elected reps
– disagreements over Constitution led to 2 camps
1) Federalists : want strong central gov
2) Anti-federalists: prevent tyrannical gov
– Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison
– wrotes series of letters, federalists papers aimed at convincing states to ratify the constitution
– Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry
– argued against Constitution
Federalists vs Anti-Federalists
– compromise produced a strong central government controlled by checks and balances
– Bill of Rights added, becoming the first 10 addmendments to the Constitution
– admendments protected rights such as freedom of speech, religion and other basic rights
Administration of the New Government: who formed the first
– George Washington- 1st President 1789
– John Adams, 2nd in election became VP
– Thomas Jefferson was appointed by Washington as Secratary of State
– Alexander Hamilton also appointed as Secretary of the Treasury
Alien and Sedition Acts
– John Adams became president war was raging between France and Britain
– Adams and Federalists backed British
– Jefferson and Republic party backed French
– US almost went to war w/ France ( Napolean Bonapart)
– The Act grew from this conflict
– Stated: Illegal to speak in hostile fashion against the existing government
– allowed president to deport anyone in US who was not citizen and who suspected of treason
– When Jefferson became 3rd Pres he repealled this
Political Parties
– Many people in US were againgst political parties because of what happen in Britain
– Britian was more concerned about money than the good of the people
– Differences between Jefferson and Hamilton led to the formation of political parties
Thomas Jeffereson- Political Party
– Felt more power should remain with the stated
– in favor of strict Constitutional Interpretation
– His backers were identified as Democratic-Republicans
– Elected President in 1800 and 1804
Alexander Hamilton- Political Party
– Favored Stronger Central Government
– believed in flexible approach
– His backers called themselves Federalists
-Federalist Party declined when Jeffereson became Pres
– Died in a duel with Aaron Burr in 1804
– 1816 Federalist party vitually disappeared
Whigs Party
– 1824 Whigs arose to take place of Federalists
– Backed John Quincy Adams and Industrial Growth
Democratic Party
– Democratic-republicans suffered a split
– 1824 new Democratic party fomred in Opposition to Whigs
– Andrew Jackson was their candidate and was elected to president in 1828
– interest in south favored slavery
Republican Party
– 1850 formation of Republican Party because of issues with slavery
– anti slavery
Marbury VS Madison
– 1800 before Adams was voted he appointed federalist judges to the supreme court because he new Jefferson opposed
– As late as Mar 3 , day before Jefferson took office Adams made Last Minute appointments known as “Midnight Judges”
– one of them William Marbury
– next day Jefferson ordered his secretary of state James Madison not to deliver Marbury’s commission
– this was backed by Chief Justice Marshall, who determined that Judiciary Act of 1789, which granted power to deliver commissions was illegal in that it gave the Judicial Branch powers not granted in the Constitution
– This case set precedent for Supreme Court to nullify laws found to be unconstitutional
McCulloch v Maryland
– congress chartered a national bank, the second bank of the United States
– Maryland voted to tax any Bank business dealing with banks chartered outside of the state
-Andrew McCulloch, employee of Second National Bank of US in Baltimore refused to pay this tax resulting in a lawsuit that weent to Supreme Court
– John Marshall, Chief Justice of S.C stated that congress was within rights to charter a national bank
-Maryland did not have power to levy tax on fed bank or fed governement in general
Effects of Treaty of Paris on Native Americans
– Treaty of Paris granted large parcels of land to US that were occupied by Native Americans
– new Gov tried to claim the land and treated the Natives as conquered people, but it didn’t work
– next gov tried to purchase the land from natives with series of treaties as they moved Westward
– these treaties were not honored and Natives were just forced to move farther and farther west
Indian Removal Act of 1830
– gave new American Gov power to form treaties with Native Americans
– in theory America would claim land east of the Mississippi River in exchange for land west of it
-Natives would have to relocate voluntarily
– in Practice many tribal leaders were forced into signing treaties and relocation was forced
The Treaty of New Echota
-supposedly a treaty between the US gov and Cherokee tribes in GA
– however treaty was not signed by tribal leaders but rather by a small portion of the represented people
– leaders protested by refusing to be removed
-President Martin Van Buren enforced treaty by sending soldiers
– more than 4000 Cherokee Indians died, known as the Trail of Tears
Early Economic trends in Northeast
– economy mostly depended on Manafacturing, Indusrty and Industrial developement
– led to dichotomy between rich business owners an industrial leaders and the much poorer workers who supported thier businesses
Early Economic trends in South
– depended on Agriculture
– large scale farms
– plantations worked mostly by slaves and indentured servants
Early Economic trends in West
– new settlement began to develope
– land largely wild
– growing communities esentially agricultural, growing crops and raising livestock
Louisiana Purchase
– tention still high between France and Britain, Napolean was in need of money to support war efforts
– He sold Louisiana to US for 15 Million
– Federalists were opposed to this purchase
– feared Louisina Purchase would extend slavery and further western growth would weaken power of northern states
3 Major ideas for Early Foreign Policy
1) Isolationism
– early US gov did not intend to establish colonies, though they did plan to grow larger within the bound of North America
3 Major ideas for Early Foreign Policy
2) No Entangling Alliances
– both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson were opposed to forming any permanent alliances with other countried or becoming involved in other countries internal issued
3 Major ideas for Early Foreign Policy
3) Nationalism
– positive patriotic feeling about United Stated blossomed quickly among citizens, particulary after War of 1812 when US once again defeated Britain
– Industrial Revolution sparked increased nationalism by allowing all areas of US to communicate with each other via telegraph and expanding railroad
Prior to War of 1812
– grew out of the continuing tension between France and Great Britain
– Napolean cont to strive to conquer Britain,
– while US cont to trade with both countries , but favored France and French colonies
– Britain saw alliance between US and France, Britain determined to end Trade between the 2
– James Madison’s Presidency introduced acts to regulate international trade
– If either Britain of France removed their restrictions America would not trade with the other
– Napolean acted first and Madison prohibited trade with England
– England saw this as US formally siding with France and war ensued in 1812
War of 1812
– called second American Revolution
– established the superiority of the US naval forces and reestablished US independence from Britain and Europe
– British objected to America’s trade with France: saw US helping Frances war efforts by providing goods and supplies. also the US had grown into a competitor, taking trade and money away from British ships and tradesmen
– to end trade between America and France British put into effect Orders in Council
– Orders in Council: made any and all French owned ports off limits to American ships
– began to seize American ships and conscript their crews
2 Major Naval battles
– Lake Eerie and Lake Champlain: kept British from invading the US via Canada. American attempts to conquer Canadian lands were not successful
British Attack on Washington D.C
– invaded D.C and burned the White House
– legend has it that Dolly Madison the first lady salvaged the American Flag from the fire
Treaty of Ghent
– officially ended the war Dec 24 1814
Era of Good Feelings
– Andrew Jackson unaware war was over managed another victory at New Orleans on Jan 8 1815
– victory upped American Morale and led to a new wave of nationalism and national pride
Monroe Doctrine
– Dec 2 1823, pres Monroe told congress
– any attempts by European powers to establish new colonies on North American continent would be considered interference in American politics
– US would stay out of European matters, expected same
– this approach to foreign policy stated in no uncertain terms that America would not tolerate any new european colonies in new world
– events occurring in Europe would no longer influence the policies and doctrines of the US
Lewis and Clark Expedition
– purchase of the Louisiana from France in 1803, more than doubled the size of the US
-Pres Jefferson wanted the area to be mapped and explored, since much of territory was wilderness
– he chose Meriweather Lewis and William Clark
– After 2 years they returned having traveled all the way to the Pacific Ocean
– Brought maps, detailed journals and various types of knowledge and info about the wide expanse of land they had traversed
Manifest Destiny
– in 1800 many believed that America was destined by God to expand west, bringing as much of the North America continent as possible under the umbrella of US governement.
– rapid and relentness expansion brought conflict with Native Americans, Great Britain, Mexico and Spain
Mexican- American War was a result of Manifest Destiny
Oregon Country
– Shared by US and Britain
– conflict arose
– 1846 President James Polk resolved problem by compromising with Britain, establishing a US boundary south of the 49th Parallel
Mexican- American War
– 1846-1848, a result of Manifest Destiny
– Spain had colonial intrest in America since 1540s
-1821 Mexico revolted against Spain and became free nation, followed by Texas who ater 1836 revolution declared its independence
– 1844 Democrats pressed President Tyler to annex Texas, Tyler aggreed to admit TX into Union, became a state in 1845
– During Mexico War, incurred 4.5 mill in war debts to US
– Polk offerd to forgive debt in exchange for New Mexico and upper California, but Mexico refused
-1846 war was declared in response to Mexican attack on American troops
– conflict arose in Congress over the Wilmot Proviso, which stated that any territory the US aquirred from Mexico whould be legally open to Slavery
-War ended 1848
Gadsen Purchase
– 1854 was finalized providing even more territory to aid in the building of the transcontinental railroad.
– this purchase added what would eventually become California, Nevada, and Utah and portions of New Mexico, Wyoming, Colorado and Arizona
– Modern outline of the US by this time was almost complete
1853 Post-War Treaty with Mexico
– After Mexican- American war, a second treaty in 1853 determined America’s southwest borders, a border which went as far as the West Coast
American System
– spurred by the trade conflicts of the War of 1812
– supported by Henry Clay and others
– American System set up tariffs to hep protect American Interests from competition with products from overseas
– reducing competition led to growth in emplyment and an overall increase in American Industry
– Congress passed high tariffs in 1816 and also chartered a federal bank
– Second Bank of the US given job of regulating America’s money supply
Jacksionian Democracy
– shift from politics fvoring the wealthy to politics favoring the common man
– all free white males were given the right to vote, not just property owners
– favored the patronage system, Laissez faire economics, and relocation of the Indian tribes from the S.East
– he opposed the formation of a federal bank and allowed Second Band of the US to collapse by vetoing a bill to renew the charter
– faced challenge of the “Null and Void” or “Nullification Theory” when S.C claimed that it could ignore or nullify any federal law it considered unconstitutional
– he sent troops to the state to enforce the protested tariff laws, and a compromise engineered by Henry Clay in 1833 settled the matter for time being
Conflict between North and South
– Coalesced around the issue of slavery, other elements
– Southern Plantations and Cotton farmers depended on slaves
-North more diverse agricultural economy and growth of industry made slaves rarer
Abolitionist Movement
– Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Toms Cabin: give many an idea to rally around
– collection of anti- slavery organizations formed to actively working to free slaves in the South, often bringing them North
Anti-Slavery Organizatios:
American Colonization Society
– protestant churches formed group
– returned black slaves to Africa
– former slaves formed Liberia, but colony did not do well, land was not suited for agricultural
Anti-Slavery Organizatios:
American Anti-Slavery Society
– William Llyod Garrison, Quaker, was the major force
– Newspaper: “The Liberator”
Anti-Slavery Organizatios:
Female Anti-Slavery Society
– woman only group formed by Margaretta Forten
-women were not able to join anti-slavery group formed by her father
Anti-Slavery Organization:
Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women
– group cont to meet even after pro-slavery factions burned down their original meeting place
Anti-Slavery Organizatios:
Female Vigilant Society
– org that raised funds to help the Underground Railroad as well as slave refugees
Horace Mann
– among others felt public schooling could help children become better citizens, keep them away from crime, prevent poverty, and help American Society become more unified
– “Common School Journal” brought ideas of the importance of education into the public consciousness
– increased literacy led to increase awareness of current events, Western expansion, and other major developements of the time period
– public interests and participation in the arts and literature also increased
– by the end of the 19th century, all children had access to a free public elementary educations
– As America expanded its borders, it developed nech technology to travel the rapidly growing country
– Roads and railroads traversed the nation with the Transcontinental Railroad, travel 1 coast to the other
– Canals and Steamboats simplified water travel, made ship travel easier and less exspensive
– canals connected other major water ways, further facilitating transportationand the shipment of goods
– growing settlers in the West, wagon trails developed: Oregon Trail, California Trail and Santa Fe Trail
-Covered wagons, known as Prairie Schooners
Eerie Canal
– 1825 connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River
Industrial Activity – Factories
– during 18 century, goods were often manafactured in houses or small shops
– increased technology allowing for the use of machines, factories began to develop
-Factory, large volume of salable goods could be produced in a much shorter amount of time
– Many AMericans, including increasing numbers of immigrants, found jobs in these factories
Cotton Gin
– Eli Whitney
-decreased the processing time of cotton and was a major factor in the rapid expansion of cotton production in the South
Labor Movements in the 1800s
– 1751 group of bakers protested in which they stop baking bread, first American labor strike
– 1830s and 1840s, labor movements began in earnest
– Boston’s masons, carpenters and stoneworkers protested the length of the workday, to reduce to 10 hours
– 1844 group of women in textile fought to reduce workday to 10 hours, forming Lowell Female Labor Reform Association
Second Great Awaking
– Led by Protestant evangelical leaders
-occurred between 1800-1830
– several missionary groups grew out this movement, including American Home Missionary Society in 1826
– ideas focused on: personal responsibility as an individual and in response to injustice and suffering
– American Bible Society and American Tract Society provided literature while traveling preachers spread word
– New denominations arose, Latter Day Saints, Seveth Day Adventists
Temperance Movement
– associated with the Second Great Awakening
– focused on ending the productions and use of alcohol
– major organization behind this was Society for the Promotion of Temperance, formed in Boston 1826
Womens Rights Movement
– Began in 1840
– Leaders: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Ernestine Rose, Lucretia Mott
-1869 National Woman Suffrage Association, fought for womans rights to vote, led by Susan B Anthony, Ernestine Rose and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
First Womens Rights Convention
– 1848 Seneca Falls
– 300 Attendees
-issues that women could not vote or run for office
– “Declaration of Sentiments” outlined a plan for women to attain the rights they deserved
-Federick Douglas supported womans and abolitionision
Missouri Compromise
– by 1819 US had balance between slave and free states with 22 senators in Congress
– Missouri was ready to join Union as a state
– As a slave state it would tip balance of congress
– To prevent this, the Missori Compormise brought the northern part of Mass into the Union of Maine. Maine free state balance MO as a slave state
– Proposed Missouri Constitution presented problem as it outlawed immigration of free blacks into the state
– Henry Clay , the Great Compromiser, stated that the US Constitution overuled Missouri’s
Popular Sovereignty
– Group of people that felt each individual state should decide whether to allow or permit slavery within the state borders
Compromise of 1850
– When California applied to join the Union in 1849 it threatened the balance of congressional power
– the Compromise of 1850 borught group of laws that ended this conflict
– CA admitted as a free state
– Slave trade in Washington D.C being outlawed
– An Increase in efforts to capture escaped slaves
– New Mexico and Utah territories would decide ind whether or not to allow slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act
– 1854 creation of Kansas and Nebraska, debate began
– Congress allowed popular sovereignty in these states
– slavery opponents argued that Missouri Compromise outlawed slavery in this region
– In Kansas 2 seperate governments arose, pro and anti slavery
– The differences led to violence “Bleeding Kansas”
Dred Scott Decision
– Abolitionists factions coalesced around Dred Scott, using his case to test laws on slavery
– Scott, a slave, taken from owner in Missouri to Illinois then to Minnesota and then return to Missouri
– Owner died, he went to court saying he was free since he was in a free state
– Supreme Court said that because he was not a US citizen it did not shange his status to free
– Supreme Court said Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
John Brown and Harper’s Ferry
– Abolitionist participated in several anti-slavery actions, killed 5 pro-slavery men in retaliation
– He and other abolitionists pooled money to build a runaway slave colony
– 1859 Brown seized federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry located in what is now West Virginia
– Brown planned to seize guns and lead slave rebellion
– Robert Lee caputured Brown and 22 followers, tried and hanged
– Northerners saw the Gov as Pro-slavery
– Southerners saw this as Northerners as Anti-Slavery
1860 Election Candidates
– 1860 presidential candidates represented 4 different parties, each with a different view on slavery
– John Breckenridge: Southern Democrats, pro-slavery
– Abraham Lincoln: Republican, anti-slavery
– Stephen Douglas: Northern Democrats, slavery should be determined locally on state by state basis
– John Bell: Constitutional Union, keeping union in tact
– Lincoln won popular and electoral votes
– Some in South left Union and led to Civil War
Northern Advantages in the Civil War
– larger populations, 24 states to the souths 11
– better transportation and finances, railroads primarrily in the North
-More Raw Materials
– majority of Gold, Copper, Iron and other minerals good for wartime
Southern Advantages in the Civil War
-Better Trained Military
– more familiar with weapons
– Better defensive position, the north was invading them on their land
– well defined goals, they were fighting to be allowed to govern them selves
Emancipation Proclamation
– Issued by Lincoln in 1862
– freed all slaves in confederate states
– worked in unions favor, freed slaves joined union army
– almost 200,000 blacks fought in Union Army
– end of War 4 million slaves freed
– 1865 slavery was banned by Constitution Amendment
6 Major Civil War Events : 1) Battle of Bull Run
– July 21 1861
– first major LAND battle of the war
– observers set up picinis to watch, but ended up watching a blood bath
– Union Forces were defeated and set up for the Civil War
6 Major Civil War Events : 2) The Capture of Fort Henry
– February 1862
– Captured by Ulysses S Grant
– Marked The Unions first victory
6 Major Civil War Events : 3) Battle of Gettysburg
– July 1-3 1863
– turning point of the war
-Largest number of cassulties, over 50,000
– Robert E Lee defeated
6 Major Civil War Events : 4) The Overland Campaign
– 1864
– Grant now in Command of all Union Armys led this campaign that eventuall position the Union for Victory
6 Major Civil War Events : 5) Shermans March to the Sea
– May 1864
– William Tecumesh Sherman conquered Atlanta and cont to Savannah
6 Major Civil War Events : 6) Lee’s Defeat at the Appomattox Courthouse
– April 9 1865
– General Grant accepted Lee’s surrender in the home of Wilmer McLean
Lincolns Assination
– 5 Days after the end of the Cival War
– Lincoln and Wife Mary attended the play “Our American Cousin” at Ford Theater
– John Wilkes Booth, unaware that war was over
– he was found 12 days later and killed by Union soldiers
Reconstruction Act 1866
– after war south was left in chaos
– 1865-1877 governent tried to restore
– tried to ensure civil rights for slaves and try to get back in the Union
– the Act put former Confederate States under Military rule
Freedmans Bureau
– formed to help freedmen and give assistance to whites in the South who needed basic needs like food and clothing
– most in south believe this worked to set freed slaves against their former owners
Radical Republicans
– they wished to treat the South quite harshly after the war
– Thaddeus Stevens, House Leader, suggested the Southern States be treated as if they were Territories again
– wanted to give all Black men the right to vote
– former Confederate soldiers would need to swear they had NOT fought against the Union in order to be granted full rights as American Citizens
Moderate Republicans
– only wanted Black men who were literate or served in Army to have right to Vote
-All confederate soldiers could vote except troop Leaders
– before Death Lincoln agreed with this moderate
Black Codes
– proposed to control freed slaves
– not allowed to bear arms
– not allowed to assemble or serve on juries
– not allowed to testify against whites
– schools were to be segregated
– unemployed Blacks were arrested and made to work
– Andrew Johnson, president after Lincoln supported
The Civil Rights Bill
– countered the “Black Codes”
– provided much wider rights for Freed Slaves
– Andrew Johnson Vetoed this
– Congress overrode his veto and impeached him
13th Amendment
– Dec 18 1865 passed shortly after Civil War
– prohibited Slavery in the USA
14th Amendment
– July 9 1868, Overturned Dred Scott Decision
– Citizenship redefined
– All citizens guarenteed equal legal protection in all stated
– gave citizens the right to file a lawsuit or serve on a jury
15 th Amendment
– Feb 3 1870
– No citizen of the USA can be denied the right to vote based on race, color or previous status of being a slave
3 Phases of Reconstruction: 1) Presidential Reconstruction
– driven by Pres Andrew Johnsons policies
– lenient on the South and allowed continued discrimination against and control over blacks
3 Phases of Reconstruction: 2) Congressional Reconstruction
– congress was contrlled largely by radical republicans
– republicans provided a wider range of civil rights for blacks and greater control over southern government
– marked by military control over former Confederate States
3 Phases of Reconstruction: 3) Redemption
– Gradually Conferderate States were remitted back into the Union
– during this time Democrats took over the Government in most of South
– Troops finally departed south in 1877
– northerns who traveled to the south for various reasons
– some provided assistance
– others sought to make money or aquire political power during chaotic period after the war
-Southern Whites who alligned with Freedman to take over local govenrments
Transcontinental Railroad
– 1869 Union Pacific Railroad completed first section
– first section went from Omaha to Sacremento
– positive but often damaged small family farms
– 90% of workers constructing were Chinese
Naturalization Act
– 1870, put limits on US citizenship
– allowing full citizenship only to whites and african desent
Chinese Exclusion Act
– 1882 put limits on Chinese immigration
Immigration Act
– 1882
– taxed immigrants, 50 cents per person
– funds help pay admin costs for regulating immigration
– Ellis Island opened in 1892, processing center
Emergency Quota Act aka Johnson Quota Act
– 1921
– severly limited the number of immigrants allowed in the country
Technological Advancements
– mid 1800’s irrigation techniques improved
– advances in cultivation and breeding
– fertilizers used i crop rotation
– 1892 Gasoline powered tractors
– tools: barbed wired fences, combines, silos, deep water wells, cream seporator
4 Major Government actions to help improve Agriculture in 19th century
1) 1862, Dept of Agriculture, working for interests of farmers and ranchers
2) Morrill Land- Grant Acts, 1862, allowing land-grant colleges
3) Hatch Act, 1887, in conjuction with Land-grant colleges, brought Ag experimental stations, help discover new farm techniques
4) 1914, Smith-Lever Act, provided cooperative programs to help educate people about food, home economics, community developement and Ag
Alexander Graham Bell
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Richard Gatling
Machine Gun
Walter Hunt, Elias Howe, Issac Singer
Sewing Machine
Nikola Tesla
Alternating current
George Eastman
Thomas Edison
Lightbulbs, Motion Pictures, Phonograph
Samuel Morse
Charles Goodyear
Vulcanized Rubber
Cyrus McCormick
The Reaper
George Westinghouse
The Transformer, air brake
The Gilded Age
– Time between the end of the Civil War and beginning of the 1st World War
– aka Second Industrial Revolution
– country was changing from agriculture to industrial economy
– expanded into the west
– start of Department stores, Banks, Chain stores, trust
– cities grew, large amount of immigrants came
Recession of 1890’s
– American farmers had crippling debt
– Farmers Alliance formed, drawing the rural poor into a single political entity
– recession affected indutrial parts too
– Knights of Labor 1869 by Uriah Stephens, united workers into a Union to protect their rights
Populist Party
_ The alliance between Knights of Labor and Farmers Alliance
– Platform included:
– National currency
– Income tax
– Gov ownership of railroads, telegraph, telephone sys
– secret ballot for voting
– immigration restrictions
– term limits for presidents and vice presidents
– they wanted to decrease elitism and make a stronger voice for the common man
Labor Movement
– first large organized strike was 1892 , Homestead strike
– 1864, Pullman Strike
– Mary Harris Jones, Mother Jones organized Childrens Crusade to stop child labor
– Jones also worked with: United Mine Workers of America and helped found Industrial Workers of the World
Panic of 1893
– economic crisis that affected most of the globe
– in response to Panic, President Grover Cleveland repealed Sherman Silver Purchase Act
– panic led to bankrupticies, railroads goin under, unemployment raised 25%
– Republican Party regained power due to the economic crisis
Progressive Era
– 1890’s to end of First World War
– Progressives set forth an ideology that drove many levels of society and politics
– progressives were in favor of workers rights and safety and wanted measures taken against waste and corruption
– felt science could help improve society
– gov should provide answers to social problems
– Aggressive investigative journalists
– brought to light scandals, corruption and many other wrongs in late 19th century society
– journalists help create policies like workmens compensation, child labor laws and trust busting
– Ida Tarbel: he exposed Standard Oil Trust
– Jacob Riis: photographer, help improve poor in New York
– Lincoln Steffens: exposed political corruption
– Upton Sinclair : His book ” The Jungle” led to reforms in the meat packing industry
16th Admendment
– 1913
– established a graduated income tax
17th Admendment
– allowed for direct election of senators
18th Admendment
– 1919
– prohibited sale, production and importation of alcohol.
– repealed by 21st amendment
19th Admendment
– 1920
– Gave woman rights to vote
Elimination of Trusts
– Muckrakers brought to light the damaging trend of trusts; huge corporations working to monopolize areas of commerce and controlling prices and distributution
– Sherman Act and Clayton Antitrust Act set guidelines for competition among corps and set out to eliminate trusts
Federal Trade Commission
– formed in order to enforce anti-trust measures and ensure companies were operated fairly and did not create controlling monopolies
Government and the Native Americans
– westward exspansion led to violence
– Battle of Little Bighorn
– 1876 gov ordered all native americans to relocate to reservations
Dawes Act 1887
– ordered assimilation of native americans rather than seperation
– remained in affect until 1934
– forceed indian children to attend boarding schools, not allowed to speak thier lang and forced to accept christianity
Massacre at Wounded Knee
– 1890
– Geronimo’s surrender
– led the Native Americans to work to perserve their culture rather than fight for their lands
Native Americans in War
– 1898-1902, Native Americans served with Teddy Roosevelt in the Rough Riders
– Apache Scouts with General John J. Pershing
– more than 17,000 Indians drafted into WWI
Indian Citizenship Act
– 1924 indians were granted official citizenship
Spanish-American War
– Spain controlled Cuba since 15th century
– 1886 slavery ended in Cuba and revolt rose
– 1853, during Franklin Pierce presidency US expressed interest Cuba and offered Spain $130 Million
– 1898 Cuban revolt underway Pres Mckinley didnt want to be part of war
– in Maine a US battleship in Havana Harbor was blown up and US declared war 2 months later
– 4 months later war ended and spansih surrendered
Panama canal
-1880 intial work began
– greatly reduced length of sailing time
– french began the work in 1880
us took over and completed in 1914
lock and lake canal
Roosevelts “Big Stick ” and foreign policy in S.A
— Speak softly and carry a big stick
– expanded involvement in foreign affairs
– US deployed to protect american interests in S.A
Navy grew larger
– roosevelt felt if any country was left vulnerable to Europe than US needed to intervene
William Howard Taft – Dollar Diplomacy
– american efforts to influence Latin America and East Asia through economic rather than Military means
– peacceful economic goals
– protect panama canal which was vital to US trade
– although supposed peaceful it was often violent
– continued until 1913 then Woodrow Wilson was elected president
Woodrow Wilson’s approach to Diplomacy
– Moral diplomacy
– representative government and democracy in all countries would lead to worldwide stability
– democratic gov would be less likely to threaten american interests
– US and Great Britian as role models
Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
1) Maintain strong Military
2) Promote Democracy throughout world
3) Expand international trade to boost the American economy
World War I
– 1914-1918 in europe
– triggered by assination of Austrian Archduke Francsis Ferdinand
– at beginning Wilson delclared US neutral
– Major events involving US:

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