Extrinsic motivation is related to rewards such as salary, job security, benefits, promotional prospects, the working environment and its conditions. Intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual. It relates to rewards which are psychological such as positive recognition and a sense of challenge and achievement. Vroom’s expectancy theory - Vroom believes that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of the goal and if they can see that what they do will help them to achieve it.
Maslow Theory hierarchy of needs – self actualisation, esteem needs self esteem recognition status, social needs sense of belonging love, safety needs security protection, physiological needs hunger thirst. Herzberg two factor theory – hygiene factors (maintenance factors to avoid dissatisfaction but do not necessarily motivate employees) - Company policy and administration, Wages, salaries and other financial remuneration, Quality of supervision, Quality of inter-personal relations, Working conditions, Feelings of job security.
Motivator factors – Status, Opportunity for advancement, Gaining recognition, Responsibility, Challenging / stimulating work, Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job. McGregor’s X and Y theory – Theory X = Individuals who dislike work and avoid it where possible, Individuals who lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led, Individuals who desire security. Theory Y = Consider effort at work as just like rest or play, Ordinary people who do not dislike work.
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Depending on the working conditions, work could be considered a source of satisfaction or punishment, Individuals who seek responsibility (if they are motivated). Taylor’s scientific management theory - Man is a rational economic animal concerned with maximising his economic gain, People respond as individuals, not as groups, People can be treated in a standardised fashion, like machines. Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Model is a further development of Vroom’s theory.
It considers performance as a whole, pointing out that effort expended does not lead directly to performance but is influenced by the ability of the individual and his/her perceptions. They identify motivation, performance and satisfaction as individual and separate variables and attempt to explain the relationships between the three. Adam’s equity theory – focuses on the way people feel they have been treated in the workplace, looks at fairness of treatment between people, expectation – what people expect to receive in return for there hard work.
People may try and get others to leave, they may start to compare themselves to someone who they think they are more like. Methods of removing inequity – increased pay, perks, better working conditions, transfer a member to another department. Locke’s goal theory – clarity, challenge, commitment, feedback, task complexity. Teamwork is important for staff morale, work performance. Empowerment, quality circle and TQM. Improves productivity, improving quality, improvement in motivation and commitment.
Organisations arrange their workforce into groups of people who work together for a common purpose or goal but who each have their own jobs to do. Teamwork creates synergy, in groups leadership is shared, empowerment is making people responsible for the quality of their own work, it enables all knowledge to be utilised, and people doing the work are those that know most about the job. Where group members share the same office this can lead towards group cohesiveness.
Good teamwork - Commitment to the team’s success as well as the development of team member, The appropriate skills to do the tasks, The team has its own clear identity to both the members and others, Team members are positive and motivated, The team learns from mistakes and copes with setbacks, The team is results focussed and produces real results. The authoritarian manager: Motivates by reward, Imposes decisions, Does not delegate, Has only a superficial trust in their staff, Occasionally involves staff in solving problems.
The democratic manager: Shares opinions and ideas, Has complete confidence and trust in their staff, Allows staff to participate in making decisions, Motivates by reward for achieving goals set by participation. The autocratic manager: Threatens or bullies staff into action, never delegates, Always imposes decisions on others, Has no trust and confidence in staff, Has little communication and teamwork.
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