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Motivation Factor Toward Vitamin Supplement

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the Research Vitamin supplements bring added nutritional values to people’s health. With their contents of the certain recommended amount of minerals and vitamins needed for staying healthy, vitamin supplements have become more and more popular especially for those with hectic and busy lifestyles.

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These people believe that daily or regular consumption of vitamin supplements helps to ensure the proper intake of nutrition needed—a compensation for what they might have missed or lost as a result of workload or lifestyle.

Unlike medicines or drugs for any medicinal purpose, vitamin supplements are taken for various reasons. Strength, health, and energy seem to take the lead as the top priorities, while illusions of youthfulness, fear of lack of complete nutrients, or long term protection follow. As work life and lifestyle in the global community have become more dynamic and healthy meals with proper dining are rare, people have resorted more to the help of vitamin supplements. Advertising plays a major part in creating more desire for vitamin supplements.

Several marketing schemes of pharmaceutical manufacturers make a continued bombardment of publicity, using both soft and hard persuasion to convince consumers believe in the efficacy of vitamin supplements. These movements create motivational factors for consumers, and their reasons for consumption of vitamin supplements can be endless. Modern lifestyle and work behavior remain the catalyst for the market viability of vitamin supplements. While vitamin supplements aim to maintain the good health of their consumers, they could deteriorate health in many ways.

Natural nutrition is certainly better than short-cut nutrition. The market, the manufacturers, and the consumers who live a fast-paced lifestyle should look for equilibrium of vitamin supplement exposure. The supplements should help enhance people’s wellbeing, instead of benefiting certain groups. 1. 1. 1 Consumption of Vitamin Supplements Nowadays, people are concerned about their health and they think that they do not eat proper, well-balanced, and nutritious foods which results in a lack of key vitamins, illness, and poor health.

This is especially true of businessmen and office workers because, as the world is moving at a busy and faster pace, they spend most of the time working, which uses all their mental and physical energy, and sometimes they are very stressed and do not often eat proper food and rely instead on junk food or fast food because of its convenience. Therefore, these people purchase vitamin supplements to prevent nutritional deficiencies. People do not purchase and consume food supplements or health products as a cure.

They purchase and consume then because they think vitamin supplements can help them improve their quality of life. There are several motivational factors that encourage business people or office workers to purchase vitamin supplements which create the demand in the market. The market for vitamin supplements has increased significantly because they have the need to consume vitamin supplements which play an important role in providing nutrition which supports and maintains their good health. 1. 2 Statement of the Problem

Consumers of vitamin supplements are mostly business people in the central business districts (CBD) of any of the big cities in the world. Bangkok is no exception. With increasing stress, workload, and the hectic lifestyle of many CBDs in Bangkok, Thai business people try to keep their health stable by consuming more vitamin supplements, rather than observing proper gastronomy. Vitamin supplements of imported and local brands flood the shelves of trendy drug stores like Boots and other popular dispensaries.

GNC, an American brand of vitamin supplements, has started to appear around downtown Bangkok’s shopping malls. Competition among manufacturers of vitamin supplements has become fierce, while several consumers have started to realize the side-effects of long-term intake of vitamin supplements. The issues of both the pharmaceutical market’s competitiveness and growing awareness of natural nutrients seem to be intertwined within the consumers’ minds.

This study therefore aims to identify the motivational factors of the consumers in CBD Bangkok in their purchase intention of vitamin supplements. Recognizing the motivational factors reveals the consumers’ rationale and the impact of marketing techniques that have brought vitamin supplements to their present status. Manufacturers—both at home and abroad—will benefit from realizing consumers’ motivational factors, so that they are able to plan their research well and develop the technical and marketing sides.

Surely Thailand, as a tropical country where herbs and pharmaceutical ingredients are found in abundance for making good vitamin supplements, can partake in this fierce competition with success, while the imported brands are ready to compete in any overseas market. However, if vitamin supplements are to become an essential food for people in CBD, all parties concerned need to use studies of consumers’ motivational factors to determine directions that not only yield a healthy result to the consumers but help them avoid risks too. . 3 Research Questions 1. What motivates business people in central business district (CBD) to purchase vitamin supplements? 2. What characterizes the profile of business people of central business district (CBD) in relationship with their consumption of vitamin supplements? 1. 4 Research Objectives 1. To identify motivational factors of business people in buying vitamin supplements; 2. To describe characteristics and behavior of business people in relation to their decision to purchase vitamin supplements; and, 3.

To describe the characteristics and behavior of business people in relation to their decision to consume vitamin supplements. 1. 5 Scope of the Research This research aims to understand motivational factors affecting purchase intention regarding office workers and vitamin supplements. The research will break down into four main variables which constitute Individual Characteristics, Situational and Attitudinal Factors, Motivational Factors, and Purchase Intention of vitamin supplements. The target population was around the Silom area which it is the center of the business area and the most crowded place in Bangkok.

The respondents were executive managers, senior managers, and managers or work in lower positions. 1. 6 Limitation of the Research This research was conducted in the Silom area because it is a central business area of office workers. Hence, the result of the research might be different if data are collected from other areas because of difference in demographics and individual characteristics. 1. 7 Significance of the Research The importance of this study is primarily focused on understanding what motivates office workers in terms of the benefits of, and their intent to purchase vitamin supplements.

The outcome will be able to help people concerned about the need to consume vitamin supplements through studies of the motivational factors to determine the directions that provide a healthy result to office workers as well as to characterize their individual profiles regarding the intent to purchase vitamin supplements. It will also be useful for marketers to help them analyze and evaluate this study to assist marketing management in marketing decisions and formulating strategies to increase efficiency. 1. 8 Definition of Terms Central Business District (CBD) – the central district of a city or it is office or retail center of the city. In this study, the survey was conducted in the Silom area as it is the center of the business area and suitable for understanding motivational factors on purchase intention of office workers which are the target of this study. * Vitamin supplements – vitamin supplements help provide a consistent source of necessary vitamins and nutrition. People who are busy in their working life and do not eat properly would benefit from taking vitamin supplements.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Theories 2. 1. 1 Individual Characteristics Individual characteristics can be classified in many ways such as age, gender, educational level, income and personal appearance. It can refer to a set of personal traits of individuals (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000). Individual characteristics can be described demographically or physically. Individual characteristics are unique. Some people may have the same characteristics in some areas just as some people may look Asian but no one person is identified to another.

People will have different characteristics. According to Beatty and Smith (1987), and Mitchell (1993), demographic factors can fall into one category of individual characteristics which gender and age are mostly described as factors that usually affect consumer behavior. Additionally, we can include other individual characteristics such as educational level, working position and income, household size and time that spent on groceries shopping as factors that affect consumer behavior as well. Educational level can strongly affect consumer behavior.

People with a higher education tend to spend more time searching for information and are willing to try something new in the market. Some products are designed for and required by highly-educated person such as laboratory equipment, international textbooks, etc. A Less educated person may seek and consume ordinary or routine products. They tend to have less awareness of new innovative products. Working status and income are perfectly related to each other. People cannot gain an income if they do not work. Income levels vary according to working status and position.

Working status and income are usually used as influential factors that could affect consumer behavior. There is no market when there is no income. Income is required by profitable markets. What people can afford affects the products that people are likely to buy. Therefore, income is often one of the most popular demographic factors used to study the effects of consumer behavior. A household is an individual who lives alone or a group of individuals living together in a common dwelling, regardless of whether they are related.

Households can be cohabitating couples who are unmarried and the opposite sex, same sex or simply roommates. Household size is determined by the number of people who live in the dwelling. Household size could affect buying decisions and consumer behavior. Logically, each household is likely to buy and consume different products at different quantities. Lastly, for individual characteristics, time spent on groceries is the number of hours spent grocery shopping per week. According to the study of Goodman (2008), over 32 million American adults shop at a grocery store on a typical day.

That is a large population density in grocery shops which could be a potential market for marketers. The time spent grocery shopping may affect the buying behavior of consumers in terms of buying more other products. 2. 1. 2 Situational and Attitudinal Factors Consumer behavior of individuals could be affected by the individual’s needs, benefits sought, attitudes, motivation and purchasing situation. Since people have different attitudes, beliefs and situations, consumer behavior of each person will be expressed differently as well.

Situational factors are all those factors related to the time and place of observation which do not require the knowledge of a person. These factors could strongly affect consumer behavior (Beck, 1975). People may act and consume differently in different purchasing situations. Time influences a purchase situation. Attitudinal factors are related to an individual’s tendency toward a specific thing and it is also a person’s propensity to be persistent and consistent.

Attitude encompasses general knowledge and constitutes the cognitive, emotions, and actions. When an individual holds a positive attitude toward a target, he or she will hold the same attitude toward a similar target (Ajzen & Fishbein, 2005). According to the study of Kim and Chung (2011), health consciousness and appearance consciousness could affect consumer behavior. People who are at the stage of health and appearance consciousness do care about the desired stage of well-being and are willing to put in hard effort to maintain this.

People with high health and appearance consciousness tend to spend more time searching for information on healthy living and they are likely to buy more vitamin supplements and other related health products. According to the Oxford English Dictionaries, a special diet means a special course of food to which people restrict themselves with either the purpose to lose weight or for medical reasons. It implies a specific intake of vitamin supplements or nutrition for weight management and health purposes. Grocery shopper can be used to measure motivation regarding consumer perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.

The more involved grocery shoppers go shopping by themselves and are more likely to employ purchase strategies that will enhance their purchase intention (Smith & Carsky, 1996). A meal planner is also the same, according to Moore and Lehmann (1980), who found that an individual who is a meal planner or who prepares food seems to be more involved in purchase intention. Hence, they will be concerned about their food and nutrition and if they think they may lack benefits from their meals, they will be more likely to purchase vitamin supplements. . 1. 3 Motivational factors and product class involvement factors Consumer motivation is described as the influences that lead a consumer’s behavior toward a goal (Wang, 2001). Motivational factors are identified as a set of specific factors that influence motivation to individual needs. According to Drichoutis, Lazaridis, and Nayga Jr, (2007), this study defines price, nutrition, ease of intake, brand, and advertisement as variables in a measurement of product involvement, referred to by Moorthy (1997), which in this case is vitamin supplements.

In addition, Rose (1994), and Thayer (1997) both concluded that these factors are important in consumer purchase intention. Price has a psychological impact that is used to influence consumer purchasing power. Nutrition can be defined as food or nourishment that is needed to keep growing, healthy, and to support life. Ease of intake has an emphasis on the convenience and difficulties of taking vitamin supplements. Brand enables a consumer to easily identify products of a particular company and decide to purchase them.

Advertisement reflects an increasing trend in which people are concerned about their health. 2. 1. 4 Purchase Intention Purchase intention is a measurement of the possibility that a consumer will purchase a product and if the purchase intention is high, there is more chance that the consumer is willing to purchase a product. Purchase intention indicates consumers will follow their experience, preference, and motivation to collect information then evaluate their choices and choose alternatives so they can make a decision to purchase a product (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000).

Purchase intention also leads consumers to not just purchase a product once but to repeatedly purchase or repurchase a product and to recommend it to others. Customers repurchase intention depends on the value obtained in their previous transactions (Wathne, 2001; Kaynak, 2003; Bolton, 2000). So purchase intention is based on that value with a relationship with expected future benefits. Recommendation in purchase intention is consumers who are willing to recommend others to purchase the same products that they bought (Olaru, Purchase, & Peterson, 2008).

CHAPTER 3 FRAMEWORK AND METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Theoretical Framework 1. Figure 3. 1 – Drichoutis, A. C. , Lazaridis, P. , & Nayga Jr, R. M. (2007). An assessment of product class involvement in food-purchasing behavior. This study aims to use the following framework to access the factors affecting the importance of different aspects such as price, taste, nutrition, ease of intake, and brand name of products (which in this study is food). The overall involvement with food, based on attribute importance, is affected by attitudinal factors and Socio-economic.

In this framework, it provides different profiles of consumers who are not involved or more involved with food based on specific aspects. 2. Figure 3. 2 – Kim, H. Y. , & Chung, J. E. (2011). Consumer purchase intention for organic personal care products. The proposal of this framework attempts to study the effects of consumer values and past experience on consumer purchase intention of organic products and to consider the effect of perceived behavioral control on the attitude intention relationship by using the theory of planned behavior. . 2 Conceptual Framework Individual Characteristics * Age * Gender * Education * Work position * Income * Household Size * Time Spent on Grocery Shopping Figure 3. 3 – Motivational factors on purchase intention of vitamin supplements Purchase Intention * Purchase * Repurchase * Recommend others to purchase Motivational Factors * Price * Nutrition * Ease of Intake * Brand * Advertisement (trend) Situational & Attitudinal Factors * Health Consciousness * Appearance Consciousness * Special Diet Status * Grocery Shopper Meal Planner After clearly understand two theoretical frameworks, the conceptual framework in this research aims to study motivational factors on purchase intention of vitamin supplements regarding office workers in the Silom area. First of all, it is necessary to study individual characteristics of office workers and how these affect purchases of vitamin supplements. Second, the study aims to identify situational and attitudinal factors that effect on consumer motivation leading to purchase of vitamin supplements.

Third, the study aims to consider motivational factors of office workers and their effect on purchase intention of vitamin supplements. 3. 2. 1 Individual Characteristics The demographic factors are included in the individual characteristics category. Gender and age are factors that affect consumer behavior. Moreover, this study used education, working position, income, and household size as factors to further evaluate consumer characteristics to indicate how this effects their motivation and purchase intention of vitamin supplements.

This research suggests these factors are crucial to profile consumers that intend to purchase vitamin supplements. 3. 2. 2 Situational & Attitudinal Factors This research defines health consciousness, appearance consciousness, special diet status, grocery shopper, and meal planner under situational and attitudinal factors. People who are concerned about their desired state of well-being or require a special course of nutrition are likely to make an effort to maintain a healthy life, and are interested in caring about their appearance, by purchasing vitamin supplements.

People who go shopping and prepare meals themselves are more likely to purchase vitamin supplements because these situational and attitudinal factors can influence and motivate an individual’s perception about nutritional values. 3. 2. 3 Motivational Factors Motivational factors are identified as factors that influence motivation of office workers to purchase vitamin supplements. The perceived importance of price, nutrition, ease of intake, brand, and advertisement are included in the model in which these factors are defined to effect consumer perception of the benefits of vitamin supplements and influence their purchase intention.

The researcher would like to determine if these factors create a positive or a negative relationship toward their purchase intention. 3. 2. 4 Purchase Intention This research defines purchase, repurchase, and recommending others to purchase under the purchase intention category. People are motivated to take action based on their behavior, attitude, and perception so they intend to purchase vitamin supplements for health benefits. They may intend to repurchase in the future based on their previous expectation in products and they may also recommend others to purchase vitamin supplements. . 3 Hypothesis H1o: There is no relationship between situational & attitudinal factors and motivational factors for vitamin supplement consumption H1a: There is a relationship between situational & attitudinal factors and motivational factors for vitamin supplement consumption H2o: There is no relationship between motivational factors and purchase intention of vitamin supplements H2a: There is a relationship between motivational factors and purchase intention of vitamin supplements 3. Operationalization of Variables Variables| Concept of Variable| Operational Component| Measurement Scale| Situational & Attitudinal Factors| – Situational factors are related to the time and place of observation that do not require the knowledge of a person and situational factors could strongly affect consumer behavior (Beck, 1975). – Attitudinal Factors are related to an individual’s tendency toward a specific thing and it is also a person’s propensity to be persistent and consistent (Ajzen & Fishbein, 2005). – Concerned about health and diet all the time- On a special diet due to a health problem – Worried about physical shape and appearance- Do most of the grocery shopping- Always plan all family meals| Interval ScaleQ1 – Q5| Motivational Factors| Motivational factors are identified as a set of specific factors that influence motivation to individual needs (Wang, 2001). – Pay attention to price- Pay attention to nutritional value – Pay attention to convenience and ease of intake- Pay attention to the brand- Pay attention to popularity, advertisements and social trends| Interval ScaleQ6 – Q10| Purchase Intention| – Purchase intention indicates consumers will follow their preference, experience, and motivation to collect information then evaluate their choices and choose alternatives so they can make a decision to purchase a product (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000). – Intend to purchase vitamin supplements- Recommend others to purchase- Intend to repeat purchasing| Interval ScaleQ11 – Q13| Individual Characteristics (Personal Information)| Individual characteristics can be classified is many ways such as age, gender, educational level, income and personal appearance. It refers to a set of personal traits of an individual (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000). | – Gender- Age- Education level – Work position- Household size- Income- Time spent grocery shopping| Ordinal and NominalQ14 – Q20| 3. 5 Statistical Treatment of Data

The research used a quantitative research method to prove the findings. Quantitative research is used to measure how many people feel, think or act in a particular way using surveys or questionnaires. Quantitative research also provides numerical data or can convert data into numbers for a statistical review. The research used a questionnaire for collecting data because it is the most proper way based on the number of questions to be answered and to get reliable data and information from the target population. 3. 5. 1 Respondents Sampling Procedure 1. Target Population

The target population was office workers in the Silom area, which we considered to be the suitable location in the business area because this area is very famous, crowded, and at the center of the business area. 2. Sample size and unit The data were collected from 384 sampling units as this is the minimum sample sizes required from the population of office workers located in the Silom area. The population of office workers from this area is numerous because Silom is the center of the business area and many people from different areas work there. 3. Sampling Procedure

The sampling method in this study is non-probability sampling because it is the most appropriate sampling method for this research as the target population are selected at random. Thus the research used the following type of non-probability samples technique in order to get questionnaire completed – Judgmental or Purposive sampling – This sampling is based on the assumption that the researcher can select elements which represent a typical sample from the appropriate target population: office workers in the Silom area. 3. 5. 2 Research Instrument and Questionnaire Design

The researcher used a self-administered questionnaire which is a tool that helps the respondents to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaire design was based on the conceptual framework and was divided into four parts as follows – Part 1 (Situational & Attitudinal Factors) – this part of the questionnaire is about understanding the situational and attitudinal factors regarding office workers and vitamin supplements. Part 2 (Motivational Factors) – this part of the questionnaire is about understanding the motivational factors of office workers toward vitamin supplements.

Part 3 (Purchase Intention) – the researcher wanted to understand office workers purchase intention of vitamin supplements. The researcher would also like to know if they think vitamin supplements are very important in today’s business world. Part 4 (Individual Characteristics) – this part consisted of questions that acquired individual data of the respondent: it helped the researcher to understand what a characteristic profile of office workers are and their attitudes toward vitamin supplements. Questionnaire Scale A 5-point Likert Scale was used in the questionnaire. = Strongly Agree 4 = Agree 3 =Neutral 2=Disagree 1=Strongly Disagree 3. 5. 3 Collection of Data The researcher can collect 384 sets of questionnaires from respondents who are office workers in the Silom area. The questionnaire was carried out only during business hours. The researcher spent two weeks collecting questionnaire and the researcher had two assistants to help distribute questionnaires for obtaining data. The researcher collected all questionnaires and analyzed the data using the software package Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). 3. 6 Reliability Test

Reliability Analysis of Research Instrument To test variables in the questionnaire using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient scale and if the alpha test result from the calculation is above . 6 or equal, it means that all questions in the questionnaire are reliable and consistent and can be applied as research instruments in this study. Situational and Attitudinal Factors Reliability Statistics| Cronbach’s Alpha| No. of Items| .800| 5| Motivational Factors Reliability Statistics| Cronbach’s Alpha| No. of Items| .727| 5| Purchase Intention Reliability Statistics| Cronbach’s Alpha| No. f Items| .907| 3| Overall Reliability Statistics| Cronbach’s Alpha| No. of Items| .895| 13| Table 3. 6: The Summary of Reliability Test Analysis Variables| Alpha test| Situational and Attitudinal Factors| . 800| Motivational Factors| . 727| Purchase Intention| . 907| Overall| . 895| The reliability test results of research instrument according to Table 4. 8 indicate that all variables in the questionnaire are greater than . 6. Therefore, all questions are reliable and consistent and can be applied as research instruments in this study. CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT

The researcher used Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to analyze the data using the following analyses – Frequency Analysis – To point out the individual characteristics of business people or office workers Descriptive Analysis – To test attitude, motivation, and intention of office workers and point what is the factor that they believe is the most important for them Correlation – To study the relationship or correlation between variables 4. 1 Frequency Analysis Table 4. 1. 1: The Analysis of Gender Levels using Frequency and Percentage Gender| Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Male| 122| 31. 8| 31. 8| 31. 8| | Female| 262| 68. 2| 68. 2| 100. 0| | Total| 384| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Table 4. 1. 1, indicates that 68. 2% (262) of the respondents were female and 31. 8% (122) were male. Table 4. 1. 2: The Analysis of Age Levels using Frequency and Percentage Age| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| 20 – 30 years old| 153| 39. 8| 39. 8| 39. 8| | 31 – 40 years old| 121| 31. 5| 31. 5| 71. 4| | 41 – 50 years old| 78| 20. 3| 20. 3| 91. 7| | 51 – 60 years old| 32| 8. | 8. 3| 100. 0| | Total| 384| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Table 4. 1. 2, indicates that the highest percentages of respondents 39. 8% (153) were 20 to 30. 31. 5% (121) were 31 to 40, 20. 3% (78) were 41 to 50, and 8. 3% (32) were 51 to 60. Table 4. 1. 3: The Analysis of Educational Levels using Frequency and Percentage Educational levels| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Bachelor’s degree or lower| 212| 55. 2| 55. 2| 55. 2| | Master’s degree or higher| 172| 44. 8| 44. 8| 100. 0| | Total| 384| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Table 4. 1. 3, indicates that 55. % (212) of respondents held a bachelor’s degree or lower and 44. 8% (172) held a master’s degree or higher. Table 4. 1. 4: The Analysis of Work Position Levels using Frequency and Percentage Work position| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Manager or lower| 214| 55. 7| 55. 7| 55. 7| | Senior manager| 131| 34. 1| 34. 1| 89. 8| | Executive manager| 39| 10. 2| 10. 2| 100. 0| | Total| 384| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Table 4. 1. 4, indicates that the highest percentages of respondents worked as a manager or a lower position: 55. 7% (214), 34. % (131) were senior managers, and 10. 2% (39) were executive managers. Table 4. 1. 5: The Analysis of Household Size Levels using Frequency and Percentage Number of family members(household size)| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| 3 or less| 104| 27. 1| 27. 1| 27. 1| | more than 3| 280| 72. 9| 72. 9| 100. 0| | Total| 384| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Table 4. 1. 5, indicates that most households contained more than 3 people 72. 9% (280), and 27. 1% (104) contained 3 people or less. Table 4. 1. 6: The Analysis of Income Levels using Frequency and Percentage Income per month| Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Up to 30,000 baht| 217| 56. 5| 56. 5| 56. 5| | Greater than 30,000 baht| 167| 43. 5| 43. 5| 100. 0| | Total| 384| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Table 4. 1. 6, indicates that the highest percentages 56. 5% (217) earned up to 30,000 baht while 43. 5% (167) earned greater than 30,000 baht. Table 4. 1. 7: The Analysis of Time Spent Shopping Levels usuing Frequency and Percentage Total amount of time spent shopping per week| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| 2 hours or less| 171| 44. 5| 44. 5| 44. 5| more than 2 hours| 213| 55. 5| 55. 5| 100. 0| | Total| 384| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Table 4. 1. 7, indicates that most respondents 55. 5% (213) spent more than 2 hours shopping, and 44. 5% (171) spent 2 hours or less. 4. 2 Descriptive Analysis Table 4. 2. 1: The Analysis of Situational and Attitudinal Factors using Average Mean and Standard Deviation Descriptive Statistics| | N| Mean| Std. Deviation| I am concerned about my health and diet all the time | 384| 3. 85| . 911| I am on a special diet due to a health problem| 384| 2. 96| 1. 207| I often worry about my physical shape and appearance| 384| 2. 8| 1. 269| I do most of the grocery shopping myself| 384| 3. 65| . 985| I always plan all family meals| 384| 3. 55| . 979| Valid N (listwise)| 384| | | As indicated in table 4. 2. 1, the researcher found that the highest average of situational and attitudinal factors is 3. 85: those concerned about health (health consciousness) and the lowest average is 2. 96: those on a special diet. The highest standard deviation is 1. 269: those who worry about physical shape and appearance (appearance consciousness) and the lowest standard deviation is 0. 911: those concerned about health (health consciousness).

Table 4. 2. 2: The Analysis of Motivational Factors using Average Mean and Standard Deviation Descriptive Statistics| | N| Mean| Std. Deviation| I often pay attention to price when I go shopping| 384| 3. 67| . 989| I often pay attention to nutritional value when I do grocery shopping| 384| 3. 75| . 822| I often pay attention to convenience and ease of intake of medicine and vitamins| 384| 3. 63| . 858| I pay attention to the brands of vitamins and supplementary food| 384| 3. 42| . 902| I pay attention to popularity, advertisements, and social trends of vitamin consumption| 384| 3. 0| . 958| Valid N (listwise)| 384| | | As indicated in table 4. 2. 2, the researcher found that the highest average of motivational factor is 3. 75: those who pay attention to nutritional value and the lowest average is 3. 20: those who pay attention to the popularity, advertisements, and social trends. The highest standard deviation is 0. 989: those who pay attention to price. The lowest standard deviation is 0. 822: those who pay attention to nutrition value. Table 4. 2. 3: The Analysis of Purchase Intention using Average Mean and Standard Deviation Descriptive Statistics| N| Mean| Std. Deviation| I intent to purchase vitamin supplements| 384| 3. 14| 1. 145| I want to recommend others to purchase vitamin supplements| 384| 3. 28| . 936| I intend to repurchase vitamins and supplements continuously| 384| 3. 09| 1. 156| Valid N (listwise)| 384| | | As indicated in table 4. 2. 3, the researcher found that the highest average of purchase intention is 3. 28: those who recommend others to purchase vitamin supplements, and the lowest average is 3. 09: those who intend to repurchase vitamin supplements. The highest standard deviation is 1. 56: those who intend to repurchase vitamin supplements and the lowest standard deviation is 0. 936: those who recommend others to purchase vitamin supplements. 4. 3 Inferential Analysis Table 4. 3. 1: The Analysis of the Relationship between Situational & Attitudinal Factors and Motivation using the Person Correlation (Bivariate) Correlations| | MeanSAF| MeanMF| MeanSAF| Pearson Correlation| 1| . 638**| | Sig. (2-tailed)| | . 000| | N| 384| 384| MeanMF| Pearson Correlation| . 638**| 1| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 000| | | N| 384| 384| **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 1 level (2-tailed). | According to Table 4. 3. 1, the results from the inferential analysis using the Pearson correlation show that the significant is equal . 000 which is less than . 01 (. 000<. 01). It means that the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, the researcher can conclude that there is a relationship between situational & attitudinal factors and motivation at the significant 0. 01 level. At . 638 means there is a strong positive relationship between situational & attitudinal factors and motivation or two variables move in the same direction. Table 4. 3. : The Analysis of the Relationship between Motivation and Purchase Intention using the Person Correlation (Bivariate) Correlations| | MeanMF| MeanPI| MeanMF| Pearson Correlation| 1| . 746**| | Sig. (2-tailed)| | . 000| | N| 384| 384| MeanPI| Pearson Correlation| . 746**| 1| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 000| | | N| 384| 384| **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). | According to Table 4. 3. 2, the results from the inferential analysis using the Pearson correlation show that the significant is equal . 000 which is less than . 01 (. 000<. 01). It means that the null hypothesis is rejected.

Thus, the researcher can conclude that there is a relationship between motivation and purchase intention at the significant 0. 01 level. At . 746 means that there is a strong positive relationship between motivation and purchase intention or two variables move in the same direction. CHAPTER 5 DICUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS There are four sections in this chapter. The first section is to discuss of the summary of findings and hypothesis testing. The second section is to discuss and make conclusion which answers the research questions in this research.

The third section is recommendations and the last section suggests the future studies. 5. 1. 1 Summary of Findings Table 5. 1. 1: Profile of Office Workers Variables| Percentage of total| Gender| MaleFemale| 31. 8%68. 2%| Age| 20 – 30 years old31 – 40 years old41 – 50 years old51 – 60 years old| 39. 8%31. 5%20. 3%8. 3%| Education| Bachelor’s degree or lowerMaster’s degree or higher| 55. 2%44. 8%| Work position| Manager or lowerSenior managerExecutive manager| 55. 7%34. 1%10. 2%| Household size| 3 or lessMore than 3| 27. 1%72. 9%| Income| Up to 30,000 bahtGreater than 30,000 baht| 56. 5%43. %| Time spent shopping per week| 2 hours or lessMore than 2 hours| 44. 5%55. 5%| Based on the findings, females were the majority of the respondents: 262 (68. 2%). The largest age group was 20 – 30 years old: 153 respondents (39. 8%). The majority of respondents had an educational level of Bachelor’s degree or lower: 212 respondents (55. 2%). Most respondents work position was manager or lower: 214 respondents (55. 7%). The majority of households contained more than 3 persons: 280 respondents (72. 9%). Most respondents had an income per month of up to 30,000 baht: 217 respondents (56. %). Most respondents spent more than 2 hours per week shopping: 213 respondents (55. 5%). 5. 1. 2 Summary of Hypotheses Testing This research used the Pearson correlation analysis to demonstrate the hypotheses, and the results are – Hypothesis 1: There is a relationship between situational & attitudinal factors and motivational factors for vitamin supplement consumption Hypothesis 2: There is a relationship between motivational factors and purchase intention of vitamin supplement The key finding from each hypothesis will be analysis in the next part. . 2 Discussion and Conclusion Table 5. 2: Summary of Mean and Standard Deviation Variables| Means (SD)| Health consciousness | 3. 85 (0. 911)| Appearance consciousness| 2. 96 (1. 207)| Special diet status| 2. 98 (1. 269)| Grocery shopper| 3. 65 (0. 985)| Meal planner | 3. 55 (0. 979)| Price| 3. 67 (0. 989)| Nutrition| 3. 75 (0. 822)| Ease of intake| 3. 63 (0. 858)| Brand| 3. 42 (0. 902)| Advertisements and social trends| 3. 20 (0. 958)| Intent to purchase vitamin supplements| 3. 14 (1. 145)| Recommend others to purchase and consume vitamin supplements. 3. 28 (0. 936)| Intend to repurchase vitamins and supplements continuously. | 3. 09 (1. 156)| As for situational and attitudinal factors, the researcher found that the highest factor was health consciousness which means the majority of office workers are concerned about their health and diet all the time (mean score 3. 85). Based on this result, which may be caused by their busy lifestyle and working life, they are least concerned about having a special diet due to health problems (mean score 2. 6) which means they do not think they need to diet much. As for motivational factors, the researcher found that the highest factor that motivate them is nutrition value when they do grocery shopping (mean score 3. 75). Based on this result, office workers may think nutrition is needed to support their life and keep them healthy. They are least motivated by popularity, advertisements, and social trends (mean score 3. 20) because they seem not to care much about advertisements or trends as they recognize the importance of vitamin supplements.

As for purchase intention, the researcher found that the highest average (regarding purchase intention) is office workers who want to recommend that others purchase vitamin supplements (mean score 3. 28). Based on this result, they recognize vitamin supplements are needed and they may think that they should recommend that their friends, co-workers, and family try vitamin supplements. This mean score was followed by intent to purchase vitamin supplements (mean score 3. 14) and intent to repurchase vitamin supplements (mean score 3. 09).

Office workers purchase vitamin supplements when they think they lack necessary nutrition or a healthy life. If they think they have good well-being, they feel that they do not need to purchase vitamin supplements. However, they may repurchase vitamin supplements again when they feel they are needed. This research aimed to study the motivational factors regarding purchase intention of vitamin supplements by office workers in the Silom area in terms of individual characteristics, situational and attitudinal factors, motivational factors, and purchase intention.

This study used the SPSS program in order to test and analyze hypotheses and all related factors using the Pearson correlation. The researcher found that there is a relationship between two variables in each hypothesis with a strong positive relationship or a move in the same direction. Based on the result of hypothesis one, the research shows that office workers agreed that the more they are concerned about their health and also do grocery shopping and meal planning themselves, the more motivation there is toward vitamin supplement consumption.

Based on the result of hypothesis two, office workers also agreed that important factors that motivate them to purchase vitamin supplements are price, nutrition, and ease of intake whereas brand and advertisements or trends are the two least important factors. Hence, office workers in Silom area agreed that they have the intention to purchase and recommend others to purchase vitamin supplements if the price is suitable, there is high nutritional value, and there is ease of intake. 5. 3 Recommendations

Based on the result of hypothesis one, the researcher found that there is a relationship between situational & attitudinal factors and motivational factors for vitamin supplement consumption. The researcher would like to suggest that it is a best opportunity for marketers to plan in their research and development the production of a high quality product because office workers are concerned about their health and food consumption and they pay attention to the nutritional value of food or supplements, brands, convenience, ease of intake, and price. According to the result of ypothesis two, the researcher found that there is a relationship between motivational factors and purchase intention of vitamin supplements. The researcher would like to suggest that marketers can develop and implement a marketing strategy because price, nutrition, and brand are factors that office workers are concerned about so marketers could motivate them by offering product information on the labels under the brand name as well as using pricing and advertising to motivate them to purchase vitamin supplements. 5. 4 Future study The researcher would like to make a suggestion regarding future study that can be made using this research.

This research was conducted only on office workers in the Silom area and, for further knowledge and understanding, the research could be conducted on office workers in other areas such as Sukumvit, Pleonchit, and Siam as to have a full understanding into the motivation and purchase intention toward vitamin supplements in Bangkok. Future study can use, adapt, and adjust this research and its framework to fit with their study of motivational factors on purchase intention of vitamin supplements with more or other variables. REFERENCES Ajzen, I. , & Fishbein, M. (2005).

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25 (2), 95 – 104. Gautreau, C. (2011). Motivational factors affecting the integration of a learning management system by faculty. The Journal of Educators Online, 8 (1), 1 – 25. Goodman, J. (2008, October). Grocery shopping: who, where and when. Retrieved July 17, 2012, from Time Use Institute website: http://www. timeuseinstitute. org/ Hollywood, L. E. , Armstrong, G. A. , & Durkin M. G. (2007). Using behavioural and motivational thinking in food segmentation. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35 (9), 691 – 702. Houghton, J. , Neck, C. & Cooper, K. (2009). Nutritious food intake: A new competitive advantage for organization? International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 2 (2), 161 – 179. Kim, H. Y. , & Chung, J. E. (2011). Consumer purchase intention for organic personal care products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28 (1), 40 – 47. Nayga Jr, R. M. (1999). Toward an understanding of consumers’ perceptions of food labels. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 2 (1), 29 – 45. Olaru, D. , Purchase, S. , & Peterson, N. (2008). From customer value to repurchase intentions and recommendations.

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 23 (8), 554 – 565. Schiffman, L. G. , & Kanuk, L. L. (2000). Consumer Behavior. Wisconsin, WI: Prentice Hall. Smith, M. , & Carsky, M. (1996). Grocery shopping behavior: A comparison of involved and uninvolved consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 3 (2), 73 – 80. APPENDICES APPENDIX A ENGLISH VERSION QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire is a part of an Individual Research in the topic of “Motivational Factors on Purchase Intention of Vitamin Supplements” by a Master of Business Administration student of Assumption University.

The researcher, hereby, pledges that all of the information gathered will be kept confidential and used to assist the project of study only. Your kind cooperation would be very much appreciated. Please indicate whether you agree or disagree with the following statements 5= strongly agree, 4 = agree, 3 = neutral, 2 = disagree, 1 = strongly disagree | 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| 1. I am concerned about my health and diet all the time. | | | | | | 2. I am on a special diet due to a health problem. | | | | | | 3. I often worry about my physical shape and appearance. | | | | | | 4.

I do most of the grocery shopping myself. | | | | | | 5. I always plan all family meals. | | | | | | 6. I often pay attention to price when I go shopping| | | | | | 7. I often pay attention to nutritional value when I do grocery shopping. | | | | | | 8. I often pay attention to convenience and ease of intake of medicine and vitamins. | | | | | | 9. I pay attention to the brands of vitamins and supplementary food. | | | | | | 10. I pay attention to popularity, advertisements and social trends of vitamin consumption. | | | | | | 11. I intent to purchase vitamins and supplementary food. | | | | | 12. I want to recommend others to purchase and consume vitamin supplements. | | | | | | 13. I intend to repurchase vitamins and supplements continuously. | | | | | | Personal Information 14. Gender ? Male? Female 15. Age ? 20 – 30 years old? 41 – 50 years old ? 31 – 40 years old? 51 – 60 years old 16. Education level ? Bachelor’s degree or lower? Master’s degree or higher 17. Work position ? Manager or lower position ? Senior manager ? Executive manager 18. Number of family members (household size) ? 3 or less? more than 3 19. Income per month ? Up to 30,000 baht ?

Greater than 30,000 baht 20. Total amount of time spent shopping per week ? 2 hours or less? more than 2 hours APPENDIX B THAI VERSION QUESTIONNAIRE ??????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? (Individual Research) ????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ———————————————— ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????? 5 = ?????????????? , 4 = ???????? , 3 = ???? , 2 = ??????????? , 1 = ??????????????????? | 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| 1. ???????????????????????????????????????????? | | | | | | 2. ????????????????????????????????????????????? | | | | | | 3. ?????????????????????????????????? | | | | | | 4. ????????????????????????????????????????? | | | | | | 5. ?????????????????????????????????????????? | | | | | | 6. ???????????????????????? ???? ” ???????????????????????? | | | | | | 7. ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? | | | | | | 8. ???????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? -???????????????????????? (???? ??????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????????????????? ??? )| | | | | | 9. ??????????????????????????? (????????? ) ???????????????????????????????? | | | | | | 10. ????????????????????????????? ????? ??????????????????????????? | | | | | | 11. ?????????????????????????????????? | | | | | | 12. ?????????????????????? ??????????????????? | | | | | | 13. ?????????????????????????????????????????????? | | | | | | ????????????? 14. ??? ? ??? ? ???? 15. ???? ? 20 – 30 ??? 41 – 50 ?? ? 31 – 40 ??? 51 – 60 ?? 16. ???????? ? ???????????????????? ? ??????????????????? 17. ?????????????? ? ???????????????? (manager) ? ????????????????? (senior manager) ? ???????????????? (executive manager) 18. ????????????????????? ? ??????? 3 ??? ??????? 3 ?? 19. ?????????????? ? ??????? 30,000 ??? ? ??????? 30,000 ??? 20. ????????????????????????????????????????? ? ???????? 2 ???????? ??????? 2 ???????