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Monitoring Offenders

Electronic Monitoring1 Electronic Monitoring of Offenders Electronic Monitoring 2 Abstract The project discusses different data and sources about electronic monitoring of offenders. The project includes a brief history of how it came about, different literature reviews about the topic, images of devices used to give the audience an idea of how monitoring offenders work, useful websites to look up further information about electronic monitoring of offenders, and some graphs and data of different offenders placed under house arrest and electronically monitored in the community.

The main focus of the project is to provide an understanding of how electronic monitoring is used throughout the United States and some other parts of the world.

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Electronic monitoring is a way of tracking every offenders move and location through a computer via satellite or GPS (Global Positioning System). Electronic Monitoring3 Table of Contents Topic “Basics” Section………. Pp. 4-7 Literature Review…………… Pp. 8-13 Website References Section…….. Pp. 14-18 Data Files………. Pp. 19-21 Topic “Explanation” Section………. Pp. 22-25 Appendices…………

Pp. 26-27 Electronic Monitoring4 Topic Basics Electronic monitoring became a very useful way of serving a sentence for criminals. It can be used in many ways: track down the prisoner’s every move, sense to see if the person is drinking alcohol or taking narcotics. The device that is used can be traced back to the agency through via satellite or Global Positioning System (GPS). Electronic monitoring is important in the criminal justice system because it’s useful technology in monitoring sex offenders and those on probation or parole.

I also think it is important that it decreases prison population and less expensive. It costs a lot more money to sentence someone to prison than to sentence someone to house arrest under electronic monitoring. According to Burrell, it costs about ten dollars a day to monitor an offender who is placed under house arrest. When it comes to sex offenders, I think electronic monitoring is important. For example, a sex offender cannot be within a 100 feet of a school and the electronic monitoring can tell the agency if he/she has passed by a school while going to work.

House arrest is when the judge places you on home confinement or detention, he/she orders you to abide by specific terms and conditions that restrict your freedom and mobility. After all, home confinement is still punishment. It’s simply more desirable than traditional incarceration. These terms include curfew restrictions, random drug testing, and home visits by a probation or parole officer. Depending on how severe the crime that was committed, the judge may not even allow the offender to attend work or school, travel to medical appointments, or tend to family obligations. Electronic Monitoring5

Electronic monitoring was developed back in the mid-1960s by a psychologist named Robert Schwitzgebel. It was inspired by the comic book of “Spiderman” (Burrell 2008) when the villain would track down the hero’s every move through a device. It led to the idea that instead of sending misdemeanor offenders to prison but rather incarcerate them in their home. In 1983, the first house arrest with electronic monitoring was sentenced by Judge Jack Love of Albuquerque, New Mexico (Howard 2001). Electronic monitoring became much popularized in the 1980s and was extensively used as an alternative to incarceration in jail or prison.

Electronic monitoring is also an adjunct to traditional probation or parole supervision. Today, a couple of decades later, electronic monitoring shows renewed popularity with the interests of legislators (Burrell 2008). According to Howell (2010), there are two main types of electronic monitoring. One type is continuously signaling, which means that a transmitter is strapped to the subject and it broadcasts a coded signal over a telephone line at regular intervals. For example, this type can see if the offender is entering or exiting the range of unit (U. S. Department of Justice 1988).

Another type of electronic monitoring is called programmed contact. This means that a computer will contact the offender to see if he/she is home or if they are violating their curfew. The computer will then verify if he/she has verified their location and if it’s the offender as well. Basic equipment that is used in this process is a simple ankle bracelet that looks similar to a beeper strapped around the offender’s ankle. The device then sends out a 24-hour signal to the monitoring agency, and the agency will be notified if the offender tampers with the device. The device is linked to the agency via Global Positioning System (GPS).

GPS is the most advanced of the home detention devices. It uses commercial cellular networks to transmit data 24-hours a Electronic Monitoring6 day to the monitoring agency. GPS tracking allows the supervising agency to create specific inclusion and exclusion zones, mapping, and tracking. The agency knows your exact whereabouts at all times (Shouse Law). “Nationwide, EMD programs are currently at an exploratory stage. In February 1987, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) conducted a survey of 53 electronic monitoring programs in 21 States, indicating that 800 offenders were being monitored.

The typical offender was a sentenced male under the age of 30; in fact. Nearly 90 percent of the offenders were male, between age 14 and 78. About one-third were convicted for major traffic law violations – particularly drunk driving. In February 1988, NIJ’s “1 – day count” found that monitors were being used in 32 States on approximately 2,500 offenders” (NIJ 1988). These are some major issues some legislators have to debate about with electronic monitoring. According to the NIJ, electronic monitoring in the beginning was only used for monitoring and verifying the offenders’ every move.

As time passed, the technology of electronic monitoring became more advanced. The Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM) device is only ordered for the defendant, by the judge, who has been convicted of alcohol-related offenses (or who the judge believes may have an issue with alcohol). This alcohol bracelet continuously monitors alcohol concentration, not your whereabouts (Shouse Law). While blood and breath tests only measure sobriety at a specific point in time, SCRAM samples the offender’s sweat every half hour.

This gives you complete 24/7 coverage, rather than just a snapshot look at when your offenders are on their best behavior. SCRAM’s flexible reporting functionality lets you specify how you want to receive information on each monitored offender – from full historical data to exception-based reporting. Either way, you receive the data you need on who offended, when Electronic Monitoring7 they offended, and the level of alcohol they consumed. Another advanced device of electronic monitoring that has been made in the 21st Century is the “drug patch. Drug patches are sometimes used to monitor those convicted of drug offenses. These patches are removed and replaced weekly. Once removed, they are tested for traces of marijuana, heroin, PCP, cocaine, and methamphetamines (SHouseLaw). According to California law, when the monitoring agency receives an alert that you have violated the exact terms and conditions that were imposed in connection with your house arrest, it notifies your probation or parole officer. California probation laws allow the probation or parole officer to arrest the offender without relying on a California arrest warrant.

If the offender is following a probation or parole violation hearing, the judge must believe that the offender have violated the terms of his/her home detention. The judge may revoke the offender’s house arrest and order that person to serve the remainder of their sentence in jail or prison. This may lead to an economic problem in that state. Sentencing someone to prison cost over millions of dollars while electronic monitoring is only ten dollars a day (Burrell 2008). Electronic monitoring is important for the low cost it provides for the economy and justice can be served with community supervision.

After learning a few basics on electronic monitoring, I have a bit of knowledge about how it is used and works technically. The basic instruments used for house arrest are things I already knew about before starting this project. However, I did not know about electronic monitoring devices that dealt with alcohol use and drug use. I would hope to become a probation officer after graduating college. The information provided for me was very useful in completing the project. Electronic Monitoring8 Literature Review 1) Bales, W. , Mann, K. , Blomberg, T. , McManus, B. , & Dhungana, K. (2010).

Electronic Monitoring in Florida. Journal of Offender Monitoring, 22(2), 5-12. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. The article provides an overview of the electronic monitoring program (EM) employed in Florida. A variety of supervision modalities in supervising felony offenders is depicted. It looks at the history and existence of the EM program stressing the changes in technology. The law and policies related to the operation are discussed and the current cost of EM to the state and the offenders is examined. Moreover, the residency restrictions placed on specified types of sex offenders is expounded. ) DeMichele, M. , Payne, B. K. , & Button, D. M. (2008). Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 46(3/4), 119-135. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed for less serious offenders.

As a result, probation and parole officers who have been using electronic monitoring technologies have likely had little exposure to the sex offender population. Alternatively, those who have historically worked with sex offenders have had little exposure to electronic monitoring strategies. In the end, those supervising sex offenders in the community will need to be familiar with two divergent areas. 3) Cotter, R. , & Lint, W. (2009). GPS-Electronic Monitoring and Contemporary Penology: A Case Study of US GPS-Electronic Monitoring Programmes.

Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 48(1), 76-87. doi:10. 1111/j. 1468-2311. 2008. 00545. x Criminologists have noted a significant reorientation of criminal justice policy. Initially this reorientation was most dramatically articulated by Feeley and Simon (1992) , who suggested that penalty has shifted from the ‘modern’ to ‘new’ penology. Criticisms of the binary ‘modern’ and ‘new’ penology model has led to the contemporary understanding of penalty through a threefold model of: ‘punishment-punitive’, ‘rehabilitative-humanistic’ and ‘managerial-surveillant’ discourses.

This research represents an empirically-based attempt to locate GPS-electronic monitoring within this threefold model. 4) Martin, J. S. , Hanrahan, K. , & Bowers, J. H. (2009). Offenders’ Perceptions of House Arrest and Electronic Monitoring. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 48(6), 547-570. doi:10. 1080/10509670903081359 This article reports on a study designed to examine the perceptions of house arrest (HA) and electronic monitoring (EM) among offenders who have recently experienced this criminal sentence.

Data were gathered via a self-administered questionnaire and follow-up interviews with a sample of offenders. Our primary areas of interest were to assess (a) the extent to which HA and EM are perceived as punitive, (b) the extent to which this sanction impacts the offenders at home and at work, and (c) to explore the ways in which this criminal sanction impacts family members. While HA with EM was perceived as being less severe than incarceration, it is clear that HA with EM is experienced as a punitive criminal sanction.

Electronic Monitoring 9 5) Pattavina, A. (2009). The Use of Electronic Monitoring as Persuasive Technology: Reconsidering the Empirical Evidence on the Effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring. Victims ; Offenders, 4(4), 385-390. doi:10. 1080/15564880903260611 The growing collection of evidence-based research reviews regarding criminal justice practices and programs is making an important contribution to the field in terms of identifying what works, what doesn’t and what’s promising.

The purpose of this article will be to present the challenges and prospects associated with using evidence-based research reviews as a basis for promoting change in the application of electronic monitoring to individuals. In particular, the discussion will focus on how what we have learned about electronic monitoring from past reviews can inform the next generation of monitoring technologies for promoting offender change. 6) Hucklesby, A. (2011). The working life of electronic monitoring officers. Criminology ; Criminal Justice: An International Journal, 11(1), 59-76. doi:10. 177/1748895810392185 Monitoring officers are responsible for putting electronic monitoring (EM) policy into practice and ensuring that offenders are monitored and that alleged non-compliance is investigated. Arguably, they are a new criminal justice profession and exploring their working values and practices is important if we are to understand how EM operates and to address questions about its effectiveness. This article explores monitoring officers’ attitudes to their work and their working practices. It highlights how safety concerns impact upon their work and identifies a range of strategies which are used to deal with their anxieties.

It also examines whether monitoring officers have an identifiable occupational culture concluding that while they share a working orientation, a strong cohesive occupational culture is absent. However, differences in working values were identified among monitoring officers, which mirror the range of working credos identified in other criminal justice professionals. The extent to which the work of monitoring officers is affected by EM being operated by the private sector is also explored as well as the policy implications of the findings. ) Blackwell, B. , Payne, B. , ; Prevost, J. (2011). Measuring Electronic Monitoring Tools: The Influence of Vendor Type and Vendor Data. American Journal Of Criminal Justice, 36(1), 17-28. doi:10. 1007/s12103-010-9100-4 The rise in the use of electronic monitoring tools for management of individuals in both pretrial and post-release correctional stages of the criminal justice system necessitates increased collaboration of criminal justice personnel with private sector companies that provide monitoring services.

Given this shift, it is necessary to explore whether agency employees perceive that different vendors are providing levels or quality of services. This study indicates that parole officers perceive very few real differences in the monitoring services, equipment used, and ease of installation and deactivation of such equipment across two different vendors. The primary difference identified was in the costs of such services. 8) Electronic Monitoring. (2011). Probation ; Parole Law Reports, 32(5), 84-86.

The article discusses the findings of various cases about electronic monitoring of probationers in the U. S. The “State v. Franklin” case is highlighted which involves Thomas Franklin who remained on intensive supervision after being released from the residential program at Stark Regional Community Correctional Center (SRCCC). The “State v. Kandutsch” case which addresses issues concerning the use of a computer report generated by an electronic monitoring device is also emphasized. Electronic Monitoring10 9) KILLIAS, M. , GILLIERON, G. KISSLING, I. , ; VILLETTAZ, P. (2010). Community Service Versus Electronic Monitoring—What Works Better? : Results of a Randomized Trial. British Journal Of Criminology, 50(6), 1155-1170. doi:10. 1093/bjc/azq050 The present study is based on a controlled experiment in Switzerland with 240 subjects randomly assigned either to community service or to electronic monitoring. Measures of outcome include reconvictions, self-reported delinquency and several measures of social integration such as marriage, income and debts.

The findings, based on subjects who successfully completed their sanction, suggest, with marginal significance, that those assigned to electronic monitoring reoffended less than those assigned to community service, that they were more often married and lived under more favorable financial circumstances. Electronic monitoring may be an alternative to non-custodial sanctions. With increasing demands for non-custodial sanctions, it is crucial having more alternatives available. 10) Marklund, F. , ; Holmberg, S. (2009). Effects of early release from prison using electronic tagging in Sweden.

Journal Of Experimental Criminology, 5(1), 41-61. doi:10. 1007/s11292-008-9064-2 The meta-analyses that have to date been published provide no support for the contention that the use of electronic monitoring (EM) in the home as a substitute for the whole or part of a prison sentence might produce any positive effect in relation to reoffending. The few studies that these analyses are based on have a number of shortcomings, however; several of them are very small, and they often fail to provide a complete description of the elements that electronic monitoring programs include in addition to the monitoring itself.

The study presented in this article has produced more positive results however. It focuses on the first 260 individuals to participate in an early release program that included electronic monitoring in the home. This group was compared with a register-based control group. In addition to electronic monitoring by means of an ankle bracelet, it was obligatory for program participants to have a daily occupation, which could be arranged by the prison and probation service if necessary, and they were subject to regular sobriety controls.

The early release group reoffended to a significantly lesser extent than the control group did. It is not possible, however, to state to what extent this was a result of the electronic monitoring in the home or of the other elements included in the program. When the group was trichotomised on the basis of levels of prior involvement in crime, it was found that the difference between the early release group and the control group was particularly large among those with intermediate levels of previous criminality. 11) Button, D. M. , DeMichele, M. , ; Payne, B.

K. (2009). Using Electronic Monitoring to Supervise Sex Offenders: Legislative Patterns and Implications for Community Corrections Officers. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 20(4), 414-436. The contemporary crime control policy arena is one in which many states and the federal government are passing increasingly punitive legislation authorizing, and often, requiring electronic monitoring of sex offenders. This article reviews exploratory legal data on relevant state codes of all 50 states in the United States. The authors review state statutes regulating he electronic monitoring of sex offenders to identify the characteristics of the legislation, the necessity of the laws, and the implications for probation and parole agencies and officers. Eight patterns are identified through the content analysis of recent legislation regarding electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Policy implications are identified. Electronic Monitoring11 12) Barton, S. M. , ; Roy, S. (2008). Convicted Drunk Drivers in an Electronic Monitoring Program: A Preliminary Study. International Journal Of Criminal Justice Sciences, 3(1), 28-43.

In the United States, electronic monitoring home detention programs were officially started in Palm Beach County, Florida, in 1984. Researchers have been assessing these programs since late 1980s. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of these programs on convicted drunk drivers. This study focuses on drunk drivers sentenced to electronic monitoring home detention program in a southwestern Indiana county from January 2002 to December 2003. Specifically, the objective of this study is to examine the characteristics of program participants and their exit status. 13) Padgett, K. G. , Bales, W. D. ;Bloomberg, T. G. (2006). Under surveillance: An empirical test of the effectiveness and consequences of electronic monitoring. Criminology ; Public Policy, 5(1), 61-91. doi:10. 1111/j. 1745-9133. 2006. 00102. x This study addresses the effectiveness of electronic monitoring (EM) for serious offenders supervised in the community. Using data on 75,661 offenders placed on home confinement in Florida from 1998 to 2002, we find that both radio-frequency and global positioning system monitoring significantly reduce the likelihood of technical violations, reoffending, and absconding for this population of offenders.

Additionally, we find that offenders placed on home confinement with EM are significantly more serious than those placed on home confinement without EM, which casts doubt on the anticipated net-widening effect of this particular intermediate sanction. Policy Implications: Given the anticipated increase in the use of EM in the immediate future, policy makers will surely be faced with questions about its effectiveness in preventing or deterring further criminal activity among offenders in the community, as well as concerns about the intensity of urveillance it affords and a subsequent increase in the likelihood of a prison sentence or return to prison for technical violations. 14) Yeh, S. S. (2010). Cost-benefit analysis of reducing crime through electronic monitoring of parolees and probationers. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 38(5), 1090-1096. doi:10. 1016/j. jcrimjus. 2010. 08. 001 The objective of this study was to estimate the benefits and costs of using electronic monitoring (EM) and home detention to reduce crime committed by parolees and probationers.

Data from a national survey of state prison inmates was adjusted and used to estimate the number of crimes that would have been committed by all parolees and probationers over the course of one year in the absence of EM and home detention. The data were analyzed in combination with existing analyses of the effectiveness and costs of EM and home detention and the economic costs of crime to estimate the benefit-cost ratio of nationwide implementation of EM and home detention with all parolees and probationers. EM plus home detention could avert an estimated 781,383 crimes every year.

The social value of the annual reduction in crime is $481. 1billion. Society would gain $12. 70 for every dollar expended on the proposed intervention. EM plus home detention could be an effective deterrent to crime and could have enormous social benefits, especially if it is applied early and saves what would otherwise be habitual offenders from a life of crime. 15) Nellis, M. (2006). Surveillance, rehabilitation, and electronic monitoring: Getting issues clear. Criminology ; Public Policy, 5(1), 103-108. doi:10. 1111/j. 1745-9133. 2006. 00104. The author states that while there are reasons to believe that both radio-frequency and global positioning forms of electronic monitoring add some control over an offender that conventional Electronic Monitoring12 probation supervision cannot provide, there are no good reasons to believe that they have a rehabilitative effect by themselves. Restricting offenders to their homes or tracking their movements cannot accomplish the real goal of changing offenders’ attitudes and cannot equip them with skills that enable them to desist from crime. 6) Is Electronic Monitoring Equivalent to Imprisonment?. (2011). Journal of Offender Monitoring, 23(2), 5-6. The article discusses a court case wherein Brian Horsman who was charged by the State of Illinois with felony driving with revoked license has requested the court that he be placed on electronic home monitoring as a means of fulfilling the statutory requirement that he be sentenced to imprisonment. 17) Haverkamp, R. , Mayer, M. , & Levy, R. (2004). Electronic Monitoring in Europe. European Journal Of Crime, Criminal Law & Criminal Justice, 12(1), 36-45. oi:10. 1163/1571817041268847 This article deals with the practice of electronic monitoring in European prisons. As of 2004, most industrial societies in Western Europe have found themselves burdened with overcrowded prisons and limited financial resources. Allegedly, more repressive crime policies led to the sentencing of longer prison sentences for violent, drug and sexual offenders. Restrictive reforms concerning parole, aggravations in sentencing and categorization caused increases in the time actually spent in prison for many inmates.

In addition, nearly all countries opting to use electronic monitoring have such conditions in common. Within such a context, electronic monitoring can be seen as one of the most promising alternatives to incarceration specifically adopted for the relief of the problem of overcrowding. Apparently, electronic monitoring was already in use in many Western European countries. Projects using electronic monitoring are well-established in the penal and correctional systems in England, Sweden and the Netherlands.

Pilot projects can be observed in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland and Spain. One objective was to analyze the normative frameworks of electronic monitoring in the Western European countries which ran a trial or implemented a program on the option. 18) Electronic Monitoring Is Not Detention. (2011). Journal of Offender Monitoring, 23(2), 18. The article discusses a court case wherein minor Lorenzo L. was confined to the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation after he admitted that he committed kidnapping, street terrorism, and assault with a deadly weapon.

The defendant appealed arguing that the juvenile court failed to award him predispositional credit for 28 days he spent in an electronic monitoring program. The court rejected Lorenzo’s contention since his electronic monitoring was not physical confinement. 19) Armstrong, G. S. , ; Freeman, B. C. (2011). Examining GPS monitoring alerts triggered by sex offenders: The divergence of legislative goals and practical application in community corrections. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 39(2), 175-182. doi:10. 1016/j. jcrimjus. 2011. 01. 006 The purpose of this article is bout legislative mandates that require GPS monitoring of offenders add to the existing logistical complexities of community supervision. Challenges in implementing GPS policies and practices are heightened by the lack of sound empirical research. Studies examining the relationships between GPS monitoring of sex offenders in the community and the legislative goals of public safety, deterrence, and cost effectiveness are virtually nonexistent. To begin to address this gap in the literature, this study examines the impact of a Electronic Monitoring13 tatutorily-based GPS monitoring program for adult sex offenders convicted of dangerous crimes against children and placed under community supervision. 20) Renzema, M. , ; Mayo-Wilson, E. (2005). Can electronic monitoring reduce crime for moderate to high-risk offenders?. Journal Of Experimental Criminology, 1(2), 215-237. doi:10. 1007/s11292-005-1615-1 All electronic monitoring(EM) programs aim to suppress the criminal behavior of offenders being monitored and its advocates have always hoped EM could be instrumental in reducing long-term recidivism.

This review investigates the history of EM and the extent to which EM empirically affects criminal behavior in moderate to high-risk populations. All available recidivism studies that included at least one comparison group between the first impact study in 1986 and 2002 were considered for the review. Although variants such as GPS tracking and continuous testing for alcohol in perspiration have recently emerged, no studies of these technologies were found that met the review’s inclusion criteria. Studies are examined and combined for meta-analysis where appropriate.

Given its continued and widespread use and the dearth of reliable information about its effects, the authors conclude that applications of EM as a tool for reducing crime are not supported by existing data. Properly controlled experiments would be required to draw stronger conclusions about the effects of EM. Electronic Monitoring14 Website Reference Section This section will be based on different websites from the World Wide Web where you will be able to look up information about electronic monitoring.

The websites provide useful information on different types of electronic monitoring and different methods that are used around the United States and other countries around the world. The websites may also provide some statistics about those under monitored surveillance. Name of Site: Center for Criminology and Public Policy Research URL of Site: www. criminologycenter. fsu. edu URL of Page: http://www. criminologycenter. fsu. edu/p/electronic-monitoring. php Date of Access: December 16, 2011 This site discusses different research done on electronic monitoring.

It begins to talk about different statistics about offenders monitored under electronic monitoring. For example, it says “As early as 2000, more than 30,000 criminal offenders living in the community in the U. S. were monitored by electronic surveillance equipment for at least one day. ” The site is maintained by the Florida State University’s Criminology Center and its most recent update was on May 18th, 2009. Name of Site: State of Michigan Department of Corrections URL of Site: www. michigan. gov URL of Page: http://www. michigan. gov/corrections/0,4551,7-119-1435_1498-5032–,00. tml Date of Access: December 16, 2011 This page talks about the different programs the state of Michigan has about electronic monitoring system. It also discusses a brief history of how the system became more used throughout the state during the 1980s. It then gives information on different devices the Corrections use to track offenders. The site is maintained by the State of Michigan. Name of Site: Free Advice URL of Site: www. freeadvice. com URL of Pagehttp://criminal-law. freeadvice. com/criminal-law/parole_probation/house_ar rest. htm Date of Access: December 16, 2011

The site is search engine website for law advice and other criminal law topics. The page discusses different key terms about the topic of electronic monitoring. For example, it tells us what house arrest is and how it is monitored. The site is maintained by Gerry Goldsholle and was last updated on June 02, 2009. Name of Site: Oakland County Michigan Community Corrections Division URL of Site: www. oakgov. com URL of Page: http://www. oakgov. com/commcorr/program_service/electronic_monitor. html Date of Access: December 16, 2011 Electronic Monitoring15 This site provides different technology used in the county’s corrections unit.

It talks about how it is used throughout the entire county and the programs they provide for different offenders. The last update was on October 12, 2006 and is maintained by the State of Michigan. Name of Site: Electronic Monitoring Resource Center URL of Site: www. du. edu URL of Page: https://emresourcecenter. nlectc. du. edu/ Date of Access: December 16, 2011 The page discusses on data of electronic monitoring use in the Denver area of Colorado. The features are outlined in different categories from types and different genders of offenders. The page is maintained by the University of Denver and was last updated May 20, 2010.

Name of Site: DUI Foundation URL of Site: www. duifoundation. com URL of Page: www. duifoundation. org/legalguide/sentencingalternatives/electronicmonitoring/ Date of Access: December 16, 2011 The page discusses on how electronic monitoring works on an alcoholic who is under house arrest due to a DUI incident they committed. It talks about the device used on alcoholics to track down if they are consuming alcoholic beverages throughout the day 24/7. The owner’s of the website information was withheld and the site was last update on June 10, 2011. Name of Site: Leaders in Community Alternatives, Inc.

URL of Site: www. lcaservices. com URL of Page: http://www. lcaservices. com/pages/equipment. html#gps Date of Access: December 16, 2011 The LCA, Inc. website discusses on the different equipment used to monitor offenders electronically. It’s basically like an advertisement for law enforcers so that they may use their technology to track down offenders; however, it provides useful information on the different devices. The website is maintained by Jesse Dudan and was last updated on May 16, 2011. Name of Site: Electronic Monitoring Services. LLC URL of Site: www. indyems. org

URL of Page: http://indyems. org/monitoring. aspx Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website talks about different data and devices used on an offender while under house arrest. The site is maintained by Marvin Royston Jr. and was last updated on February 28, 2011. Name of Site: Office of Justice Program URL of Site: http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/ URL of Page: http://www. ojp. usdoj. gov/BJA/pdf/IACPSexOffenderElecMonitoring. pdf Date of Access: December 17, 2011 This site is a PDF file and provides information of keeping track of sex offenders in the community through GPS surveillance.

The website is maintained by the Office of Justice in Washington D. C. and has no recent update. Electronic Monitoring16 Name of Site: National Audit Office URL of Site: www. nao. org. uk URL of Page: http://www. nao. org. uk/publications/0506/the_electronic_monitoring_of_a. aspx Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website provides information about the programs used in the United Kingdom for electronic monitoring. It provides a full report of offenders under surveillance of electronic monitoring. The site is maintained by the National Audit Office and was last updated on November 1, 2011.

Name of Site: The British Journal of Criminology URL of Site: www. oxfordjournals. org URL of Page: http://bjc. oxfordjournals. org/content/31/2/165. short Date of Access: December 17, 2011 This website provides information about how the British go about electronic monitoring around the country. This website is maintained by the Oxford University Press and was last updated on October 5, 2009. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/app/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? d=176698 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 This site provides information and data about the costs of electronic monitoring throughout the United States of America. It gives some background information of electronic monitoring of offenders and how it costs a little less than sending someone to prison. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? id=116750 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website is a government website by the Department of Justice.

The information provided gives an article about the effectiveness of electronic monitoring of offenders throughout the United States. It shows points of views by offenders and also correction officers. Name of Site: Springer Link URL of Site: www. springerlink. com URL of Page: http://www. springerlink. com/content/w6x762q2242n8l44/ Date of Access: December 17, 2011 This site discusses the traits offenders do while they are incarcerated under house arrest. This shows the different opinions of offenders. Some believe it’s better than prison while others think that it’s torture. The site is maintained by Springer Science ; Business Media B.

V. and was last updated on January 30, 2011. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? id=139140 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 Electronic Monitoring 17 This website provides more information about the effectiveness and technology that has been used to track down different offenders. This article focuses mainly on the sex offenders and how they can be a danger in society even if they’re under electronic monitoring and following up with their parole officer.

Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? id=108602 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The site is provided by the US Department of Justice. This page provides an article based on how different methods are used to make sure the offender is properly placed within their boundaries if you may say and that they’re not going elsewhere. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? d=176261 Date of Access: December 17, 2011 The website provided can give useful resources and information about tracking down drug addicts with the Drug Patch. It detects whether or not an offender who had a drug problem and was incarcerated in the past if they are taking illegal narcotics in their system. Name of Site: Google URL of Site: www. google. com URL of Page: http://www. google. com/patents? hl=en;lr=;vid=USPAT4736196;id=XW46AAAAEBAJ;oi=fnd;dq=electronic+monitoring+offenders;printsec=abstract#v=onepage;q=electronic%20monitoring%20offenders;f=false Date of Access: December 17, 2011

The source was found via Google Patents. This site provides a diagram and blueprint of a home detention monitoring device. It shows what parts of the device gives off the alarm to alert officials that the offender has left the premises and how it carries out via satellite. This website is maintained by Google, Inc and was last updated on July 20, 2011. Name of Site: National Criminal Justice Reference Service URL of Site: www. ncjrs. gov URL of Page: https://www. ncjrs. gov/App/abstractdb/AbstractDBDetails. aspx? id=190283 Date of Access: December 17, 2011

The website of the page above provides information about juveniles under electronic monitoring. The article suggested that electronic monitoring is not a harsh punishment and juveniles may most likely be placed under house arrest or probation. Electronic Monitoring18 Name of Site: Google URL of Site: www. google. com URL of Page: http://books. google. com/books? hl=en;lr=;id=mCOfWKwfpQYC;oi=fnd;pg=PA224;dq=electronic+monitoring+offenders;ots=H6cgo3OoGd;sig=sKrBNiIgGjT_kxe0gcoehWJrT7Q#v=onepage;q=electronic%20monitoring%20offenders;f=false Date of Access: December 17, 2011

The article was found via Google Books. The article is a chapter from a book and talks about the average crimes committed in order to be placed under house arrest. Usually those crimes are less serious but you can be on parole and be under electronic monitoring. This site is maintained by Google, Inc. and was last updated on August 23, 2011. Electronic Monitoring19 Data Files Source: U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004) | Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, NCJ 213476 | Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice p. 95. | Electronic Monitoring20 Source: U.

S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prison and Jail Inmates at Mid| year 2000, Bulletin NCJ 185989, p. 6; 2003, Bulletin NCJ 203947, p. 7; 2005, Bulletin NCJ 213133, | p. 7; 2006, Bulletin NCJ 217675, p. 21; Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010-Statistical Tables, NCJ | 233431, p. 12 (Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice). Table adapted by SOURCEBOOK | Electronic Monitoring21 Number of Offenders Under Home Detention 1995-2010 Source: U. S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prison and Jail Inmates at Mid| year 2000, Bulletin NCJ 185989, p. ; 2003, Bulletin NCJ 203947, p. 7; 2005, Bulletin NCJ 213133, | p. 7; 2006, Bulletin NCJ 217675, p. 21; Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010-Statistical Tables, NCJ | 233431, p. 12 (Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice). Table adapted by SOURCEBOOK | staff. | | | | | | | | | Electronic Monitoring22 Topic Explanation Electronic monitoring of offenders has been around since the early 1980s. Since then, the technology used has enhanced in many different ways. The technology started from a simple ankle bracelet to technology letting authorities know if you have been taking drugs or drinking alcoholic beverages.

The legal definition of electronic monitoring means that it allows the release of a person into the community, during what could have been jail time, and obliging the individual to record his or her whereabouts at all times or on regular intervals using electronic or telecommunication devices (Duhaime. org 2009). Electronic monitoring is a frequent feature of a probation or bail order. Electronic monitoring was inspired by a Spiderman comic book that was read by Judge Jack Love of New Mexico (Howard 2001). Judge Love thought to create a real device from the comic book with the help of an electronics technician in 1983.

On that same year, Love sentenced his first offender to house arrest with electronic monitoring (Howard 2001). Most electronic monitoring devices do not simply track the offender’s movement, but they simply confirm whether the subject is at an approved place approved times (Howard 2001). A Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology is the most common device used in electronic monitoring. This type of technology allows a correctional client to be precisely located around the world for 24 hours and 7 days a week. However, as technology develops, there are three really important pieces of technology in electronic monitoring.

They are, regular house arrest ankle bracelets, SCRAMx, and drug patches. All these technologies are the most common use of detecting not only an offender’s location, but also his or her alcohol in-take. The SCRAMx System began over the past six years. This device became popular in the courts by issuing them to those who are dangerous to the public due to their excessive drinking. Electronic Monitoring23 The SCRAMx combines with the continuous alcohol monitoring (CAM) which detects the alcohol in-take of an offender.

What makes SCRAMx different is that it is alcohol monitoring combined with house arrest technology (Alcohol Monitoring 2011). After the court has sentenced someone to be under house arrest due to excessive alcohol or drunk driving, they must wear the SCRAMx bracelet. The SCRAMx bracelet tests for alcohol every 30 minutes throughout the day, 24/7. It also monitors curfews and schedules of when an offender can be home or go to work/school. The SCRAMx bracelet also incorporates multiple sensors to detect attempted tampers, obstructions, or removal attempts (Alcohol Monitoring Systems 2011).

All of this information is sent from the bracelet to the SCRAMx Base Station. The Base Station is plugged into an analog telephone line at the offender’s home or work place and uploads all available data from the SCRAMx bracelet. After it stores the information, it sends alcohol readings, tamper alerts, and diagnostic data to what is called SCRAMnet for further readings. SCRAMnet analyzes the data it receives from the base station and identifies any alerts such as, alcohol consumption, environmental interference, tampers/removals, and missed communications.

The SCRAMnet will alert the agency or appropriate contact person if the offender has violated any of his/her sentence. This technology will take all the recorded data will send it to the official via LCD screen with graphs and charts of every test or tamper report. These reports can be accessed around the clock from any location using a standard web browser and you may check on multiple offenders who are under this device. In my opinion, the ways this device can improve are that everyone who goes out to drink at the bar and were driving should wear one.

If the drinker has gone over the percentage of drinking, the device should alert police officers and make sure that person isn’t driving when they leave the bar. Electronic Monitoring 24 Drug patches are another type of electronic monitoring. These devices are sometime used to monitor those convicted of violating drug laws. The drug patches are a lot similar to the SCRAMx device only difference is, once you remove the patch, it automatically tests for drugs of many kinds. The patch tests for traces of marijuana, heroin, PCP, cocaine, and methamphetamines.

Just like the SCRAMx, the drug patch will alert authorities if someone has taken drugs. The drug patch is removed and replaced weekly. The patch takes the sweat and bodily fluids from the skin and hair which then is test for drugs on a scanner. House arrest comes into play here because the offender is also wearing the ankle bracelet so authorities know where the offender is located and not violating their parole release. The problem with this technology is that the cost may increase because two different types of electronic monitoring are in use at the same time.

As technology becomes more advanced as the years go by, the drug patch should be just like the SCRAMx device. The drug patch should be able to report any signs of drug use to authorities right away 24/7. The drug patch should also be able to determine the location of the offender. The offender should be home or at work while under the drug patch. The final piece of technology with electronic monitoring is the basic house arrest ankle bracelet. This sentence is usually given to misdemeanor offenses and those sentenced to probation or released on parole (Howard 2001). This device is basic and it works very simple.

The ankle bracelet is worn by the offender and it gives data and exact location of the offender to a base station device. The offender will most likely have a curfew and has only a certain amount of time to go to work and back home. The ankle bracelet will send off alerts to the base station and will alert authorities about the offender’s whereabouts. The bracelet will also send out an alert if the device has been tampered with or removed off the offender’s ankle. The problem with Electronic Monitoring25 the offender removing the ankle bracelet is that he or she may remove it and attach it onto an animal passing by.

This can throw authorities off and confuse the location of the offender. This device can also be used on sex offenders because they may be prohibited from being around a certain area. For example, a child sex offender will receive the house arrest bracelet and may go to work, however, they may not pass by a school filled with children or minors. The ankle bracelet will alert the officials if the offender has passed by a school (Whitefield 1997). The problem with this is that the device cannot detect if children are in the area or hidden in their home.

They send an officer to check but some probation officers may be careless and overlook different things. In order to advance technology in this situation, officials should order surveillance cameras in the offender’s home to check for inappropriate sexual actions or material in the home. If the offender tampers with the tapes, it will alert authorities that the offender has tampered or removed from its place (Whitefield 1997). Electronic monitoring is best source of technology for tracking down offenders placed under house arrest or taking alcohol or drugs.

The technology is basic GPS satellite technology. The types of technology mentioned above are continuing to become more and more advanced as we move on. The technology has its flaws in my opinion; however, it can be useful 90 percent of the time while tracing an offender’s every step and what he or she may consume into their bodies. The SCRAMx device has to be the most useful for those who committed DWIs or those with alcoholic problems. However, in general, house arrests are a good way to rehabilitate an offender especially those who committed crimes while intoxicated.

It can set them in the right state of mind and change their ways when their sentence is over. Electronic Monitoring26 Appendices Glossary House arrest- allows a person who is sentenced to a jail term to spend the time at his home as an alternative to being physically confined to jail. Electronic home detention- monitored using an electronic sensor strapped to an offender’s ankle and linked by telephone lines to a central computer which emits a continuous signal. Probation- literally means testing of behavior or abilities. In a legal sense, an offender on probation is ordered o follow certain conditions set by the court. GPS Tracker- is a device that uses the Global Positioning System to determine the precise location of a vehicle, person, or other asset to which it is attached and to record the position of the asset at regular intervals. Electric monitoring- a form of non-surreptitious surveillance consisting of an electronic device attached to a person or vehicle, especially certain criminals, allowing their whereabouts to be monitored. SCRAMx System- combines continuous alcohol monitoring (CAM) with house arrest technology in one court-validated device.

Now with wireless capabilities, SCRAMx: tests for alcohol every 30 minutes, 24/7, monitors curfews and schedules, gives comprehensive information on the entire 24/7 monitoring period. Electronic Monitoring27 Bibliography Bales, W. , Mann, K. , Blomberg, T. , McManus, B. , ; Dhungana, K. (2010). Electronic Monitoring in Florida. Journal of Offender Monitoring, 22(2), 5-12. Howard, J. (2001). Electronic monitoring. The Reporter. Retrieved from http://www. johnhoward. ab. ca/newslet/may2001/May2001. pdf Whitefield, D. (1997). Tackling the tag: The electronic monitoring of offenders. Waterside Press

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