The roof of Mongolia architecture goes back to very remote times. Ancient constructions, early complexes of men's burials which date eve from the Stone, Bronze and Early-Iron Ages are found in Mongolia. In the first millennium of our era a series of states emerged on the territory of the Central Asia replacing each other. The ruins of settlements, fortresses, palaces and strongholds of the periods can be found even today. Until now about 200 such monuments have been discovered in Mongolia.
The emergence, the rise and the decline of these cities reflect the natural development and features of Nomadic Architecture. Gear (Yurt), the principal and classical dwelling of Mongolia's was ideally adapted to the nomadic way of life, and was widely spread among Trick and Mongol language tribes. Scholars relate its origin to the history of cattle breeding. The basic structure of Gear (yurt) has remained the same throughout the centuries with little modifications. The Mongolia gear (yurt) has two key components: the wooden frame work and the felt cover.
The wooden wall shell is called khan", the upper wooden poles (measuring 1. 5-3 meters) are "nun" the central supporting two columns are known as "began" and the uppermost smoke hole is "ton", but can be closed with flaps in case of storm or rain. This opening brings sunshine and fresh air straight into the extra-ordinary roomy adobe. There is a long-rooted tradition that Mongolia's erect their gear with its door facing to the south. Gear Interior Anural interior/ According to Rasher-ad-Din, a medieval Persian historian, about 1000 gear-families formed a "Krueger".
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The written sources on the history of the Mongolia Empire state that Mongolia's used "gurgles", or gear-carts of a large size, and places on cart- commissaries. Images of gurgles are often found on rock-paintings of the Bronze Age, and t can be assumed that gurgles existed since the early times. In the medieval era large geris of kings and nomadic chieftains were on special wheeled floors and were dragged by a number of oxen. Wilhelm Roebuck, a French traveler, who visited Mongolia in 1253, wrote that such dwellings were made in a large form, and the width between the wheels of a Cambridge was 20 feet or 6 meters.
He counted 22 oxen pulling one gear-Cambridge. The Iron bushes from wheels of 8 to 21 centimeters in diameter found recently during the excavations of Sharking, the XIII century capital city of the Mongolia Empire have infirmed the traveler's report. The size and the carrying capacity of such commissaries required engineer skill to ensure comfort, safety and lightness as meaner of conveyance. The system of disposition of nomadic tribes' dwellings and stands, the form and construction of geris and commissaries were passed on from generation to generation.
This, naturally, influenced the planning of town-building and the development of Mongolia architecture, inseparable with the history of national culture. The historical sources indicate that the steppe aristocrats, besides the regular gear, also used "rod-urge' (gear-headquarters) for thousands of people. Of an interest is the observation of Plano Carping, and Italian, who participated in the ceremonies of Gymkhana's enthronement in the Palace of Guide Khan located on the of Tamari river. In his book "The History of Mongolia's" he wrote,"... Large marquee of bright red color was erected and it was so big that over 2000 people could go in. There were about 4000 envoys present... And around the marquee a wooden fence was built, which was decorated with different images... 2000 tents were put on near the fence. " He also wrote about existence of settled palaces both in central and northern parts of Mongolia. These geris and marquees were of a simplified model and construction of nomadic architecture testified by time. The distinguishing feature was the simplicity of assembling and disassembling system.
The decorations and ornaments of these geris also were drawn in colors on silk, brocade, felt and skin. The tradition of building geris, temples and fences, using such ornaments and decorations continued till the beginning of the XX century. The requirement for the development of economy, culture, trade, handicraft, and metallurgy promoted the building of settlements, and stability of the State was accompanied by prosperity of cities, increase of settled inhabitants in number and engagement in agriculture.
Construction of Sharking, the capital city of the Mongolia Empire, played an important role in monumental architecture not only of the XIII century, but also in the history of the ancient Mongolia architecture as a whole. According to the eye-witness information, the city was surrounded by a wall with four gates, and the gates were separated 3 miles from one another. There were 12 different cult constructions in the city. One of the greatest sights was five-tier Buddhist temple, built in 1256. Its height was chichi (1 chi equals to 0. 31 meter) and the width 7 Khan or 22 meters.
On the ground floor there were niches where the statues of different deities were kept. All these constructions together with the khan's palace, military-metallurgic base, garrisons, agricultural areas, Babushka and Chinese rows of stalls made up a whole city, an administrative capital. Sharking served as the capital city for 40 years out of 148 years of its existence. The invasion of the city by Chinese military forces and intestine wars among the Mongolia feudal badly destroyed the city. The city was robbed and burnt down many times in the course of 200 years.
Long before when Saukville-khan moved the capital city to Changeably (present Peking), the palace "Tune-Abyssinians" was built in Sharking by Guide-khan in its hey day of prosperity side by side with the five-tier Buddhist temple and other solid buildings. This palace is considered to be the father of Mongolia monumental architecture. The disposition of walls, the arrangement of window opening provided the large hall with illumination and ventilation. The tradition of nomadic germ's structure and the planning of Skidpan's constructions, I. The tradition of great steppes' centric conception can be discovered from the architectural composition of this palace. The palace silver tree-fountain erected by a Parisian craftsman Wilhelm draws a great interest, as it represents the real wonder of art and mechanics of those times. The volumetric-spatial structure and architectural d©core of the palace were made in line with the technical methods mastered for centuries. Mongolia marquee Mongolia khans used to have several residences, both settled and nomadic, called as "buy ardor" (palaces-stands).
The residences of Chinning Khan were in the Asian of Dull, Selenga, Hanoi and Eider rivers. "Arguing Ardor" or Arguing Palace was in Delude-bulldog locality by Kernel river. The palace kept protected, revered and restored for hundreds of years after Chinning Khan. With the passage of time the capital cities or mobile stands of steppe khans formed a unique system of settled and nomadic town building. The medieval cities of Mongolia were multi-functional town building formations appeared under certain historical conditions, and uniquely combining the structure of nomadic and settled organization of life. Palace Bog Khan
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