Modern World Holt World History

John Locke
Government protects individual life, liberty and property. US Declaration of Independence = life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. If government doesn’t protect these rights, the people have the right to overthrow the government. Social contract theory.
Rene Descartes
He was the leader of the scientific revolution His ideas led to great advances in mathematics, the sciences and philosophy. He stated that all assumptions had to be proven on the basis of known facts. He believed that all fields of scientific knowledge were connected and should be studied together. He created a mathematical description of the way light reflects from a smooth surface.
Frances Bacon
He believed that scientific theories could be developed only through observation. He thought nothing could be proven unless ran through repeatable experiments. He published a book that outlined his system of knowledge in 1620.
Robert Boyle
He helped pioneer the modern science of chemistry. He shoed that temperature and pressure affect the space that gas occupies.
Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher who outlined his political philosophy in 1651 in a book called Leviathan. He believed people should choose a leader to rule them. He believed that only the strong would survive unless order was imposed by the greater power of rule.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
He accepted Hobbes and Locke’s ideas of the social contract but believed in popular sovereignty, which is voting, and a republic democracy.
Nicolaus Copernicus
He didn’t agree to Ptolemy geometric theory. He argued that the sun was the center of the universe. He devoted the heliocentric, or “sun centered” theory. He realized that his theory explained many of the known facts about astronomy.
Johannes Kepler
A brilliant mathematician who used models, observations and mathematics to test Copernicus’s Heliocentric Theory. He eventually proved the heliocentric theory correct. He published the laws of planetary motion in 1609. It proved the Earth moves around the sun.
Galileo Galilei
He built his own device “a telescope” and began studying the heavens. It was very simple but he was able to see things no one had seen before.
Isaac Newton
He published a book building on the work of Copernicus. Kepler, and Galileo. He realized that the force that holds the planets in the orbits and the force that causes objects to fall to earth are one and the same. He explained the laws of motion and developed mathematical means of measuring motion
Andreas Versalius
He pioneered the study of anatomy. He did his own studies to see how the human body was constructed. He published a 7-volume book.
Voltaire
He wrote about many topics including first amendment rights and nobility and monarchy. He was sent to prison for his writings.
Mary Wollstonecraft
She believed in woman equality rights, giving woman more rights they deserve.
Baron De Montesquieu
He accepted the ideas of Hobbes and Locke but also included the three branches of government.
Habeus Corpus Act
Legal right protecting individuals from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment.
English Bill of Rights
Document in 1689 that declared the powers of Parliament and protected private citizens.
Limited Constitutional Monarchy
Government in which the Monarch remains the head of the state, but the king of queen is required to consult Parliament.
Enlightened Despotism
System of government in which absolute monarch ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment.
Enlightenment
Period in the 1700’s when philosophers believed that they could apply scientific method and use reason to explain human nature logically.
Rationalism
Belief that truth can be determined solely by logical thinking.
Popular Sovereignty
Governmental principle based on just laws and on a government created by and subject to the will of the people.
Declaration of Independence
The document established the US as an independent nation. Thomas Jefferson wrote it. It declared that all men are created equal and have the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
Scientific Method
A method of inquiry that includes carefully conducted experiments and mathematical calculations to verify the results of experiments.
Toleration Act
The act gave some religious freedom to the Protestant Dissenters who were not members of the Anglican Church.
Act of Settlement
The act was to keep Catholics away from the throne, It ensured that only Protestants could take the throne.
Act of Union
This law united England and Scotland into one kingdom (Great Britain) He removed trade barriers and brought wealth to the kingdom.
Commercial Revolution
The era between 1400 and 1750 when Europeans made major changes to their economies due to new exploration.
Tariffs
Important taxes on foreign goods.
Mercantilism
Economic theory stating that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and that in order to receive a larger share, one country has to take some wealth away from another country.
Scientific Revolution
Transformation in thinking that occurred during the 1500’s and 1600’s caused by scientific observation, experimentation, and the questioning of traditional opinions.
Geocentric Theory
A theory according to Hellenistic thinker Ptolemy that Earth is the center of the universe.
Heliocentric Theory
A theory developed by Copernicus that the sun is the center of the universe.
Devine King of Rights
Belief that god chooses kings to rule nations.
Petition of Rights
Petition stating four ancient liberties presented to Parliament by Charles I.
_A demand to recognize the rights of the people.
English Civil War
The citizens of England were sharply divided. The sides were those who supported the king and those who supported Parliament.
The Glorious Revolution
Bloodless transfer of power to William and Mary of England in 1968.

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