Modern World History Mid-Term. Chapter 7, section 4

Napoleon’s Costly mistakes
-Continental System
-Penensula War
-Invasion of Russia
Continental System
-In 1806, Napoleon set up a blockade to prevent all trade & communication between Great Britain & other European Nations.
-thought it would make continental Europe more self-sufficient & destroy Britain’s commercial & industrial industry.
-Didn’t work
-British aided smugglers to get goods in
-Britain also set up their own blockade which worked better than the French (because of Britains powerful Navy)
Peninsula War
-Napoleon tried to get Portugal to accept the Continental System so he sent an invasion force through Spain.
-Napoleon removed the King/Queen of Spain & put his brother in charge.
-Spain was enraged & “guerilla’s” struck the French Army
-Britain then sent troops to fight for Spain causing Napoleon to lose 300,00 troops.
*This weakened the French Empire
Invasion of Russia
-Napoleon’s most disastrous mistake.
-He decided to invade Russia , even though they were allies, because he thought they were selling grain to Britain & had an interest in Poland.
-Napoleon’s troops advanced but Russia pulled back their troops, refusing to be lured into an unequal battle.
-**French Army was only left with a limited number of troops.
Blockade
-Forcible closing of ports
Guerillas
-Bands of Spanish peasant fighters who fought against Napoleon’s Army in Peninsula War.
-They worked in small groups that ambushed the French troops then went into hiding.
Scorched-earth policy
Used by the Russian’s when Napoleon’s army arrived
-They burned the grain fields & slaughtered livestock so the enemy would have nothing to eat.
Battle of Borodino
-Where French & Russian Troops finally clashed.
-Napoleon enter Moscow but Russia had burned the city to the ground.
-Napoleon lasted until mid October then retreated back to French
Retreat from Russia
-Winter came, & French troops were weak & hungry, -Russia attacked the retreating troops & devastated the French troops (only 100,00 were left).
Battle of Leipzig
-After defeat in Russia, Napoleon built up his army but they were inexperience/untrained soldiers.
-French faced allied forces in this German City.
-They were easily defeated by the allies.
-Allied armies starting marching towards Paris.
-Napoleon wanted to keep fighting but his generals refused.
Napoleon surrendered & was exiled..
Abdication
-stepping down from a position of authority.
Elba
-Tiny island off the Italian cost where Napoleon was exiled to.
Hundred Days
-Napoleon’s last bid for power.
-French peasants were upset at King Louis’ brother who took over the throne. Afraid he would undo the revolution land reforms.
-Napoleon escaped from Elba & arrived in French to cheering crowds.
-thousands volunteered to fight with him & within day’s he was the Emperor again.
Battle of Waterloo
-British & Prussian forces combined to attack the French.
-French soldiers became exhausted & were chased out.
-*-Battle resulted in Napoleon’s final defeat & exiled him to St Helena.
St. Helena
-Remote islands in South Atlantic where napoleon was exiled to after Waterloo.
-He lived there until his death in 1821