Modern World History finals study guide

Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules for the colonization of Africa
Menelik II
emperor of Ethiopia (1889),played Italians, French, British against each other-built large arsenal of modern weapons purchased from France and Russia,
1889,signed treaty with Italy-after, discovered differences between wording of treaty in Ethiopian language and Italian,Declared war in 1896-Battle of Adowa
geopolotics
foreign policy based on consideration of strategic location/products of lands
Sepoy Mutiny
an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India
Jewel in the Crown
the British colony of India— so called because of its importance in the British empire, both as a supplier of raw materials and as a market for British trade goods
King Mongkut
helped Siam modernized
-Siam started schools, reformed legal system, reorganized government
-Built railroads + telegraph systems + ended slavery
Emilio Aguinaldo
leader of Filipino nationalists, claimed U.S. had promised immediate independence after Spanish-American War ended
annexation
adding a region to the territory of an existing political unit
opium war
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government’s refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Extraterritorial rights
An exemption of foreign residents from the laws of a country.
sphere of influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
Open door policy
proposed China’s doors be open to merchants of all nations, the policy protected U.S. trading rights in China and China’s freedom from colonization
Boxer Rebellion
1900 revolt in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country
Treaty of Kanagawa
1854 treaty between Japan and the US. Japan agreed to open two ports to American ships
Meiji era
the period of Japanese history from 1867 to 1912, during which the country was ruled by Emperor Mutsuhito.
Spanish American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence
Benito Juarez
Native American from Oaxaca, first full blooded man to become ruler of Latin American country, lawyer + governor of Oaxaca-not military leader,1850, voluntary exile during Santa Ana’s rule-returned to power in 1858 – elected president in 1860
Pancho Villa
Military leader that seized lands of wealthy and redistributed to the poor, Robin hood
Emiliano Zampata
military leader form central southern Mexico, raised army against diaz, followers go by land or liberty, murdered 1919
Militarism
a policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
central powers
in WWI, nations of Germany and Austria-Hungary, along other nations that fought on their side
allies
nations of Great Britain, France, Russia and everyone who fought on their side and soviet Union+U.S.
western front
region of northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central powers battled each other
Schlieffen Plan
Germany’s military plan at the Outbreak of WWI, according to Which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia
Trench warfare
form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the Battlefield
Eastern Front
region along Germany-Russian border where russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks
Total War
conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort
rationing
limiting the amounts of goods people can buy, often imposed by governments during wartime when goods in short supply
Propaganda
information or material spread to advance a cause or damage to an opponent’s case
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
use of submarines to sink without warning any ship found in an enemy’s waters
armistice
agreement to stop fighting
fourteen points
series of proposals in Which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving lasting peace after WWI
Self Determination
freedom where people get to decide what form of government they want to live in
treaty of versailles
peace treaty signed by Germany and the Allied powers after WWI
league of nations
international association formed after WWI with the goal of keeping peace among nations
Bolsheviks
group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia’s government in November 1917
Communist Party
political party practicing ideas of Karl Marx and Lenin, originally the Russian Bolshevik party
Totalitarianism
government control over every aspect of public and private life
Great Purge
campaign of terror in Soviet Union where Joseph Stalin sought to eliminate all Communist Party members and other citizens who threatened his power
Command Economy
conomic system where the government makes all economic decisions
Five year plan
plans outlined by Joseph Stalin in 1928 for the development of the Soviet Union’s economy
collective farm
large government controlled farm formed by combining many small farms
Long March
6,000-mile journey made in 1934-1935 by Chinese communists fleeing from Jiang Jieshi’s nationalist forces
Civil Disobedience
deliberate and public refusal to obey a law considered unjust
Salt March
peaceful protest against the Salt Acts in India which Mohandas Gandhi led his followers on a 240-mile walk to the sea where they made their own salt from evaporated seawater
Weimar Republic
republic that was established in Germany in 1919 and ended in 1933
Great Depression
severe economic slump that followed the collapse of the U.S stock market in 1929
Fascism
political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one party rule
Nazism
fascist policies of the National Socialist German Workers party based on totalitarianism, a belief in racial superiority, and state control of industry
Mein Kampf
“My Struggle”- a book by Adolf Hitler during imprisonment in 1923 in which he set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany
Lebensraum
“living space”-the additional territory that Germany needed because it was overcrowded according to Hitler
Appeasement
making of concessions to an aggressor in order to avoid war
Munich Conference
meeting of representatives from Britain, France, Italy, Germany in which Britain and France agreed to allow Nazi Germany to annex part of Czech in return for Hitler’s pledge to respect Czech’s new borders
Axis Powers
nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan which formed an alliance in 1936 during World War II
Isolationism
policy of avoiding political or military involvement with other countries
Third Reich
Third German Empire established by Hitler in 1930s
nonaggression pact
agreement in which nations promise not to attack one another
Blitzkrieg
“lightening war”- form of warfare in which surprise attacks with fast-moving airplanes are followed by massive attacks with infantry forces
Battle of Britain
series of battles between German and British air forces, fought over Britain in 1940
Battle of Midway
1942 sea an air battle of WWII where American forces defeated Japanese forces in central pacific
Aryan
germanic people who formed “master race” to the Nazis
Holocaust
mass slaughter of Jews and other civilians carried out by Nazi government of Germany before and during WWII
Kristallnacht
“night of broken glass”- November 9, 1938 when Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues throughout Germany
Final Solution
Hitler’s program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people
Battle of Stalingrad
battle of WWII where German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union, 1942-1943
D-day
June 6, 1944 day where Allies began their invasion of the European mainland during World War II
Battle of the Bulge
battle where Allied forces turned back the last major German offensive of World War II, 1944-1945
Kamikaze
during World War II Japanese suicide pilots trained to sink Allied ships by crashing bomb-filled planes into them
Nuremberg Trials
series of court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II where Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of the war, and crimes against humanity
Demilitarization
a reduction in the country’s ability to wage war, achieved by disbanding its armed forces and prohibiting it from acquiring weapons
Democratization
process of creating a government elected by the people
United Nations
organization intended to protect members against aggression, based in New York
Iron Curtain
represented Europe’s division into democratic Western Europe + Communist Eastern Europe
Containment
blocked Soviet influence + stopped expansion of communism
Truman Doctrine
Truman’s support for countries that rejected communism
Marshall Plan
provided food, machinery, + other materials to rebuild Western Europe
Cold War
struggle over political differences by means short of military action or war- Between US + USSR
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization-defensive military alliance
Warsaw Pact
included Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania-Alliance formed by Soviet Union
Commune
Larger collective farms
Red Guards
militia units during the cultural revolution
Cultural Revolution
major uprising- Goal: establish a society of peasants + workers that were all equal
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese nationalist, turned to Communists for help-Indochinese communist party led revolts + strikes against French, Ho sentenced to death
Vietcong
Communist guerillas
Khmer Rouge
Communist rebels, set up brutal Communist government under leadership of Pol Pot
Third World
eveloping nations, newly independent who were not aligned with either superpower
Nonaligned nations
“third force” of independent countries
Fidel Castro
Young lawyer- led revolution over Cuban resentment-Castro= harsh dictator: suspended elections, jailed or executed opponents + tightly controlled press
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Leader of religious opposition (Ayatollahs)
Détente
policy of lessening Cold War tensions
Congress Party
India’s national political party
Muslim League
Founded in 1906 in India-protected Muslim interest
Partition
division of India into separate Hindu + Muslim nations
Jawaharlal Nehru
India’s first prime minister as independent nation
Ferdinand Marcos
elected president of Philippines in 1965- country suffered under his rule-imposed authoritarian regime + stole millions of dollars from public treasury
Corazón Aquino
challenged Marcos, Aquino won but Marcos refused to acknowledge victory- under presidency, Philippine government ratified new constitution
Aung San Suu kyi
daughter of Aung Sun- became active in newly formed naional league of Democracy placed under hous arrest for 6 years by government
Sukarno
led effort to establish independent Indonesia-August 1945 proclaimed Indonesia’s independence and named himself president
Suharto
seized power for himself and began bloodbath in which 500,000-1,000,00 indonesians were killed, officially named president in 1967, turned Indonesia into Police State and imposed frequent periods of martial law
Negritude movement
movement to celebrate African culture, heritage + values
Kwame Nkrumah
leader of large nonviolent movement, worked to liberate Gold Coast from British-organized strikes, + boycotts and often imprisoned but efforts successful
Jomo Kenyatta
leader of Kenyan nationalists-worked hard to unite country’s various ethnic and language groups
Mobuto Sese Seko
army officer-ruled country and renamed Zaire, maintained control through combination of force, one party rule, gifts to supporters
PLO
Palestine Liberation Organization-pushed for formation of Palestinian state-Guerilla groups dominated organization + insisted armed struggle only way to achieve goal
Yasir Arafat
chairman of PLO
Camp David Accords
ended 30 years of hostility between Egypt + Israel- became first signed agreement between Israel + Arab country
Intifada
“Uprising”
Oslo Peace Accords
AKA Declaration of Principles-surprise agreement
Mujahideen
holy warriors, Afghan rebels
PRI
institutional revolutionary party of Mexico
Martial Law
temporary rule by military authorities over a civilian population, usually imposed in times of war or civil unrest
Apartheid
South African policy of complete legal separation of the races including the banning of all social contacts between blacks and whites
Glasnost
Soviet policy of openness to the free flow of ideas and information, introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev
Perestroika
restructuring of the Soviet economy to permit more local decision-making, begun by Gorbachev
CIS
Commonwealth of Independent States-loose association of former Soviet republics that were formed after the breakup of the Soviet Union
Shock Therapy
economic program implemented in Russia by Boris Yeltsin-involving an abrupt shift from a command economy to a free market economy
Solidarity
Polish labor union that during the 1980s became the main force of opposition to the Communist party rule in Poland
Reunification
bringing together again of things that have been separated like the reuniting of East Germany and West Germany in 1990
Ethnic Cleansing
policy of murder and other acts of brutality by which Serbs hoped to eliminate Bosnia’s Muslim population after the breakup of Yugoslavia
Four Modernizations
set of goals adopted by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in late 20th century involving progress in agriculture, industry, defense, science and technology
Tiananmen Square
huge public space in Beijing in 1989, the site of a student uprising in support of democratic reforms
Developed nation
nation with all the facilities needed for the advanced production of manufactured goods
Emerging nation
nation in which the process of industrialization is not yet complete
Global Economy
all the financial interactions involving people, businesses, and governments that cross international borders
Free Trade
commerce between nations without economic restrictions or barriers
Ozone Layer
layer of Earth’s upper atmosphere which protects living things from the sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays
Sustainable growth
economic development that meets people’s needs but preserves the environment and conserves resources for future generations
Green Revolution
20th century attempt to increase food resources worldwide, involving the use of fertilizers and pesticides and the development of disease resistant crops
Proliferation
growth or spread-especially the spread of nuclear weapons to nations that do not currently have them
Political dissent
difference of opinion over political issues
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1948 statement where the United Nations declared that all human beings have rights to life, liberty, and security
Gender Inequality
difference between men and women in terms of wealth and status
Refugees
person who leaves his or her country to move to another to find safety
Terrorism
he use of force or threats to frighten people or governments to change their policies
Cyberterrorism
politically motivated attacks on information systems
Department of Homeland Security
U.S federal agency created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism
USA Patriot Act
antiterrorism bill of 2001 that strengthened governmental rights to detain foreigners suspected of terrorism and prosecute terrorist crimes